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Supplementation with copper (Cu) improves deer antler characteristics, but it could modify meat quality and increase its Cu content to levels potentially harmful for humans. Here, we studied the effects of Cu bolus supplementation by means on quality and composition of sternocephalicus (ST) and rectus abdominis (RA) muscles (n=13 for each one) from yearling male red deer fed with a balanced diet. Each intraruminal bolus, containing 3.4 g of Cu, was administered orally in the treatment group to compare with the control group. Meat traits studied were pH at 24 h postmortem (pH24), colour, chemical composition, cholesterol content, fatty acid (FA) composition, amino acid (AA) profile and mineral content. In addition, the effect of Cu supplementation on mineral composition of liver and serum (at 0 and 90 days of treatment) was analysed. No interactions between Cu supplementation and muscle were observed for any trait. Supplementation with Cu increased the protein content of meat (P<0.01). However, Cu content of meat, liver and serum was not modified by supplementation. In fact, Cu content of meat (1.20 and 1.34 mg/kg for Cu supplemented and control deer, respectively) was much lower in both groups than 5 mg/kg of fresh weight allowed legally for food of animal origin. However, bolus of Cu tended to increase the meat content of zinc and significantly increased (P<0.05) the hepatic contents of sodium and lead. Muscles studied had different composition and characteristics. The RA muscle had significantly higher protein content (P<0.001), monounsaturated FA content (P<0.05) and essential/non-essential AA ratio (P<0.01) but lower pH24 (P<0.01) and polyunsaturated FA content (P=0.001) than the ST muscle. In addition, RA muscle had 14.4% less cholesterol (P=0.001) than ST muscle. Also, mineral profile differed between muscles with higher content of iron, significantly higher (P<0.001) content of zinc and lower content of calcium, magnesium and phosphorus (P<0.05) for ST muscle compared with RA. Therefore, supplementation with Cu modified deer meat characteristics, but it did not increase its concentration to toxic levels, making it a safe practice from this perspective. Despite the lower content of polyunsaturated FA, quality was better for RA than for ST muscle based on its higher content of protein with more essential/non-essential AA ratio and lower pH24 and cholesterol content.
The main factors affecting the mechanical (and other) properties of bone, including antler, are the proportions of ash (especially Ca and P) and collagen content. However, some trace minerals may also play more important roles than would be expected, given their low levels in bone and antler. One such trace mineral is Cu. Here, we studied the effects of Cu supplementation on the mechanical and structural characteristics, and mineral content of antlers from yearling and adult (4 years of age) red deer fed a balanced diet. Deer (n=35) of different ages (21 yearlings and 14 adults) were studied. A total of 18 stags (11 yearlings and 7 adults) were injected with Cu (0.83 mg Cu/kg BW) every 42 days, whereas the remaining 17 (10 yearlings and 7 adults) were injected with physiological saline solution (control group). The Cu content of serum was analysed at the beginning of the trial and 84 days after the first injection to assess whether the injected Cu was mobilized in blood. Also, the mechanical and structural properties of antlers and the mineral content in their cortical walls were examined at three (yearlings) or four (adults) points along the antler beam. The effect of Cu supplementation was different in yearlings and adults. In yearlings, supplementation increased the Cu content of serum by 28%, but did not affect antler properties. However, in adults, Cu supplementation increased the Cu content of serum by 38% and tended to increase the cortical thickness of antlers (P=0.06). Therefore, we conclude that, even in animals receiving balanced diets, supplementation with Cu could increase antler cortical thickness in adult deer, although not in yearlings. This may improve the trophy value of antlers, as well as having potential implications for bones in elderly humans, should Cu supplementation have similar effects on bones as those observed in antlers.
We propose a taxonomic revision of the dixenous trypanosomatids currently classified as Endotrypanum and Leishmania, including parasites that do not fall within the subgenera L. (Leishmania) and L. (Viannia) related to human leishmaniasis or L. (Sauroleishmania) formed by leishmanias of lizards: L. colombiensis, L. equatorensis, L. herreri, L. hertigi, L. deanei, L. enriettii and L. martiniquensis. The comparison of these species with newly characterized isolates from sloths, porcupines and phlebotomines from central and South America unveiled new genera and subgenera supported by past (RNA PolII gene) and present (V7V8 SSU rRNA, Hsp70 and gGAPDH) phylogenetic analyses of the organisms. The genus Endotrypanum is restricted to Central and South America, comprising isolates from sloths and transmitted by phlebotomines that sporadically infect humans. This genus is the closest to the new genus Porcisia proposed to accommodate the Neotropical porcupine parasites originally described as L. hertigi and L. deanei. A new subgenus Leishmania (Mundinia) is created for the L. enriettii complex that includes L. martiniquensis. The new genus Zelonia harbours trypanosomatids from Neotropical hemipterans placed at the edge of the Leishmania–Endotrypanum-Porcisia clade. Finally, attention is drawn to the status of L. siamensis and L. australiensis as nomem nudums.
The reminiscence functions scale (RFS) is a 43-item self-report instrument designed to assess the use of reminiscence for different functions. This study aims, on one hand, to analyze the factorial structure and the psychometric properties of the RFS and, on the other, to examine the relationship between the functions of reminiscence and mental health.
RFS scale and measures of depressive symptomology, despair, and life satisfaction were administered to a sample of persons over the age of sixty (n = 364).
After eliminating three conflictive items from the original scale, the confirmatory factor analysis results present a factorial structure comprising eight traditional factors and adequate reliability scores (from 0.73 to 0.87). Using structural equation modeling, we find that these reminiscence factors are organized in three second-order factors (self-positive, self-negative, and prosocial). Results show that the self-positive factor relates negatively and the self-negative factor relates positively with symptoms of mental health problems.
These results, on one hand, confirm that the RFS scale is a useful instrument to assess reminiscence functions in a sample of Spanish older adults and, on the other, that the three-factor model of reminiscence is a better predictor of mental health than the alternative four-factor model.
Recent research has shown an association between unemployment and suicide, but the mediating factors in this relationship are still unknown. In this study, we investigated the effect of unemployment and economic recession on suicide rates in the Spanish region of Galicia between 1975 and 2012
We analysed age-standardised suicide rates in men and women and in four age groups: less than 25 years, 25–45 years, 45–65 years and more than 65 years and performed a joinpoint analysis to determine trend changes throughout 1975–2012 period. Also we analysed the association between suicide, recession and unemployment by means of a temporal trend model with a Generalised Additive Model.
Suicide rates increased from 145 suicides in 1975 to a high in 1993, with 377 deaths by suicide, representing 1.38% of all causes of death, and thereafter they tend to decrease to 335 suicides in 2012. Joinpoint analyses revealed that suicide rates changed differently across sex and age groups. For men, the annual percentage of change (APC) between 1975 and 1988 (CI 95% 1986–1994) was 5.45 (CI 95% = 3.5, −7.2) but from 1988 the APC became negative [−0.66 (CI 95% = −1.3, −0.1)]. For women, APC between 1974 and 1990 (CI 95% 1986–1992) was 4.86 (CI 95% = 3.2, −6.4) and −1.46 subsequently (CI 95% = −2.2, −0.5). Women aged 24 years or less showed stable suicide rates while men from 45–65 years showed two incidence peaks. When we studied the independent correlation between unemployment, recession and suicide, we found a significant association between unemployment and suicide, but not between recession and suicide for both sexes together and for men while for women there was no significant correlation between suicide and unemployment or recession. Finally, when we studied the effect of the interaction between unemployment and recession on suicide we found economic recession and unemployment interacted with regards to suicide rates (F = 5.902; df = 4.167; p = 0.00098) and after adjusting by sex, the effect was confirmed among men (F = 4.827; df = 2.823; p = 0.0087), but not among women (F = 0.001; df = 1.000; p = 0.979).
Although suicide rates in Galicia are gradually decreasing in the last decades, there are important sex and age differences. Unemployment was related with suicide during economic recession periods according to our results.
We have observed 3 pairs of interacting galaxies (the Antennae, Arp 236, and NGC 1614) using the Fabry-Perot interferometer GHαFaS (Galaxy Hα Fabry-Perot system) on the 4.2m William Herschel Telescope (WHT) at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos, La Palma. We have extracted the physical properties (sizes, Hα luminosity and velocity dispersion) of Hii regions. We have combined also these observations with ALMA archival observations of these interacting galaxies, finding that there is a set of brighter and denser star forming regions. We have been able to compare these properties with those of two SMGs at redshift ~ 2.
The composition and diversity of parasite communities and intestinal components, as well as infra-community structure, were assessed in eels Anguilla anguilla, from Mar Menor, a permanent Mediterranean hypersaline coastal lagoon. Data were used to determine whether this helminth community differs in composition and structure from that of eels in lagoons with lower salinity regimes and higher freshwater inputs. A total prevalence of 93% was detected. Specifically, parasites were identified as Deropristis inflata, Bucephalus anguillae, Contracaecum sp., Anguillicoloides crassus and two plerocercoid larvae belonging to the order Proteocephalidae, the marine species representing 91% of the isolated helminths. In the total community, digenetic trematodes were the dominant group of helminths, and D. inflata, an eel specialist, dominated both the component community and the infra-community. Richness and diversity were low but similar to those reported in other saline lagoons, and maximum species per eel did not exceed four. At the infra-community level, higher abundance than in other brackish or marine Mediterranean environments was detected. The findings provide further evidence of the similarity in composition and structure of helminth communities in eels from various Mediterranean coastal lagoons. Moreover, salinity-dependent specificities are well supported and reflect the life history of individual eels.
To examine the use of vitamin D supplements during infancy among the participants in an international infant feeding trial.
Information about vitamin D supplementation was collected through a validated FFQ at the age of 2 weeks and monthly between the ages of 1 month and 6 months.
Infants (n 2159) with a biological family member affected by type 1 diabetes and with increased human leucocyte antigen-conferred susceptibility to type 1 diabetes from twelve European countries, the USA, Canada and Australia.
Daily use of vitamin D supplements was common during the first 6 months of life in Northern and Central Europe (>80 % of the infants), with somewhat lower rates observed in Southern Europe (>60 %). In Canada, vitamin D supplementation was more common among exclusively breast-fed than other infants (e.g. 71 % v. 44 % at 6 months of age). Less than 2 % of infants in the USA and Australia received any vitamin D supplementation. Higher gestational age, older maternal age and longer maternal education were study-wide associated with greater use of vitamin D supplements.
Most of the infants received vitamin D supplements during the first 6 months of life in the European countries, whereas in Canada only half and in the USA and Australia very few were given supplementation.
When a pathogen infects a number of different hosts, the process of determining
the relative importance of each host species to the persistence of the pathogen
is often complex. Removal of a host species is a potential but rarely possible
way of discovering the importance of that species to the dynamics of the
disease. This study presents the results of a 12-year programme aimed at
controlling brucellosis in cattle, sheep and goats and the cascading impacts on
brucellosis in a sympatric population of red deer (Cervus
elaphus) in the Boumort National Game Reserve (BNGR; NE Spain). From
February 1998 to December 2009, local veterinary agencies tested over 36 180
individual blood samples from cattle, 296 482 from sheep and goats and 1047 from
red deer in the study area. All seropositive livestock were removed annually.
From 2006 to 2009 brucellosis was not detected in cattle and in 2009 only one of
97 red deer tested was found to be positive. The surveillance and removal of
positive domestic animals coincided with a significant decrease in the
prevalence of brucellosis in red deer. Our results suggest that red deer may not
be able to maintain brucellosis in this region independently of cattle, sheep or
goats, and that continued efforts to control disease in livestock may lead to
the eventual eradication of brucellosis in red deer in the area.
A total of 200 (Landrace × Large White dam × Pietrain × Large White sire) gilts of 50 ± 3 days of age (23.3 ± 1.47 kg BW) were used to investigate the effects of castration (intact gilt, IG v. castrated gilt, CG) and slaughter weight (SW; 106 v. 122 kg BW) on productive performance, carcass and meat quality. Four treatments were arranged factorially and five replicates of 10 pigs each per treatment. Half of the gilts were ovariectomized at 58 days of age (8 days after the beginning of the trial at 29.8 ± 1.64 kg BW), whereas the other half remained intact. The pigs were slaughtered at 106 or 122 kg BW. Meat samples were taken at Musculus longissimus thoracis at the level of the last rib and subcutaneous fat samples were taken at the tail insertion. For the entire experimental period, CG had higher (P < 0.05) BW gain and higher (P < 0.001) backfat and Musculus gluteus medius fat thickness than IG. However, IG had higher (P < 0.05) loin and trimmed primal cut yields than CG. Meat quality was similar for IG and CG but the proportion of linoleic acid in subcutaneous fat was higher (P < 0.001) for IG. Pigs slaughtered at 122 kg BW had higher (P < 0.001) feed intake and poorer feed efficiency than pigs slaughtered at 106 kg BW. An increase in SW improved (P < 0.001) carcass yield but decreased (P < 0.05) trimmed primal cut yield. Meat from pigs slaughtered at the heavier BW was redder (a*; P < 0.001) and had more (P < 0.01) intramuscular fat and less thawing (P < 0.05) and cooking (P < 0.10) loss than meat from pigs slaughtered at the lighter BW. In addition, pigs slaughtered at 122 kg BW had less (P < 0.01) linoleic acid content in subcutaneous fat than pigs slaughtered at 106 kg BW. Castration of gilts and slaughtering at heavier BW are useful practices for the production of heavy pigs destined to the dry-cured industry in which a certain amount of fat in the carcass is required. In contrast, when the carcasses are destined to fresh meat production, IG slaughtered at 106 kg BW is a more efficient alternative.
Two important issues in Performance Assessment exercises regarding the alteration of Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) are the contribution of Instant or better called Fast release Fraction (FRF) and the effect of High Burn-Up Structure (HBS). Therefore this paper focuses on the effect of HBS in FRF of a PWR irradiated in a commercial reactor with a mean Burn-Up (BU) of 48 GWd/tU. Additionally, determined FRF are compared with previous experiments performed with PWR with a mean BU of 60 GWd/tU, in order to evaluate the effect of BU on FRF.
In order to study the HBS contribution, static leaching experiments are performed with two samples prepared from different radial positions, labeled Core, central region and Out, enriched with HBS. Two synthetic leaching solutions, bicarbonate and bentonitic granitic groundwater are used under oxic conditions.
The estimated FRF are calculated from the determined Fraction of Inventory in Aqueous Phase (FIAP) taking into account the inventory determined experimentally for each fraction.
Higher release is observed for Core sample, which can be an indicative that HBS does not increase the RN release. With the exception of Rb and Cs, which release is higher at lower BU, no clear effect of BU is observed within the studied range.
Molecular dynamics simulations provide an atomistic description of the processes that control primary radiation damage formation in atomic displacement cascades. An extensive database of simulations describing cascade damage production in single crystal iron has been compiled using a modified version of the interatomic potential developed by Finnis and Sinclair. This same potential has been used to investigate primary damage formation in nanocrystalline iron in order to have a direct comparison with the single crystal results. A statistically significant number of simulations were carried out at cascade energies of 10 keV and 20 keV and temperatures of 100 and 600K to make this comparison. The results demonstrate a significant influence of nearby grain boundaries as a sink for mobile defects during the cascade cooling phase. This alters the residual primary damage that survives the cascade event. Compared to single crystal, substantially fewer interstitials survive in the nanograined iron, while the number of surviving vacancies is similar or slightly greater than the single crystal result. The fraction of the surviving interstitials contained in clusters is also reduced. The asymmetry in the survival of the two types of point defects is likely to alter damage accumulation at longer times.
The aim of this work was to improve the knowledge on young suckled Salers bull production and to study the effect of forage type and concentrate level on performance, carcass and muscle characteristics as well as on meat quality. Twenty-four Salers male calves of 150 days of age were assigned to six groups: C0 (fed exclusively with hay and dam’s milk and slaughtered at approximately 6 months of age), and HH (hay – high concentrate), HL (hay – low concentrate), GH (cut grass – high concentrate), GL (cut grass – low concentrate) and CP (control pasture: pasture – high concentrate) groups differing in feeds received until slaughter and slaughtered unweaned at approximately 10 months of age. Carcass weights averaged 210 kg at 10 months of age at slaughter. Average daily weight gain (ADWG) in HH and GH groups tended to be higher (P = 0.09) than in HL and GL groups (1354 v. 1248 g/day). ADWG in CP group (1542 g/day) was higher (P < 0.05) than in the other groups. Carcass weight in CP group (230 kg) tended to be higher (P < 0.1) than in HL (198 kg) and GL (200 kg) groups. Carcass muscle weight was higher (P < 0.05) in GH (155 kg) and CP groups (165 kg) than in HL (141 kg) and GL (142 kg) groups. Carcass and offal fatty tissue weights and carcass fatness did not differ between groups. Neither forage type nor concentrate level had significant effect on the area of muscle fibres or on muscle metabolic enzyme activities (namely, lactate dehydrogenase – LDH, phosphofructokinase – PFK, isocitrate dehydrogenase – ICDH, citrate synthase – CS and cytochrome-c oxidase – COX). semitendinosus muscle of CP group presented higher CS enzyme activities (8.10 μmol/min per g) than HH (5.30 μmol/min per g) and GL (4.52 μmol/min per g) groups. Neither total nor insoluble collagen content significantly differed between groups. Lipid content in rectus abdominis muscle was relatively low (average 67.5 mg/g dry matter) and was not affected by diet (P > 0.05). The ratio between n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid content was lower (P = 0.01) in the low-concentrate-fed than in the high-concentrate-fed group (3.95 v. 5.37, respectively). Sensory analysis noted that longissimus thoracis muscle from CP animals was more tender and juicy than that from HH and GH animals (P < 0.05).
A Phytophthora species was found on blighted foliage of Ipomoea longipedunculata, a morning glory native to the highlands of central Mexico. Based on host range, morphology, allozymes, mitochondrial DNA haplotype and rDNA sequences it is concluded that a new Phytophthora species, P. ipomoeae sp. nov., is the causal agent of leaf blight disease on I. longipedunculata.
A description is given of the profiling of CVD grown 3C SiC on undulant (001) Si using low temperature photoluminescence (LTPL). Inelastic neutron scattering (INS) and X-ray Raman scattering (XRS) are compared for acoustical modes of 4H SiC. Schottky barrier heights are obtained for 4H and 6H SiC on different crystal faces using three different measuring techniques. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is used to display a variety of porous SiC morphologies achieved in n-type and p-type SiC.
This paper is intended to be the introduction to the “CHARACTERIZATION” section of this volume. To serve this purpose we illustrate the subject matter with new results using four distinct experimental techniques.
The authors report a prospective study in which the aim was to analyse the usefulness of different criteria in optimizing the diagnosis of allergic fungal rhinosinusitis. From 1995 to 1998, 165 patients were operated on for chronic rhinosinusitis. Investigations used in this study for the diagnosis of allergic Aspergillus rhinosinusitis consisted of an analysis of clinical, radiological, immuno-allergic criteria. Fourteen patients presented with allergic Aspergillus rhinosinusitis. One hundred and fifty-one patients did not present any of the necessary criteria for the diagnosis of allergic Aspergillus rhinosinusitis. The results show that the characteristic macroscopic appearance, the maxillary sinus localization, and the presence of positive specific IgE to Aspergillus fumigatus are arguments that reinforce the diagnostic certitude of allergic fungal sinusitis. No specific clinical or radiological criteria orients a diagnosis of chronic rhinosinusitis toward that of allergic fungal rhinosinusitis. The other immuno-allergic tests do not contribute to the diagnosis of allergic fungal rhinosinusitis. pathological, mycological, and
We recently showed that, in our Trichinella spiralis rat model, first exposure, but not re-exposure to infective-stage larvae
evoked heat shock responses in 4 test organs. Our work, however, failed to implicate either early complete clearance of
challenge muscle larvae (ML), or rapid elimination of newborn larvae (NBL) in the phenomenon noted in reinfected rats.
This study clarifies that issue using 2 established facts in T. spiralis biology and anti-T. spiralis immunology. That is, adult
worms injure gut cells and immune destruction of NBL requires release of material also toxic to host cells. To approach
the above problem we analysed relevant and irrelevant rat organs for increased heat shock protein (HSP) production at
1, 7, 14, 20 and 27 p.i. during first and second infections. Organs examined were intestines, mesenteric lymph nodes
(MLN), heart and lungs. Using densitometric analyses of immunoblots, increased HSP expression was detected on day
7 in intestines from both primary and secondary-infected rats albeit that the change in the latter was just short of significant.
Interestingly, MLN only exhibited increased HSP levels in the reinfected rat model with increased HSP levels persisting
for 1 week. A lasting shock response was detected in reinfected rats; in contrast, first exposure resulted in shock responses
being evident in lungs at either day 7 or day 14, only. These findings suggest that (i) in immune rats, a few challenge ML
develop into adults, produce NBLwhich are trapped within MLN, and (ii) that anti-T. spiralis and/or anti-NBL immunity
is associated with an, as yet, uncomprehended stress to host's heart tissues.
The current experiment was conducted to study the effect of different doses of tannic acid, a
hydrolysable tannin, on ruminal degradation and post-ruminal digestion of treated soya bean meals
(SBM) in sheep. Samples of SBM were prepared by spraying 100 g SBM with 100 ml distilled water
containing 0, 1, 5, 10, 15 or 25 g of commercial tannic acid
(S0, STA1, STA2, STA3, STA4 and STA5,
respectively). Three ruminally cannulated ewes, that had never consumed tannic acid previously, were
used to determine in situ degradability of tannic acid-treated SBM. Intestinal digestibility of protein
remaining after 16 h rumen incubation was estimated in vitro. Extent of rumen degradation of SBMs
was significantly (P < 0·05) affected by the tannic acid treatment. All doses of tannic acid used in this
experiment, even the lowest one (STA1), significantly decreased the extent of N degradation but only
doses higher than that used to treat STA3 reduced the extent of DM degradation. This reduction in
the extent of DM and N degradation was mainly due to a marked decrease in the immediately
degradable fraction (a), which was observed in all treated SBM, and to a lower rate of degradation
(c), observed in meals STA3, STA4 and STA5.
Intestinal digestion of the non-degraded protein was
decreased (P < 0·05) by treatment with the two highest doses of tannic acid (those used to treat meals
STA4 and STA5). It was therefore concluded that tannic acid can exert a negative effect both on rumen
degradation and on intestinal digestion of SBM, this effect being clearly dependent on the dose used
to treat the SBM.