To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
An N95 respirator ultraviolet germicidal irradiation and reuse program was rapidly implemented at an academic health system in the United States during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. This process continues to be a safe and effective way to slow the consumption rate of N95 respirators.
The Rapid ASKAP Continuum Survey (RACS) is the first large-area survey to be conducted with the full 36-antenna Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP) telescope. RACS will provide a shallow model of the ASKAP sky that will aid the calibration of future deep ASKAP surveys. RACS will cover the whole sky visible from the ASKAP site in Western Australia and will cover the full ASKAP band of 700–1800 MHz. The RACS images are generally deeper than the existing NRAO VLA Sky Survey and Sydney University Molonglo Sky Survey radio surveys and have better spatial resolution. All RACS survey products will be public, including radio images (with
15 arcsec resolution) and catalogues of about three million source components with spectral index and polarisation information. In this paper, we present a description of the RACS survey and the first data release of 903 images covering the sky south of declination
made over a 288-MHz band centred at 887.5 MHz.
Optical tracking systems typically trade off between astrometric precision and field of view. In this work, we showcase a networked approach to optical tracking using very wide field-of-view imagers that have relatively low astrometric precision on the scheduled OSIRIS-REx slingshot manoeuvre around Earth on 22 Sep 2017. As part of a trajectory designed to get OSIRIS-REx to NEO 101955 Bennu, this flyby event was viewed from 13 remote sensors spread across Australia and New Zealand to promote triangulatable observations. Each observatory in this portable network was constructed to be as lightweight and portable as possible, with hardware based off the successful design of the Desert Fireball Network. Over a 4-h collection window, we gathered 15 439 images of the night sky in the predicted direction of the OSIRIS-REx spacecraft. Using a specially developed streak detection and orbit determination data pipeline, we detected 2 090 line-of-sight observations. Our fitted orbit was determined to be within about 10 km of orbital telemetry along the observed 109 262 km length of OSIRIS-REx trajectory, and thus demonstrating the impressive capability of a networked approach to Space Surveillance and Tracking.
Compulsory admission procedures of patients with mental disorders vary between countries in Europe. The Ethics Committee of the European Psychiatric Association (EPA) launched a survey on involuntary admission procedures of patients with mental disorders in 40 countries to gather information from all National Psychiatric Associations that are members of the EPA to develop recommendations for improving involuntary admission processes and promote voluntary care.
The survey focused on legislation of involuntary admissions and key actors involved in the admission procedure as well as most common reasons for involuntary admissions.
We analyzed the survey categorical data in themes, which highlight that both medical and legal actors are involved in involuntary admission procedures.
We conclude that legal reasons for compulsory admission should be reworded in order to remove stigmatization of the patient, that raising awareness about involuntary admission procedures and patient rights with both patients and family advocacy groups is paramount, that communication about procedures should be widely available in lay-language for the general population, and that training sessions and guidance should be available for legal and medical practitioners. Finally, people working in the field need to be constantly aware about the ethical challenges surrounding compulsory admissions.
Radiocarbon (14C) ages cannot provide absolutely dated chronologies for archaeological or paleoenvironmental studies directly but must be converted to calendar age equivalents using a calibration curve compensating for fluctuations in atmospheric 14C concentration. Although calibration curves are constructed from independently dated archives, they invariably require revision as new data become available and our understanding of the Earth system improves. In this volume the international 14C calibration curves for both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, as well as for the ocean surface layer, have been updated to include a wealth of new data and extended to 55,000 cal BP. Based on tree rings, IntCal20 now extends as a fully atmospheric record to ca. 13,900 cal BP. For the older part of the timescale, IntCal20 comprises statistically integrated evidence from floating tree-ring chronologies, lacustrine and marine sediments, speleothems, and corals. We utilized improved evaluation of the timescales and location variable 14C offsets from the atmosphere (reservoir age, dead carbon fraction) for each dataset. New statistical methods have refined the structure of the calibration curves while maintaining a robust treatment of uncertainties in the 14C ages, the calendar ages and other corrections. The inclusion of modeled marine reservoir ages derived from a three-dimensional ocean circulation model has allowed us to apply more appropriate reservoir corrections to the marine 14C data rather than the previous use of constant regional offsets from the atmosphere. Here we provide an overview of the new and revised datasets and the associated methods used for the construction of the IntCal20 curve and explore potential regional offsets for tree-ring data. We discuss the main differences with respect to the previous calibration curve, IntCal13, and some of the implications for archaeology and geosciences ranging from the recent past to the time of the extinction of the Neanderthals.
This paper proposes a differential sensor based on a pair of open split ring resonators (OSRR) operating in reflection. The output signal is thus the differential reflection coefficient of both resonators, intimately related to their dielectric loading. Thus, for identical loads in both sensing resonators, the individual reflection coefficients are equal, thereby providing an ideally null output signal. By contrast, when unequal dielectric loads truncate the symmetry, the reflection coefficients are different, resulting in a differential output signal related to the level of asymmetry. In order to ease the measurement of the output signal, a rat-race hybrid coupler is used. The OSRR sensing loads are connected to the coupled ports of the hybrid coupler, whereas the input signal is injected to the Δ-port, and the output signal is collected at the isolated port (Σ-port). By this means, the output signal, i.e. the differential reflection coefficient between both sensing loads, is obtained from the transmission coefficient of a simple two-port structure. For experimental validation purposes, the sensor is applied to the measurement of isopropanol content in aqueous solutions, and for that purpose, the sensitive regions are equipped with microfluidic channels.
In this paper, a differential microfluidic sensor and comparator based on a pair of microstrip lines loaded with dumbbell-shaped defected ground structure resonators is applied to the characterization of electrolyte concentration in samples of horse urine. Since variations in the total electrolyte content in urine may be indicative of certain pathologies, the interest is to use the device as a comparator, in order to determine changes in the electrolyte concentration as compared to a reference level. To validate the approach, we have made differential measurements of a set of urine samples with different electrolyte concentrations (which have been previously obtained by means of electrochemical methods). The obtained results correlate with the nominal electrolyte concentrations of the samples, thereby pointing out the potential of the approach as a low-cost pre-screening method (or complementary diagnosis system) to detect potential pathologies or diseases in horses and other animals.
This study presents two years of characterization of a warm temperate rhodolith bed in order to analyse how certain environmental changes influence the community ecology. The biomass of rhodoliths and associated species were analysed during this period and in situ experiments were conducted to evaluate the primary production, calcification and respiration of the dominant species of rhodoliths and epiphytes. The highest total biomass of rhodoliths occurred during austral winter. Lithothamnion crispatum was the most abundant rhodolith species in austral summer. Epiphytic macroalgae occurred only in January 2015, with Padina gymnospora being the most abundant. Considering associated fauna, the biomass of Mollusca increased from February 2015 to February 2016. Population densities of key reef fish species inside and around the rhodolith beds showed significant variations in time. The densities of grouper (carnivores/piscivores) increased in time, especially from 2015 to 2016. On the other hand, grunts (macroinvertebrate feeders) had a modest decrease over time (from 2014 to 2016). Other parameters such as primary production and calcification of L. crispatum were higher under enhanced irradiance, yet decreased in the presence of P. gymnospora. Community structure and physiological responses can be explained by the interaction of abiotic and biotic factors, which are driven by environmental changes over time. Biomass changes can indicate that herbivores play a role in limiting the growth of epiphytes, and this is beneficial to the rhodoliths because it decreases competition for environmental resources with fleshy algae.
During the 2017 European hepatitis A (HA) outbreak we assessed HA incidence in our cohort of 2300 HIV-infected patients, implemented preventive measures and evaluated practices and knowledge on sexually transmitted diseases (STD). HA incidence was assessed between 1 January 2017 and 31 December 2017 and included all symptomatic patients with virologically confirmed HA. Preventive measures consisted in identifying at risk and not immunised patients to propose them a free HAV vaccination, and an anonymous survey related to transmission routes of STD and to sexual behaviours. Twenty HA were diagnosed. All were homosexual men recently diagnosed with HIV and another STD. None were vaccinated against hepatitis A virus (HAV). Hospitalisation was required for 52%. We identified 250 patients at risk to acquire HAV and invited them to a free immunisation program. A total of 110 (44%) were vaccinated, of whom 74 responded to our survey. A majority of them (84%) reported recent active anal and oral sexuality with multiple (52%) male partners (81%), and ChemSex consumption (14%). Internet was the meeting link for 58%. Another STD history was found in 69%. One third of these individuals had no idea about STD transmission modes. This HA outbreak pointed the insufficient vaccine coverage against HAV and knowledge on STD, which may be improved by Internet.
As part of a process to improve the quality of care, the French Society of Biological Psychiatry developed recommendations for clinical practice in bipolar disorder.
The method chosen for these guidelines is a formalized consensus of experts. It enables, through a series of specific clinical situations proposed to the experts, to provide recommendations for the management of bipolar disorder. The situations where defined because they are not associated to evidence-based recommendations according to the lack of controlled studies.
40 experts participate to this consensus. As in most of the guidelines for the treatment of bipolar disorder, more than 50 % of experts (51,3 to 72,9%) recommend the same therapeutic strategies to treat major depressive episode whichever the type (bipolar I or II).
Unlike to other guidelines, French experts propose different therapeutic according to the presence or absence of rapid cycling. For major depressive episode without rapid cycling, 63% experts recommend a combination of an antidepressant with a mood stabilizer. In rapid cyclers, 51% experts recommend the use of a mood stabilizer in monotherapy or in combinaison, but never associated with antidepressant.
This methodological approach enables to get closer to everyday clinical practice and integrate specificities of prescription through a national panel of experts. On the other hand, this type of methodology highlights the research perspectives: i.e. management of acute depression with rapid cycle in bipolar disorder.
To describe the relation of psychosocial factors of care (phase illness, years of care, free time, extra help and symptoms of depression) influence the care burden of dementia family caregivers. To measure the relation of the level of depressive symptoms on an intense level of burden of the dementia family caregivers.
Is selected a sample of 102 primary caregivers by criteria of inclusion to which a surveys do to those that the following information gathered: sociodemographic dates of the caregivers and of the dementia patients, care burden (Zarit Interview) and depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory) of the family caregivers.
Most of the sample experiences an intense burden level (74%) opposite to a light level (26%). Psychosocial characteristics are as per statistics significant in increasing the care burden there were free time, extra help and presence of symptoms of depression. Presence of serious symptoms of depression on the intense burden level are differently front or those who had a minor burden, 22% and 5% respectively.
There are most of the daughter-father/mother and spouse-spouse caregiver couples with a high percentage of caregivers of feminine sex (as in most of the studies realized on caregiver of dependent persons at European and international level). The need for free time and psychic self-care are cost-effective strategies to prevent the depressive disorders, as well as, to improve their caregiver's work. The psychoeducation programs that have being realized at European level directed to family caregiver are necessary in our country.
Fibromyalgia and ADHD share some clinical features, and a reduced dopamine function has been proposed for both disorders. Here we found, in a large sample of fibromyalgia female patients, a higher frequency of childhood ADHD antecedent when compared with healthy women. Our data suggest that Fibromyalgia and ADHD have some common etiopathological mechanism.
To evaluate the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of fixed-dose agomelatine 25 and 50 mg/d in the treatment of outpatients with obsesive-compulsive disorder (OCD) compared to placebo.
In this 8-week, multicenter, double-blind, parallel-group trial, patients with DSM-IV-defined OCD were randomly assigned (1:1:1) to receive a once-daily dose of agomelatine 25 mg, agomelatine 50 mg, or placebo. The primary efficacy measure was the change from baseline to week 8 in the clinician-rated 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS(17)); other efficacy measures were The Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) and the Clinical Global Impression scale. The study was conducted between December 2009 and January 2010.
Agomelatine 25 mg/d was more efficacious based on the HDRS(17) total score (P = .01) compared to placebo throughout the treatment period, whereas for agomelatine 50 mg/d, statistically significant reduction in HDRS(17) total score could be observed from weeks 2 to 6 but not at week 8 (P = .144). A higher proportion of patients receiving agomelatine 25 mg/d showed clinical response (P = .013), clinical remission (P = .07), and improvement according to the Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement scale (P = .065) compared to those receiving placebo. No statistically significant difference between patients receiving agomelatine 50 mg/d compared to placebo on clinical response. Both agomelatine doses were safe and well tolerated, although clinically notable aminotransferase elevations were observed transiently in the agomelatine 50 mg/d group.
Agomelatine 50 mg/d provided evidence for its antidepressant efficacy until week 6 and was also safe and well tolerated.
The aim of this study was to confirm the high prevalence of three frequent psychiatric disorders : anxiety, depressive illnesses, and alcohol dependence among ancillary staff, and to examine for occupational risk factors. Two hundred and forty-six women were randomly selected from the ancillary staff of the regional hospital centre of Bordeaux, and 186 subjects were interviewed between June 1996 and October 1997. First, a self-administrated questionnaire was completed concerning socio-economic status, lifestyle, health, and working conditions. Second, the two sections of the composite international diagnosis interview (CIDI), devoted to explore anxiety and depression, and the short Michigan alcoholism screening test (S-MAST) were used.
Mean age of the subjects was 40.8 years (SD = 8.3 years). During the year preceding the interview, 77 (42.5 %) subjects had stopped their job because of illness. Prevalence of the psychiatric disorders studied was 33.9 % (95 % confidence interval, 27.1-40.7 %). These disorders were related to sickness absence. This is why the use of drugs raises questions for work physicians. Two protective factors associated against depression in logistic regression analysis were found: training at the time of employment, and the task ‘cleaning sickroom’.
A high prevalence of psychiatric disorders was confirmed and occupational risk factors for the prevalence of increased psychiatric disorders were isolated that could have practical consequences, such as for the training at time of employment.
There is considerable interest in the therapeutic potential of Cannabidiol (CBD), the second most abundant component of Cannabis. While delta-9-THC, the main psychoactive ingredient of cannabis, impairs memory and induces anxiety and psychotic symptoms acutely and increases the risk of psychotic disorders in regular cannabis users, CBD does not impair memory, may have anxiolytic and possibly antipsychotic effects. Hence, we compared directly the acute neural effects of these two active ingredients of cannabis, by combining pharmacological challenge with fMRI. Using a double-blind, repeated measures design and oral challenge with 10mg of delta-9-THC, 600mg of CBD or placebo in 15 healthy volunteers, we examined whether delta-9-THC and CBD have opposing effects on the neural substrates of verbal memory and fear processing and whether they also have opposing effects on the neural substrates of anxiety and psychotic symptoms induced by delta-9-THC. Delta-9-THC induced anxiety and psychotic symptoms acutely while there was a trend for a reduction in anxiety but no change in psychotic symptoms with CBD. During the memory task, delta-9-THC attenuated and CBD increased activation in the striatum bilaterally. Effect of delta-9-THC on striatal activation was inversely correlated with the psychotic symptoms induced by it concomitantly. During the processing of fearful faces, delta-9-THC increased and CBD attenuated activation in the amygdala and these effects correlated with their anxiogenic and anxiolytic effects respectively. These opposing effects of CBD on the key neural substrates for psychotic symptoms and anxiety induced by delta-9-THC may suggest its possible therapeutic role in countering these conditions.
To examine the postpartum thyroid dysfunction (PPTD) and positive thyroid antibodies (Ab+) frequency in the Postpartum Depression (PPD) and to investigate if the PPD patients subgroup with PPTD and/or Ab+ have different characteristics.
Eighty one (N=81) patients with PPD, according with DSM-IV criteria, were included. Thyroid function (Free T3, Free T4,TSH), autoimmune status of the thyroid (Thyroperoxidasa antibodies, Thyroglobulin antibodies) and severity of depression (EPDS and 21-item Hamilton scales), were assessed joint with other several demographics, psycho-social and reproductive variables.
Twenty per cent of the patients with PPD had positive thyroid antibodies and 14% present PPTD. Prior history of early stressors in the PPD patients were significantly related with the presence of Ab+: the presence of childhood maltreatments and/or sexual abuse increased thirteen times the probability of Ab+ (OR: 13,01, 95% CI, 2.01-84.02). Greater number of total stressors were associated with Ab+ (p< 0,030), and Ab+ women showed a higher average of total stressors (2,1) than antibody negative women (1,52). Depressed women with PPTD had positive correlation with previous depressive episodes (p< 0,008).
The depressed postpartum women with dysregulation of pituitary-thyroid axis have more early childhood stressors and previous depressive episode. The implication of the inmunitary system and the HPT axis in the etiopathogenesis of the PPD through the activation of the response in front to stress is discussed.
The prevalence of mood disorders (anxiety and depression) during pregnancy seems to be similar to the women of the same group without pregnancy. Women with recurrent depression and euthimic women who discontinued antidepressants medication during pregnancy are particularly at high risk for depressive illness. Data about perinatal effects of SSRI antidepressants are gradually accumulating and are controversial. Two meta-analyses and some controlled studies don't find increased risk for major malformations in SSRI-exposed newborn. However, other studies find an increased risk of congenital malformations, poor birth outcomes and neonatal complications.
Neonatal morbidity in infant newborn of women treated with antidepressant drugs.
We examine the relation between the pharmacological treatment of the maternal anxiety/depression during the pregnancy and acute morbidity in infant newborns.
Materials and Methods
Study group of 66 infant newborn of pregnant women with a diagnoses of major depressive episode or defined anxiety disorders according to DSM-IV, who were in treatment with antidepressant drugs during pregnancy. Control group: 120 newborn of healthy pregnant women, who did not receive any treatment, and were contemporary of the same gestational age and sex. Criteria of exclusion: demonstrated toxic consumption (alcohol, cocaine, cannabis, opiates, drug of synthesis). Studied variables: Type of childbirth and analgesia; weight and age of gestation; pH of umbilical artery and Apgar test; presence of malformations; morbidity; feeding; withdrawal syndrome.
Infant newborn of mothers exposed to the antidepressant treatment suffered from more pathology than those of the control group (16/66 vs. 14/114; 24.2% vs.12.3%; p=0.038). Two smaller malformations in the study group were observed, a preauricular appendix (group A) and one moderate pielocilicilar ectasy (group C), both in mothers who received paroxetine (2/60; 3.3% vs. 0/114; 0%, p=0.05, Fisher p=0.118, NS). Only one infant newborn displayed compatible clinical signs with moderate withdrawal syndrome (irritability, vomits) from a mother treated with venlafaxine. No case of convulsions was observed. Breast feeding was less frequent in the group of antidepressant treated mothers (38/66, 57.6% vs. 86/116, 74,1%, p=0.032).
The treatment with antidepressant drugs during pregnancy is necessary for some women. The clinician must weigh the relative risks of various treatment options and take into account individual patient wishes. Although the antidepressant drugs suppose an increased risk for the newborn, it could be assumable for the benefit that represents maintain the mother in an euthimic situation.
We propose to discuss the clinical management, as well as, the accuracy of the psychiatric and obstetric controls to minimize the neonatal complications.
Although it is well know that the substance use during pregnancy has a negative impact on mother and child health, there are few data on pregnancy - related substance use as a risk factor for postpartum depression and child outcomes.
Aims: To determine maternal and child outcomes at 8 and 32 weeks postpartum of women who reported substance use during pregnancy.
This is a cohort study of 1804 Caucasian women in postpartum. Exclusion criteria: psychiatric disorders during pregnancy. Women were evaluated at 2-3 days, 8 and 32 weeks postpartum. Socio-demographic, obstetric, personal and family psychiatric history and substance use during pregnancy; the Edimburgh Postpartum Depression Scale (EPDS) were assessed. All women with EPDS>9 at 8 and 32 weeks were evaluated by a structured interview (DIGS) for DSM-III major depression.
The mean (SD) age was 31.7 (4.6). Forty-six percent of them were primiparous. Thirty-one percent has a family and 16% a psychiatry history. Fifty percent of women reported substance use during pregnancy: 42% caffeine, 21.6% nicotine, 8% alcohol and 0.6% cannabis. Incidence of major postpartum depression was: 12.7%. Incidence of: Apgar scores < 7 at 5 min after birth:0.4%, gestational age at delivery < 37 weeks:7.3%, birth weigt < 2.5 Kg:7.3%, and congenital malformations:1.4%.
In the presentation, the maternal and child perinatal outcomes of women exposed to licit and ilicit drugs will be summarize and will include a discussion of the future clinical and research implications. This work has been done in part with Grants: GO3/184;FIS:PI04178;PI041635,PI041783,PI041779,PI041758,PI041761,PI041791,PI041766,PI041782,RD06/0001/1009; CIBER-SAM.