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Investigated in this paper is the stability of the gravity-driven flow of a liquid layer laden with soluble surfactant down a heated incline. A mathematical model incorporating variations in surface tension with surfactant concentration and temperature has been formulated. A linear stability analysis is carried out both asymptotically for small wavenumbers and numerically for arbitrary wavenumbers. An expression for the critical Reynolds number has been derived which accounts for thermocapillary and solutocapillary effects, and reduces to known documented results for special cases. Also, a nonlinear reduced model has been derived using weighted residuals, and solved numerically to simulate the instability of the equilibrium flow and the development of permanent surface waves that arise. The nonlinear simulations were found to be in good agreement with the linear stability analysis.
We present TreeFrog, a massively parallel halo merger tree builder that is capable comparing different halo catalogues and producing halo merger trees. The code is written in c++11, use the MPI and OpenMP API’s for parallelisation, and includes python tools to read/manipulate the data products produced. The code correlates binding energy sorted particle ID lists between halo catalogues, determining optimal descendant/progenitor matches using multiple snapshots, a merit function that maximises the number of shared particles using pseudo-radial moments, and a scheme for correcting halo merger tree pathologies. Focusing on VELOCIraptor catalogues for this work, we demonstrate how searching multiple snapshots spanning a dynamical time significantly reduces the number of stranded halos, those lacking a descendant or a progenitor, critically correcting poorly resolved halos. We present a new merit function that improves the distinction between primary and secondary progenitors, reducing tree pathologies. We find FOF accretion rates and merger rates show similar mass ratio dependence. The model merger rates from Poole, et al. [2017, 472, 3659] agree with the measured net growth of halos through mergers.
We present VELOCIraptor, a massively parallel galaxy/(sub)halo finder that is also capable of robustly identifying tidally disrupted objects and separate stellar halos from galaxies. The code is written in C++11, use the Message Passing Interface (MPI) and OpenMP Application Programming Interface (API) for parallelisation, and includes python tools to read/manipulate the data products produced. We demonstrate the power of the VELOCIraptor (sub)halo finder, showing how it can identify subhalos deep within the host that have negligible density contrasts to their parent halo. We find a subhalo mass-radial distance dependence: large subhalos with mass ratios of ≳10−2 are more common in the central regions than smaller subhalos, a result of dynamical friction and low tidal mass loss rates. This dependence is completely absent in (sub)halo finders in common use, which generally search for substructure in configuration space, yet is present in codes that track particles belonging to halos as they fall into other halos, such as hbt+. VELOCIraptor largely reproduces the dependence seen without tracking, finding a similar radial dependence to hbt+ in well-resolved halos from our limited resolution fiducial simulation.
People who use drugs (PWUD) are a key population for hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination and screening. We aimed to estimate the seroprevalence of HBs antigen (HBsAg) and self-reported HBV vaccination history in French PWUD attending harm reduction centres using data from the ANRS-Coquelicot multicentre survey conducted in 2011–2013 in 1718 PWUD. Self-fingerprick blood samples were collected on dried blood spots to detect the presence of HBsAg. HBsAg seroprevalence was estimated at 1·4% [95% confidence interval (CI) 0·8–2·5]. It varied between PWUD born in high (7·6%, 95% CI 2·7–19·1), moderate (2·2%, 95% CI 0·8–5·7) and low (0·7%, 95% CI 0·3–1·5) endemic zones. Factors independently associated with HBsAg carriage were being born in a moderate or high endemic zone or reporting precarious housing. Self-reported HBV vaccination history varied from 47·4% in high endemic zones, to 59·3% and 62·6% for moderate and low endemic zones, respectively. Our results suggest that drug use plays a small and substantial role, respectively, in HBsAg carriage in PWUD born in high/moderate and low endemic zones.
Recognising the scarcity of glacier mass-balance data in the Southern Hemisphere, a mass-balance measurement programme was started at Brewster Glacier in the Southern Alps of New Zealand in 2004. Evolution of the measurement regime over the 11 years of data recorded means there are differences in the spatial density of data obtained. To ensure the temporal integrity of the dataset a new geostatistical approach is developed to calculate mass balance. Spatial co-variance between elevation and snow depth allows a digital elevation model to be used in a co-kriging approach to develop a snow depth index (SDI). By capturing the observed spatial variability in snow depth, the SDI is a more reliable predictor than elevation and is used to adjust each year of measurements consistently despite variability in sampling spatial density. The SDI also resolves the spatial structure of summer balance better than elevation. Co-kriging is used again to spatially interpolate a derived mean summer balance index using SDI as a co-variate, which yields a spatial predictor for summer balance. The average glacier-wide surface winter, summer and annual balances over the period 2005–15 are 2484, −2586 and −102 mm w.e., respectively, with changes in summer balance explaining most of the variability in annual balance.
Surface rotation rates of young solar-type stars display drastic changes at the end of the pre-main sequence through the early main sequence. This may trigger corresponding changes in the magnetic dynamos operating in these stars, which ought to be observable in their surface magnetic fields. We present here the first results of an observational effort aimed at characterizing the evolution of stellar magnetic fields through this critical phase. We observed stars from open clusters and associations, which range from 20 to 600 Myr, and used Zeeman Doppler Imaging to characterize their complex magnetic fields. We find a clear trend towards weaker magnetic fields for older ages, as well as a tight correlation between magnetic field strength and Rossby number over this age range. Comparing to results for younger T Tauri stars, we observe a very significant change in magnetic strength and geometry, as the radiative core develops during the late pre-main sequence.
The structure and dynamics of young stellar object (YSO) accretion shocks depend strongly on the local magnetic field strength and configuration, as well as on the radiative transfer effects responsible for the energy losses. We present the first 3D YSO shock simulations of the interior of the stream, assuming a uniform background magnetic field, a clumpy infalling gas, and an acoustic energy flux flowing at the base of the chromosphere. We study the dynamical evolution and the post-shock structure as a function of the plasma-beta (thermal pressure over magnetic pressure). We find that a strong magnetic field (~hundreds of Gauss) leads to the formation of fibrils in the shocked gas due to the plasma confinement within flux tubes. The corresponding emission is smooth and fully distinguishable from the case of a weak magnetic field (~tenths of Gauss) where the hot slab demonstrates chaotic motion and oscillates periodically.
κ1 Cet (HD 20630, HIP 15457, d = 9.16 pc, V = 4.84) is a dwarf star approximately 30 light-years away in the equatorial constellation of Cetus. Among the solar proxies studied in the Sun in Time, κ1 Cet stands out as potentially having a mass very close to solar and a young age. On this study, we monitored the magnetic field and the chromospheric activity from the Ca II H & K lines of κ1 Cet. We used the technique of Least-Square-Deconvolution (LSD, Donati et al. 1997) by simultaneously extracting the information contained in all 8,000 photospheric lines of the echelogram (for a linelist matching an atmospheric model of spectral type K1). To reconstruct a reliable magnetic map and characterize the surface differential rotation of κ1 Cet we used 14 exposures spread over 2 months, in order to cover at least two rotational cycles (Prot ~9.2 days). The Least Square deconvolution (LSD) technique was applied to detect the Zeeman signature of the magnetic field in each of our 14 observations and to measure its longitudinal component. In order to reconstruct the magnetic field geometry of κ1 Cet, we applied the Zeeman Doppler Imaging (ZDI) inversion method. ZDI revealed a structure in the radial magnetic field consisting of a polar magnetic spot. On this study, we present the fisrt look results of a high-resolution spectropolarimetric campaign to characterize the activity and the magnetic fields of this young solar proxy.
A subpopulation (~10%) of hot, luminous, massive stars have been revealed through spectropolarimetry to harbor strong (hundreds to tens of thousand Gauss), steady, large-scale (often significantly dipolar) magnetic fields. This review focuses on the role of such fields in channeling and trapping the radiatively driven wind of massive stars, including both in the strongly perturbed outflow from open field regions, and the wind-fed “magnetospheres” that develop from closed magnetic loops. For B-type stars with weak winds and moderately fast rotation, one finds “centrifugal magnetospheres”, in which rotational support allows magnetically trapped wind to accumulate to a large density, with quite distinctive observational signatures, e.g. in Balmer line emission. In contrast, more luminous O-type stars have generally been spun down by magnetic braking from angular momentum loss in their much stronger winds. The lack of centrifugal support means their closed loops form a “dynamical magnetosphere”, with trapped material falling back to the star on a dynamical timescale; nonetheless, the much stronger wind feeding leads to a circumstellar density that is still high enough to give substantial Balmer emission. Overall, this review describes MHD simulations and semi-analytic dynamical methods for modeling the magnetospheres, the magnetically channeled wind outflows, and the associated spin-down of these magnetic massive stars.
The surface rotation rates of young solar-type stars decrease rapidly with age from the end of the pre-main sequence though the early main sequence. This suggests that there is also an important change in the dynamos operating in these stars, which should be observable in their surface magnetic fields. Here we present early results in a study aimed at observing the evolution of these magnetic fields through this critical time period. We are observing stars in open clusters and stellar associations to provide precise ages, and using Zeeman Doppler Imaging to characterize the complex magnetic fields. Presented here are results for six stars, three in the in the β Pic association (~10 Myr old) and three in the AB Dor association (~100 Myr old).
Although barotropic matter does not constitute a realistic model for magnetic stars on short timescales, it would be interesting to confirm a recent conjecture that states that magnetized stars with a barotropic equation of state would be dynamically unstable (Reisenegger 2009). In this work we construct a set of barotropic equilibria, which can eventually be tested using a stability criterion. A general description of the ideal MHD equations governing these equilibria is summarized, allowing for both poloidal and toroidal magnetic field components. A new finite-difference numerical code is developed in order to solve the so-called Grad-Shafranov equation describing the equilibrium of these configurations, and some properties of the equilibria obtained are briefly discussed.
In A- and late B-type stars, strong magnetic fields are always associated with Ap and Bp chemical peculiarities. However, it is not clear at what point in a star's evolution those peculiarities develop. Strong magnetic fields have been observed in pre-main sequence A and B stars (Herbig Ae and Be stars), and these objects have been proposed to be the progenitors of Ap and Bp stars. However, the photospheric chemical abundances of these magnetic Herbig stars have not been studied carefully, and furthermore the chemical abundances of 'normal' non-magnetic Herbig stars remain poorly characterized. To investigate this issue, we have studied the photospheric compositions of 23 Herbig stars, four of which have confirmed magnetic fields. Surprisingly, we found that half the non-magnetic stars in our sample show λ Bootis chemical peculiarities to varying degrees. For the stars with detected magnetic fields, we find one chemically normal star, one star with λ Boo peculiarities, one star displaying weak Ap/Bp peculiarities, and one somewhat more evolved star with somewhat stronger Ap/Bp peculiarities. These results suggests that Ap/Bp peculiarities are preceded by magnetic fields, and that these peculiarities develop over the pre-main sequence lives of A and B stars. The incidence of λ Boo stars we find is much higher than that seen on the main sequence. We argue that a selective accretion model for the formation of λ Boo peculiarities is a natural explanation for this remarkably large incidence.
We present a preliminary 3D potential field extrapolation model of the joint magnetosphere of the close accreting PMS binary V4046 Sgr. The model is derived from magnetic maps obtained as part of a coordinated optical and X-ray observing program.
Recent results showed that the magnetic field of M-dwarf (dM) stars, currently the main targets in searches for terrestrial planets, is very different from the solar one, both in topology as well as in intensity. In particular, the magnetised environment surrounding a planet orbiting in the habitable zone (HZ) of dM stars can differ substantially to the one encountered around the Earth. These extreme magnetic fields can compress planetary magnetospheres to such an extent that a significant fraction of the planet's atmosphere may be exposed to erosion by the stellar wind. Using observed surface magnetic maps for a sample of 15 dM stars, we investigate the minimum degree of planetary magnetospheric compression caused by the intense stellar magnetic fields. We show that hypothetical Earth-like planets with similar terrestrial magnetisation (~1 G) orbiting at the inner (outer) edge of the HZ of these stars would present magnetospheres that extend at most up to 6.1 (11.7) planetary radii. To be able to sustain an Earth-sized magnetosphere, the terrestrial planet would either need to orbit significantly farther out than the traditional limits of the HZ; or else, if it were orbiting within the life-bearing region, it would require a minimum magnetic field ranging from a few G to up to a few thousand G.
We present preliminary results of the study of star-disk interaction in the classical T Tauri star V354 Mon, a member of the young stellar cluster NGC 2264. As part of an international campaign of observations of NGC 2264 organized from December 2011 to February 2012, high resolution photometric and spectroscopic data of this object were obtained simultaneously with the Chandra, CoRoT and Spitzer satellites, and ground-based telescopes, such as CFHT and ESO/VLT. The optical and infrared light curves of V354 Mon show periodic brightness minima that vary in depth and width every 5.21 days rotational cycle. We found evidence that the Hα emission line profile changes according to the period of photometric variations, indicating that the same phenomenon causes both modulations. Such correlation was also identified in a previous observational campaign on the same object, where we concluded that material non-uniformly distributed in the inner part of the disk is the main cause of the photometric modulation. This assumption is supported by the fact that the system is seen at high inclination. It is believed that this distortion of the inner part of the disk results from the dynamical interaction between the stellar magnetosphere, inclined with respect to the rotation axis, and the circumstellar disk, as also observed in the classical T Tauri star AA Tau, and predicted by magnetohydrodynamic numerical simulations. A model of occultation by circumstellar material was applied to the photometric data in order to determine the parameters of the obscuring material during both observational campaigns, thus providing an investigation of its stability on a timescale of a few years. We also studied V422 Mon, a classical T Tauri star with photometric variations similar to those of V354 Mon at optical wavelengths, but with a distinct behavior in the infrared. The mechanism that produces such a difference is investigated, testing the predictions of magnetospheric accretion models.
It is now believed that magnetohydrodynamic equilibria can exist in stably stratified stars due to the seminal works of Braithwaite & Spruit (2004) and Braithwaite & Nordlund (2006). What is still not known is whether magnetohydrodynamic equilibria can exist in a barotropic star, in which stable stratification is not present. It has been conjectured by Reisenegger (2009) that there will likely not exist any magnetohydrodynamical equilibria in barotropic stars. We aim to test this claim by presenting preliminary MHD simulations of barotropic stars using the three dimensional stagger code of Nordlund & Galsgaard (1995).
Higher adherence to a Mediterranean diet (MeDi) and n-3 PUFA may both contribute to decreased dementia risk, but the association between MeDi adherence and lipid status is unclear. The aim of the present study was to analyse the relationship between plasma fatty acids and MeDi adherence in French elderly community dwellers. The study population (mean age 75·9 years) consisted of 1050 subjects from Bordeaux (France) included in the Three-City cohort. Adherence to the MeDi (scored as 0–9) was computed from a FFQ and 24 h recall. The proportion of each plasma fatty acid was determined. Cross-sectional analysis of the association between plasma fatty acids and MeDi adherence was performed by multi-linear regression. After adjusting for age, sex, energy intake, physical activity, smoking status, BMI, plasma TAG and apoE-ɛ4 genotype, plasma palmitoleic acid was significantly inversely associated with MeDi adherence, whereas plasma DHA, the EPA+DHA index and total n-3 PUFA were positively associated with MeDi adherence. The n-6:n-3 PUFA, arachidonic acid (AA):EPA, AA:DHA and AA:(EPA+DHA) ratios were significantly inversely associated with MeDi adherence. Plasma EPA was positively associated with MeDi adherence only in apoE-ɛ4 non-carriers. There was no association between MeDi adherence and SFA and total MUFA. The present results suggest that the protective effect of the MeDi on cognitive functions might be mediated by higher plasma DHA and lower n-6:n-3 PUFA ratios.
The two-dimensional problem of gravity-driven laminar flow of a thin layer of fluid down a heated wavy inclined surface is discussed. The coupled effect of bottom topography, variable surface tension and heating has been investigated both analytically and numerically. A stability analysis is conducted while nonlinear simulations are used to validate the stability predictions and also to study thermocapillary effects. The governing equations are based on the Navier–Stokes equations for a thin fluid layer with the cross-stream dependence eliminated by means of a weighted residual technique. Comparisons with experimental data and direct numerical simulations have been carried out and the agreement is good. New interesting results regarding the combined role of surface tension and sinusoidal topography on the stability of the flow are presented. The influence of heating and the Marangoni effect are also deduced.
The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST) has recently conducted an extragalactic submillimetric survey of the Chandra Deep Field South region of unprecedented size, depth, and angular resolution in three wavebands centered at 250,
350, and 500 µm. BLAST wavelengths are chosen to study the Cosmic Infrared Background near its peak at 200 µm.
We find that most of the CIB at these wavelengths is contributed by galaxies detected at 24 µm by the MIPS instrument on Spitzer, and that the source counts distribution shows a population with strongly evolving density and luminosity. These results anticipate what can be expected from the surveys that will be conducted with the SPIRE instrument on the Herschel space observatory.