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Dietary Zn has significant impacts on the growth and development of breeding rams. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of dietary Zn source and concentration on serum Zn concentration, growth performance, wool traits and reproductive performance in rams. Forty-four Targhee rams (14 months; 68 ± 18 kg BW) were used in an 84-day completely randomized design and were fed one of three pelleted dietary treatments: (1) a control without fortified Zn (CON; n = 15; ~1 × NRC); (2) a diet fortified with a Zn amino acid complex (ZnAA; n = 14; ~2 × NRC) and (3) a diet fortified with ZnSO4 (ZnSO4; n = 15; ~2 × NRC). Growth and wool characteristics measured throughout the course of the study were BW, average daily gain (ADG), dry matter intake (DMI), feed efficiency (G : F), longissimus dorsi muscle depth (LMD), back fat (BF), wool staple length (SL) and average fibre diameter (AFD). Blood was collected from each ram at four time periods to quantify serum Zn and testosterone concentrations. Semen was collected 1 to 2 days after the trial was completed. There were no differences in BW (P = 0.45), DMI (P = 0.18), LMD (P = 0.48), BF (P = 0.47) and AFD (P = 0.9) among treatment groups. ZnSO4 had greater (P ≤ 0.03) serum Zn concentrations compared with ZnAA and CON treatments. Rams consuming ZnAA had greater (P ≤ 0.03) ADG than ZnSO4 and CON. There tended to be differences among groups for G : F (P = 0.06), with ZnAA being numerically greater than ZnSO4 and CON. Wool staple length regrowth was greater (P < 0.001) in ZnSO4 and tended to be longer (P = 0.06) in ZnAA treatment group compared with CON. No differences were observed among treatments in scrotal circumference, testosterone, spermatozoa concentration within ram semen, % motility, % live sperm and % sperm abnormalities (P ≥ 0.23). Results indicated beneficial effects of feeding increased Zn concentrations to developing Targhee rams, although Zn source elicited differential responses in performance characteristics measured.
To study thermal desulfurization of pyrite (FeS2), we conducted in situ neutron diffraction experiments in the temperature range 298–1073 K. On heating, pyrite remained stable up to 773 K, at which it started to decompose into pyrrhotite (Fe1−xS) and S2 gas. Rietveld analysis of the neutron data from 298 to 773 K allowed determination of the thermal expansion coefficient of pyrite (space group Pa
) to be αV = 3.7456 × 10−5 K−1, which largely results from the expansion of the Fe–S bond. With further increase in temperature to 1073 K, all the pyrite transformed to pyrrhotite (Fe1−xS) at 873 K. Unit-cell parameters of Fe1−xS (space group P63/mmc) increase on heating and decrease on cooling. However, the rates in cell expansion are larger than those in contraction. This hysteresis behavior can be attributed to continuous desulfurization of pyrrhotite (i.e., x in Fe1−xS decreases) with increasing temperature until the stoichiometric troilite (FeS) was formed at 1073 K. On cooling, troilite underwent a magnetic transition to an orthorhombic structure (space group Pnma) between 473 and 573 K. In addition, using differential thermal analysis (DTA) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) implemented with a differential scanning calorimeter, we performed kinetic measurements of pyrite decomposition. Detailed peak profile and Arrhenius (k = A exp(−Ea/RT)) analyses yielded an activation energy Ea of 302.3 ± 28.6 kJ/mol (based on DTA data) or 302.5 ± 26.4 kJ/mol (based on TGA data) and a ln(A) of 35.3 ± 0.1.
The relationship between alcohol consumption and body weight is complex and inconclusive being potentially mediated by alcohol type, habitual consumption levels and sex differences. Heavy and regular alcohol consumption has been positively correlated with increasing body weight, although it is unclear whether this is due to alcohol consumption per se or to additional energy intake from food. This review explores the effects of alcohol consumption on food energy intake in healthy adults. CINAHL Plus, EMBASE, Medline and PsycINFO were searched through February 2018 for crossover and randomised controlled trials where an alcohol dose was compared with a non-alcohol condition. Study quality was assessed using the Effective Public Health Practice Project tool. A total of twenty-two studies involving 701 participants were included from the 18 427 papers retrieved. Studies consistently demonstrated no compensation for alcoholic beverage energy intake, with dietary energy intake not decreasing due to alcoholic beverage ingestion. Meta-analyses using the random-effects model were conducted on twelve studies and demonstrated that alcoholic beverage consumption significantly increased food energy intake and total energy intake compared with a non-alcoholic comparator by weighted mean differences of 343 (95 % CI 161, 525) and 1072 (95 % CI 820, 1323) kJ, respectively. Generalisability is limited to younger adults (18–37 years), and meta-analyses for some outcomes had substantial statistical heterogeneity or evidence of small-study effects. This review suggests that adults do not compensate appropriately for alcohol energy by eating less, and a relatively modest alcohol dose may lead to an increase in food consumption.
Over 400,000 people live in care home settings in the UK. One way of understanding and improving the quality of care provided is by measuring and understanding the quality of life (QoL) of those living in care homes. This review aimed to identify and examine the psychometric properties including feasibility of use of dementia-specific QoL measures developed or validated for use in care settings.
Instruments were identified using four electronic databases (PubMed, PsycINFO, Web of Science, and CINAHL) and lateral search techniques. Searches were conducted in January 2017. Studies which reported on the development and/or validation of dementia specific QoL instruments for use in care settings written in English were eligible for inclusion. The methodological quality of the studies was assessed using the COSMIN checklist. Feasibility was assessed using a checklist developed specifically for the review.
Six hundred and sixteen articles were identified in the initial search. After de-duplication, screening and further lateral searches were performed, 25 studies reporting on 9 dementia-specific QoL instruments for use in care home settings were included in the review. Limited evidence was available on the psychometric properties of many instruments identified. Higher-quality instruments were not easily accessible or had low feasibility of use.
Few high-quality instruments of QoL validated for use in care home settings are readily or freely available. This review highlights the need to develop a well-validated measure of QoL for use within care homes that is also feasible and accessible.
Epistemic justifications for democracy have been offered in terms of two different forms of information aggregation and decision-making. The Condorcet Jury Theorem is appealed to as a justification in terms of votes, and the Hong–Page ‘diversity trumps ability’ result is appealed to as a justification in terms of deliberation in the form of collaborative search. Both results, however, are models of full and direct participation across a population. In this paper, we contrast how these results hold up within the familiar structure of a representative hierarchy. We first consider extant analytic work that shows that representation inevitably weakens the voting results of the Condorcet Jury Theorem. We then go on to show that collaborative search, as modeled by Hong and Page, holds its own within hierarchical representation. In a variation on the dynamics of group search, representation even shows a slight edge over direct participation. This contrast illustrates how models of information aggregation vary when put into a representative structure. While some of the epistemic merits of democracy are lost when voting is done hierarchically, modeling results show that representation can preserve and even slightly amplify the epistemic virtues of collaborative search.
An unexpected increase in gastroenteritis cases was reported by healthcare workers on the KwaZulu-Natal Coast, South Africa, January 2017 with >600 cases seen over a 3-week period. A case–control study was conducted to identify the source and risk factors associated with the outbreak so as to recommend control and prevention measures. Record review identified cases and controls and structured-telephonic interviews were conducted to obtain exposure history. Stool specimens were collected from 20 cases along with environmental samples and both screened for enteric pathogens. A total of 126 cases and 62 controls were included in the analysis. The odds of developing gastroenteritis were 6.0 times greater among holiday makers than residents (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.0–17.7). Swimming in the lagoon increased the odds of developing gastroenteritis by 3.3 times (95% CI 1.06–10.38). Lagoon water samples tested positive for norovirus (NoV) GI.6, GII.3 and GII.6, astrovirus and rotavirus. Eleven (55%) stool specimens were positive for NoV with eight genotyped as GI.1 (n = 2), GI.5 (n = 3), GI.6 (n = 2), and GI.7 (n = 1). A reported sewage contamination event impacting the lagoon was the likely source with person-to-person spread perpetuating the outbreak. Restriction to swimming in the lagoon was apparently ineffective at preventing the outbreak, possibly due to inadequate enforcement, communication and signage strategies.
The aim of the present paper is to summarise current and future applications of dietary assessment technologies in nutrition surveys in developed countries. It includes the discussion of key points and highlights of subsequent developments from a panel discussion to address strengths and weaknesses of traditional dietary assessment methods (food records, FFQ, 24 h recalls, diet history with interviewer-assisted data collection) v. new technology-based dietary assessment methods (web-based and mobile device applications). The panel discussion ‘Traditional methods v. new technologies: dilemmas for dietary assessment in population surveys’, was held at the 9th International Conference on Diet and Activity Methods (ICDAM9), Brisbane, September 2015. Despite respondent and researcher burden, traditional methods have been most commonly used in nutrition surveys. However, dietary assessment technologies offer potential advantages including faster data processing and better data quality. This is a fast-moving field and there is evidence of increasing demand for the use of new technologies amongst the general public and researchers. There is a need for research and investment to support efforts being made to facilitate the inclusion of new technologies for rapid, accurate and representative data.
Studies have consistently shown that subthreshold depression is associated with an increased risk of developing major depression. However, no study has yet calculated a pooled estimate that quantifies the magnitude of this risk across multiple studies.
We conducted a systematic review to identify longitudinal cohort studies containing data on the association between subthreshold depression and future major depression. A baseline meta-analysis was conducted using the inverse variance heterogeneity method to calculate the incidence rate ratio (IRR) of major depression among people with subthreshold depression relative to non-depressed controls. Subgroup analyses were conducted to investigate whether IRR estimates differed between studies categorised by age group or sample type. Sensitivity analyses were also conducted to test the robustness of baseline results to several sources of study heterogeneity, such as the case definition for subthreshold depression.
Data from 16 studies (n = 67 318) revealed that people with subthreshold depression had an increased risk of developing major depression (IRR = 1.95, 95% confidence interval 1.28–2.97). Subgroup analyses estimated similar IRRs for different age groups (youth, adults and the elderly) and sample types (community-based and primary care). Sensitivity analyses demonstrated that baseline results were robust to different sources of study heterogeneity.
The results of this study support the scaling up of effective indicated prevention interventions for people with subthreshold depression, regardless of age group or setting.
NeuroStar transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is an effective acute treatment for patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). In order to further understand use of the NeuroStar in a clinical setting, Neuronetics has established a patient treatment and outcomes registry to collect and analyze utilization information on patients receiving treatment with the NeuroStar.
Individual NeuroStar providers are invited to participate in the registry and agree to provide their de-identified patient treatment data. The NeuroStar has an integrated electronic data management system (TrakStar) which allows for the data collection to be automated. The data collected for the registry include Demographic Elements (age, gender), Treatment Parameters, and Clinical Ratings. Clinical assessments are: Clinician Global Impression - Severity of Illness (CGI-S) and thePatient Health Questionnaire 9-item (PHQ-9). De-identified patient data is uploaded to Registry server; an independent statistical service then creates final data reports.
Over 500 patients have entered the NeuroStar Outcomes Registry since Sept 2016. Mean patient age: 48.0 (SD±16.0); 64% Female. Baseline PHQ-9, mean 18.8 (SD±5.0.) Response/Remission Rate, PHQ-9: 61%/33% CGI-S: 78%/59%.
For the initial 500 patients in the Outcomes Registry, approximately 2/3 patients achieve respond and 1/3 patients achieve remission with an acute course of NeuroStar. These treatment outcomes consistent with NeuroStar open-label study data (Carpenter, 2012). The TrakStar data management system makes large scale data collection feasible. The NeuroStarOutcomes Registry is ongoing, and expected to reach 6000 outpatients from more than 47 clinical sites in 36 months.
Glyphosate-resistant populations of Conyza canadensis have been spreading at a rapid rate in Ontario, Canada, since first being documented in 2010. Determining the genetic relationship among existing Ontario populations is necessary to understand the spread and selection of the resistant biotypes. The objectives of this study were to: (1) characterize the genetic variation of C. canadensis accessions from the province of Ontario using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers and (2) investigate the molecular mechanism (s) conferring resistance in these accessions. Ninety-eight C. canadensis accessions were genotyped using 8 SSR markers. Germinable accessions were challenged with glyphosate to determine their dose response, and the sequences of 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase genes 1 and 2 were obtained. Results indicate that a majority of glyphosate-resistant accessions from Ontario possessed a proline to serine substitution at position 106, which has previously been reported to confer glyphosate resistance in other crop and weed species. Accessions possessing this substitution demonstrated notably higher levels of resistance than non–target site resistant (NTSR) accessions from within or outside the growing region and were observed to form a subpopulation genetically distinct from geographically proximate glyphosate-susceptible and NTSR accessions. Although it is unclear whether other non–target site resistance mechanisms are contributing to the levels of resistance observed in target-site resistant accessions, these results indicate that, at a minimum, selection for Pro-106-Ser has occurred in addition to selection for non–target site resistance and has significantly enhanced the levels of resistance to glyphosate in C. canadensis accessions from Ontario.
The ability of birds to modify dietary phosphorus utilisation when fed with low-phosphorus and calcium (Ca) diets was studied using different sequences of dietary phosphorus and Ca restriction (depletion) and recovery (repletion) during the grower and the finisher phases. A total of 3600 Ross 708 broilers were randomly divided into 10 replicate pens per treatment (60 per pen, six pens per block). Chicks were fed a common starter diet from days 0 to 10, then a grower control diet (C: 0.90% Ca, 0.39% non-phytate phosphorus, nPP), mid-level diet (M: 0.71% Ca, 0.35% nPP) or low Ca and nPP diet (L: 0.60% Ca, 0.30% nPP) from days 11 to 21, followed by a finisher diet C, M or L containing, respectively, 0.85%, 0.57% or 0.48% Ca and 0.35%, 0.29% or 0.24% nPP from days 22 to 37. Six treatment sequences were tested: CC, MM, LL, ML, LC and LM. Bone mineral content by dual-energy X-ray, tibia ash, toe ash weight and tibia breaking strength were measured on days 21 and 37. No significant effect was observed on growth performance throughout the experiment. Diet L reduced bone mineral content, breaking strength, tibia and toe ash by 9%, 13%, 11% and 10%, respectively, on day 21 (compared with diet C, for linear effect, P<0.05). On day 37, bone mineral content, breaking strength, tibia and toe ash remained lower compared with control values (CC v. MM v. LL, P<0.05 for linear and quadratic effects). Mineral depletion duration (ML v. LL) did not affect bone mineral status. Replenishing with the C diet during the finisher phase (LC) restored bone mineral content, tibia ash and toe ash weight better than the M diet did, but not to control levels (CC v. LC v. LM, for linear effect, P<0.05). These results confirm that dietary Ca and nPP may be reduced in the grower phase without affecting final growth performance or breaking strength as long as the finisher diet contains sufficient Ca and nPP. The practical applications of this strategy require further study in order to optimise the depletion and repletion steps.
Public health interest in norovirus (NoV) has increased in recent years following improved diagnostics, global burden estimates and the development of NoV vaccine candidates. This study aimed to describe the detection rate, clinical characteristics and environmental features associated with NoV detection in hospitalized children <5 years with diarrhoea in South Africa (SA). Between 2009 and 2013, prospective diarrhoeal surveillance was conducted at four sites in SA. Stool specimens were collected and screened for NoVs and other enteric pathogens using molecular and serological assays. Epidemiological and clinical data were compared in patients with or without detection of NoV. The study detected NoV in 15% (452/3103) of hospitalized children <5 years with diarrhoea with the majority of disease in children <2 years (92%; 417/452). NoV-positive children were more likely to present with diarrhoea and vomiting (odds ratio (OR) 1·3; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·1–1·7; P = 0·011) with none-to-mild dehydration (adjusted OR 0·5; 95% CI 0·3–0·7) compared with NoV-negative children. Amongst children testing NoV positive, HIV-infected children were more likely to have prolonged hospitalization and increased mortality compared with HIV-uninfected children. Continued surveillance will be important to consider the epidemic trends and estimate the burden and risk of NoV infection in SA.
Lycopene (LYC) bioavailability is relatively low and highly variable, because of the influence of several factors. Recent in vitro data have suggested that dietary Ca can impair LYC micellarisation, but there is no evidence whether this can lead to decreased LYC absorption efficiency in humans. Our objective was to assess whether a nutritional dose of Ca impairs dietary LYC bioavailability and to study the mechanism(s) involved. First, in a randomised, two-way cross-over study, ten healthy adults consumed either a test meal that provided 19-mg (all-E)-LYC from tomato paste or the same meal plus 500-mg calcium carbonate as a supplement. Plasma LYC concentration was measured at regular time intervals over 7 h postprandially. In a second approach, an in vitro digestion model was used to assess the effect of increasing Ca doses on LYC micellarisation and on the size and zeta potential of the mixed micelles produced during digestion of a complex food matrix. LYC bioavailability was diminished by 83 % following the addition of Ca in the test meal. In vitro, Ca affected neither LYC micellarisation nor mixed micelle size but it decreased the absolute value of their charge by 39 %. In conclusion, a nutritional dose of Ca can impair dietary LYC bioavailability in healthy humans. This inhibition could be due to the fact that Ca diminishes the electrical charge of micelles. These results call for a thorough assessment of the effects of Ca, or other divalent minerals, on the bioavailability of other carotenoids and lipophilic micronutrients.
GEOTOP is the geochemistry and geochronology research center of the Université du Quebec à Montréal (UQAM). The Radiocarbon Laboratory was established to meet the growing demand for radiocarbon dating in Québec. The laboratory was founded by Claude Hillaire-Marcel. The first measurements were completed in October 1978. The laboratory was managed by Pierre Pagé until May 1985. Serge Occhietti and Pierre Pichet are presently in charge. Technical maintenance is under the direction of Claude Jacob.
Benchmarks for antimicrobial consumption measured in antimicrobial days are beginning to emerge. The relationship between the traditional measure of days of therapy and antimicrobial days is unclear. We observed a high intermethod correlation (R2=0.99): antimicrobial days were 1.9-fold lower than days of therapy across agents. Individual institutions should correlate these measures.
We present an overview of the survey for radio emission from active stars that has been in progress for the last six years using the observatories at Fleurs, Molonglo, Parkes and Tidbinbilla. The role of complementary optical observations at the Anglo-Australian Observatory, Mount Burnett, Mount Stromlo and Siding Spring Observatories and Mount Tamborine are also outlined. We describe the different types of star that have been included in our survey and discuss some of the problems in making the radio observations.