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President Donald Trump faced substantial scandal coverage early in his presidency. Can these stories about presidential controversies change the opinions of Trump’s fellow Republicans, or are the efforts of the news media to inform partisans about prominent issues futile? Past research on partisan reactions to major political scandals were confounded by problems with self-reported media use and single-shot experimental treatments. We address these concerns using a unique, repeated-exposure experimental design that either randomly supplied participants with news about the Trump-Russia scandal, or removed most of those stories from view, over the course of one week in June 2017. This design mimics sustained media attention to a political scandal and disentangles the effects of media coverage from selection in the context of a high-choice media environment. We find that Republicans randomly assigned to see more Trump-Russia headlines reacted more negatively than Democrats or Independents, rating Trump’s performance lower and expressing more negative emotions about him. Republicans’ perceptions of media bias were not affected by Trump-Russia stories, and effects were not contingent upon clicking the articles. Intense media focus on a story can alter partisans’ evaluations of politicians by shifting the balance of headlines.
Background: Most people with common mental health problems do not seek evidence-based psychological interventions. Aims: The aim of this study was to investigate whether monitoring symptoms of depression and anxiety using an app increased treatment-seeking. Method: Three hundred and six people with significant levels of anxiety and depression, none of whom were currently receiving treatment, were randomly allocated to receive either (a) information about local psychological services only, (b) information plus regular symptom monitoring (every 6 days), or (c) information plus open symptom monitoring (monitoring when they felt like it). An app was used to provide information and monitor mood. Results: The proportion of participants who reported receiving treatment after starting the study was 7.2% (10/138) in the information only group, 8.1% (9/111) in the information plus regular monitoring group and 15.8% (9/57) in the information plus open monitoring group. There was a trend for participants who were able to monitor whenever they wished to be more likely to report receiving treatment than people who were only given information about their local treatment services. The impact of the intervention was greatest among participants who intended to seek treatment before taking part. Limitations were that only a small minority of those who downloaded the app completed the study and that the study relied on self-reported measures of treatment-seeking. Conclusions: Symptom monitoring can increase actual treatment-seeking in those with an intention to seek treatment.
The Pueblo population of Chaco Canyon during the Bonito Phase (AD 800–1130) employed agricultural strategies and water-management systems to enhance food cultivation in this unpredictable environment. Scepticism concerning the timing and effectiveness of this system, however, remains common. Using optically stimulated luminescence dating of sediments and LiDAR imaging, the authors located Bonito Phase canal features at the far west end of the canyon. Additional ED-XRF and strontium isotope (87Sr/86Sr) analyses confirm the diversion of waters from multiple sources during Chaco’s occupation. The extent of this water-management system raises new questions about social organisation and the role of ritual in facilitating responses to environmental unpredictability.
The Taipan galaxy survey (hereafter simply ‘Taipan’) is a multi-object spectroscopic survey starting in 2017 that will cover 2π steradians over the southern sky (δ ≲ 10°, |b| ≳ 10°), and obtain optical spectra for about two million galaxies out to z < 0.4. Taipan will use the newly refurbished 1.2-m UK Schmidt Telescope at Siding Spring Observatory with the new TAIPAN instrument, which includes an innovative ‘Starbugs’ positioning system capable of rapidly and simultaneously deploying up to 150 spectroscopic fibres (and up to 300 with a proposed upgrade) over the 6° diameter focal plane, and a purpose-built spectrograph operating in the range from 370 to 870 nm with resolving power R ≳ 2000. The main scientific goals of Taipan are (i) to measure the distance scale of the Universe (primarily governed by the local expansion rate, H0) to 1% precision, and the growth rate of structure to 5%; (ii) to make the most extensive map yet constructed of the total mass distribution and motions in the local Universe, using peculiar velocities based on improved Fundamental Plane distances, which will enable sensitive tests of gravitational physics; and (iii) to deliver a legacy sample of low-redshift galaxies as a unique laboratory for studying galaxy evolution as a function of dark matter halo and stellar mass and environment. The final survey, which will be completed within 5 yrs, will consist of a complete magnitude-limited sample (i ⩽ 17) of about 1.2 × 106 galaxies supplemented by an extension to higher redshifts and fainter magnitudes (i ⩽ 18.1) of a luminous red galaxy sample of about 0.8 × 106 galaxies. Observations and data processing will be carried out remotely and in a fully automated way, using a purpose-built automated ‘virtual observer’ software and an automated data reduction pipeline. The Taipan survey is deliberately designed to maximise its legacy value by complementing and enhancing current and planned surveys of the southern sky at wavelengths from the optical to the radio; it will become the primary redshift and optical spectroscopic reference catalogue for the local extragalactic Universe in the southern sky for the coming decade.
Due to their extremely small luminosity compared to the stars they orbit, planets outside our own Solar System are extraordinarily difficult to detect directly in optical light. Careful photometric monitoring of distant stars, however, can reveal the presence of exoplanets via the microlensing or eclipsing effects they induce. The international PLANET collaboration is performing such monitoring using a cadre of semi-dedicated telescopes around the world. Their results constrain the number of gas giants orbiting 1–7 AU from the most typical stars in the Galaxy. Upgrades in the program are opening regions of “exoplanet discovery space” – toward smaller masses and larger orbital radii – that are inaccessible to the Doppler velocity technique.
We present soft x-ray observations made with the Einstein Observatory Imaging Proportional Counter (IPC) of IC443, W44 and W49B (for details of the observatory and instruments see Giacconi et al. 1979). The x-ray emission from IC443 and W44 is clearly concentrated within the interior of the remnant with little or no evidence for a limb-brightened shell. Significant spectral differences are found across the x-ray images in both remnants which are interpreted as being due to a combination of differential absorption by molecular clouds and intrinsic spatial temperature variations. The distant remnant W49B is only just resolved in the IPC observations, but additional observations with the High Resolution Imager (HRI) indicate a similar “infilled” morphology to IC443 and W44.
A new VLBI system has been developed and put into operation. The system has three distinctive characteristics as compared with current VLBI practice, namely, the use of a wavefront clock at each station, the capability of a burst mode operation with high speed sampling, and the use of multiple 12 Mb/s data recording channels on commercial VCR's. The main use of the system is to be in geophysical investigations where these new features may prove of value.
This paper reviews early attempts to deduce important constraints on the magnetic fields of high-redshift objects through a study of the rotation measure (RM) of QSOs. We have combined detailed studies of RM and optical spectra of 48 QSOs and have statistically analysed RM data on 116 objects and conclude that the objects which give rise to QSO metal-line absorption are also responsible for the observed extragalactic component of RM. This allows us to estimate their average magneto-ionic properties.
When children have marked problems with motor coordination, they often have problems with attention and impulse control. Here, we map the neuroanatomic substrate of motor coordination in childhood and ask whether this substrate differs in the presence of concurrent symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
Participants were 226 children. All completed Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition (DSM-5)-based assessment of ADHD symptoms and standardized tests of motor coordination skills assessing aiming/catching, manual dexterity and balance. Symptoms of developmental coordination disorder (DCD) were determined using parental questionnaires. Using 3 Tesla magnetic resonance data, four latent neuroanatomic variables (for the cerebral cortex, cerebellum, basal ganglia and thalamus) were extracted and mapped onto each motor coordination skill using partial least squares pathway modeling.
The motor coordination skill of aiming/catching was significantly linked to latent variables for both the cerebral cortex (t = 4.31, p < 0.0001) and the cerebellum (t = 2.31, p = 0.02). This effect was driven by the premotor/motor cortical regions and the superior cerebellar lobules. These links were not moderated by the severity of symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. In categorical analyses, the DCD group showed atypical reduction in the volumes of these regions. However, the group with DCD alone did not differ significantly from those with DCD and co-morbid ADHD.
The superior cerebellar lobules and the premotor/motor cortex emerged as pivotal neural substrates of motor coordination in children. The dimensions of these motor coordination regions did not differ significantly between those who had DCD, with or without co-morbid ADHD.
The ZZ Ceti stars form a class of variable white dwarfs: the hydrogen dominated atmosphere ones, which do pulsate in an instability strip in the effective temperature range 13000K-11500K. We know 22 such ZZ Ceti white dwarfs. Their variations are caused by nonradial g-mode pulsations with periods are in the range 100-1000 seconds.
A subsample of the ZZ Ceti stars shows amplitude variations on time scales of the order of one month. These variations could be driven by nonlinear phenomena.
We review the current status and future prospects of the PLANET collaboration, an international team of astronomers performing high-precision photometric monitoring of microlensing events. Our photometric precision and sampling is characterised and the suitability of the database for variable star studies is discussed. Preliminary results on K-giant stability are presented.
The variability of CD-24 7599 (V=11.48 mag) was discovered by JCC during observing run XCOV7 of the Whole Earth Telescope (WET, Nather et al. 1990) network in February, 1992. The star was observed as an additional target and 117 hours of high-quality temporal spectroscopic observations were obtained.
Our analysis of these data revealed the presence of 7 independent pulsation modes between 27.0 and 38.1 cycles per day (313 – 441 μHz) with semiamplitudes of 2.1 – 10.2 milli-modulation amplitudes (mma). We showed that peaks at linear combination frequencies detected in the power spectra were not due to eigenmodes excited to visible amplitude by resonant mode coupling.
Inverse associations between dairy consumption and CVD have been reported in several epidemiological studies. Our objective was to conduct a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies of dairy intake and CVD. A comprehensive literature search was conducted to identify studies that reported risk estimates for total dairy intake, individual dairy products, low/full-fat dairy intake, Ca from dairy sources and CVD, CHD and stroke. Random-effects meta-analyses were used to generate summary relative risk estimates (SRRE) for high v. low intake and stratified intake dose–response analyses. Additional dose–response analyses were performed. Heterogeneity was examined in sub-group and sensitivity analyses. In total, thirty-one unique cohort studies were identified and included in the meta-analysis. Several statistically significant SRRE below 1.0 were observed, namely for total dairy intake and stroke (SRRE=0·91; 95 % CI 0·83, 0·99), cheese intake and CHD (SRRE=0·82; 95 % CI 0·72, 0·93) and stroke (SRRE=0·87; 95 % CI 0·77, 0·99), and Ca from dairy sources and stroke (SRRE=0·69; 95 % CI 0·60, 0·81). However, there was little evidence for inverse dose–response relationships between the dairy variables and CHD and stroke after adjusting for within-study covariance. The results of this meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies have shown that dairy consumption may be associated with reduced risks of CVD, although additional data are needed to more comprehensively examine potential dose–response patterns.
Gamma-ray burst host galaxies are deficient in molecular gas, and show anomalous metal-poor regions close to GRB positions. Using recent Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) Hi observations we show that they have substantial atomic gas reservoirs. This suggests that star formation in these galaxies may be fuelled by recent inflow of metal-poor atomic gas. While this process is debated, it can happen in low-metallicity gas near the onset of star formation because gas cooling (necessary for star formation) is faster than the Hi-to-H2 conversion.
Attentional impairment is a core cognitive feature of major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD). However, little is known of the characteristics of response time (RT) distributions from attentional tasks. This is crucial to furthering our understanding of the profile and extent of cognitive intra-individual variability (IIV) in mood disorders.
A computerized sustained attention task was administered to 138 healthy controls and 158 patients with a mood disorder: 86 euthymic BD, 33 depressed BD and 39 medication-free MDD patients. Measures of IIV, including individual standard deviation (iSD) and coefficient of variation (CoV), were derived for each participant. Ex-Gaussian (and Vincentile) analyses were used to characterize the RT distributions into three components: mu and sigma (mean and standard deviation of the Gaussian portion of the distribution) and tau (the ‘slow tail’ of the distribution).
Compared with healthy controls, iSD was increased significantly in all patient samples. Due to minimal changes in average RT, CoV was only increased significantly in BD depressed patients. Ex-Gaussian modelling indicated a significant increase in tau in euthymic BD [Cohen's d = 0.39, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.09–0.69, p = 0.011], and both sigma (d = 0.57, 95% CI 0.07–1.05, p = 0.025) and tau (d = 1.14, 95% CI 0.60–1.64, p < 0.0001) in depressed BD. The mu parameter did not differ from controls.
Increased cognitive variability may be a core feature of mood disorders. This is the first demonstration of differences in attentional RT distribution parameters between MDD and BD, and BD depression and euthymia. These data highlight the utility of applying measures of IIV to characterize neurocognitive variability and the great potential for future application.
Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) cultivars are out-breeding populations of differing phenotypes, potentially allowing for directional selection to occur after sowing. To investigate this, the morphology of individual space plants (i.e. isolated plants sown at 0·75 m row spaces) grown from tillers extracted from single-cultivar swards subjected to frequent cutting (FC) or infrequent cutting (IC) for 5 years (aged accessions) were compared with plants grown from seed (seed accessions). The study examined 12 cultivars, creating 36 ‘accessions’ of 80 plants in each. These plants were examined for 23 morphological measurements to test for and classify directional selection in perennial ryegrass swards. A high degree of separation was achieved between the 12 seed accessions, validating the discriminating power of the experiment. Changes in morphological expression of plants taken from swards indicated selection in favour of particular morphological ideotypes. This directional selection was identified in 10 of the accessions subjected to FC and eight subjected to IC management. Emergence natural height (plant undisturbed height at inflorescence emergence) and plant volume (emergence width × emergence natural height) were the characters modified most between seed and aged accessions. The magnitude of these morphological changes varied between cultivars. Glencar had the greatest number of morphological characters exhibiting directional selection under frequent cutting, whereas Greengold had the greatest number exhibiting directional selection under infrequent cutting. The plants grown from aged swards were also smaller than the seed accessions in all characters, raising the possibility that they may also be less productive. The present study showed that sward management can cause and influence directional selection of plants from within the morphological range of expression within perennial ryegrass cultivars.