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be a configuration of
. Each pair of points has a Euclidean distance in the configuration. Given some graph
vertices, we measure the point-pair distances corresponding to the edges of
. In this paper, we study the question of when a generic
dimensions will be uniquely determined (up to an unknowable Euclidean transformation) from a given set of point-pair distances together with knowledge of
. In this setting the distances are given simply as a set of real numbers; they are not labeled with the combinatorial data that describes which point pair gave rise to which distance, nor is data about
given. We show, perhaps surprisingly, that in terms of generic uniqueness, labels have no effect. A generic configuration is determined by an unlabeled set of point-pair distances (together with
) if and only if it is determined by the labeled distances.
Oldowan sites in primary geological context are rare in the archaeological record. Here we describe the depositional environment of Oldowan occurrences at Kanjera South, Kenya, based on field descriptions and granulometric analysis. Excavations have recovered a large Oldowan artefact sample as well as the oldest substantial sample of archaeological fauna. The deposits at Kanjera South consist of 30 m of fluvial, colluvial and lacustrine sediments. Magneto- and biostratigraphy indicate the Kanjera South Member of the Kanjera Formation was deposited during 2.3–1.92 Ma, with 2.0 Ma being a likely age for the archaeological occurrences. Oldowan artefacts and associated fauna were deposited in the colluvial and alluvial silts and sands of beds KS1–3, in the margins of a lake basin. Field descriptions and granulometric analysis of the sediment fine fraction indicate that sediments from within the main archaeological horizon were emplaced as a combination of tractional and hyperconcentrated flows with limited evidence of debris-flow deposition. This style of deposition is unlikely to significantly erode or disturb the underlying surface, and therefore promotes preservation of surface archaeological accumulations. Hominins were repeatedly attracted to the site locale, and rapid sedimentation, minimal bone weathering and an absence of bone or artefact rounding further indicate that fossils and artefacts were quickly buried.
Adult schistosomes live in the blood vessels and cannot easily be sampled from humans, so archived miracidia larvae hatched from eggs expelled in feces or urine are commonly used for population genetic studies. Large collections of archived miracidia on FTA cards are now available through the Schistosomiasis Collection at the Natural History Museum (SCAN). Here we describe protocols for whole genome amplification of Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosome haematobium miracidia from these cards, as well as real time PCR quantification of amplified schistosome DNA. We used microgram quantities of DNA obtained for exome capture and sequencing of single miracidia, generating dense polymorphism data across the exome. These methods will facilitate the transition from population genetics, using limited numbers of markers to population genomics using genome-wide marker information, maximising the value of collections such as SCAN.
An internationally approved and globally used classification scheme for the diagnosis of CHD has long been sought. The International Paediatric and Congenital Cardiac Code (IPCCC), which was produced and has been maintained by the International Society for Nomenclature of Paediatric and Congenital Heart Disease (the International Nomenclature Society), is used widely, but has spawned many “short list” versions that differ in content depending on the user. Thus, efforts to have a uniform identification of patients with CHD using a single up-to-date and coordinated nomenclature system continue to be thwarted, even if a common nomenclature has been used as a basis for composing various “short lists”. In an attempt to solve this problem, the International Nomenclature Society has linked its efforts with those of the World Health Organization to obtain a globally accepted nomenclature tree for CHD within the 11th iteration of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11). The International Nomenclature Society has submitted a hierarchical nomenclature tree for CHD to the World Health Organization that is expected to serve increasingly as the “short list” for all communities interested in coding for congenital cardiology. This article reviews the history of the International Classification of Diseases and of the IPCCC, and outlines the process used in developing the ICD-11 congenital cardiac disease diagnostic list and the definitions for each term on the list. An overview of the content of the congenital heart anomaly section of the Foundation Component of ICD-11, published herein in its entirety, is also included. Future plans for the International Nomenclature Society include linking again with the World Health Organization to tackle procedural nomenclature as it relates to cardiac malformations. By doing so, the Society will continue its role in standardising nomenclature for CHD across the globe, thereby promoting research and better outcomes for fetuses, children, and adults with congenital heart anomalies.
Severe longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (LETM) can cause quadriplegia, marked sensory dysfunction, and respiratory failure. Some patients are unresponsive to conventional immune therapy. We report two cases of severe immune-mediated LETM requiring intensive care admission that failed to respond to high-dose corticosteroids, plasma exchange, intravenous immunoglobulin, and rituximab. Disease cessation and significant recovery was achieved after cyclophosphamide induction. In patients with severe acute immune-mediated LETM who fail to respond to corticosteroids and plasma exchange, cyclophosphamide induction should be considered. This agent and regimen provides a robust immunosuppressive response and can be induced rapidly. Cyclophosphamide effects and supportive evidence are discussed.
A huge amount of data has been acquired with the GREGOR Fabry-Pérot Interferometer (GFPI), large-format facility cameras, and since 2016 with the High-resolution Fast Imager (HiFI). These data are processed in standardized procedures with the aim of providing science-ready data for the solar physics community. For this purpose, we have developed a user-friendly data reduction pipeline called “sTools” based on the Interactive Data Language (IDL) and licensed under creative commons license. The pipeline delivers reduced and image-reconstructed data with a minimum of user interaction. Furthermore, quick-look data are generated as well as a webpage with an overview of the observations and their statistics. All the processed data are stored online at the GREGOR GFPI and HiFI data archive of the Leibniz Institute for Astrophysics Potsdam (AIP). The principles of the pipeline are presented together with selected high-resolution spectral scans and images processed with sTools.
The subject of this symposium, Multi-Wavelength Sky Surveys naturally invokes a discussion of methods of astronomical object identification and classification: Given a set of objects detected at a certain waveband, how does one integrate the new sources with previous data? The ALADIN system (Paillou et al. 1994) of the CDS is a software package designed to tackle this problem: It provides simultaneous access to digitized sky photographs, catalogs and databases to facilitate direct, visual comparison of user data with previously classified data, as well as automatic source extraction and calibration tools.
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an adult-onset disease characterized by the selective degeneration of motor neurons in the brain and spinal cord resulting in progressive paralysis and death. Current diagnosis of ALS is based on clinical assessment of related symptoms, which appear only late in the disease course after degeneration of a significant number of motor neurons. As a result, the identification and development of disease-modifying therapies is difficult, making ALS an incurable disease. Novel strategies for early diagnosis of ALS, to monitor disease progression and to assess response to existing and future treatments are urgently needed.
Many neurological disorders, including ALS, are accompanied by skin changes that often precede the onset of neurological symptoms. We have developed a unique ALS tissue-engineered skin model (ALS-TES), derived from the cells of ALS patients, in order to study the earliest stages of ALS-related skin pathology. For each participant, two skin biopsies were collected using a 6-mm diameter punch biopsy. Tissue-engineered skin was then generated from isolated keratinocytes and fibroblasts, and examined by routine histochemistry and immunohistochemistry, as well as by confocal microscopy. The ALS-TES model presents a number of striking features including altered epidermal differentiation, abnormal dermo-epidermal junction, delamination, keratinocyte infiltration, collagen disorganization and cytoplasmic TDP-43 inclusions, which are not seen in skin models derived from healthy subjects. The same abnormal skin model changes were detected skin models derived from the cells of pre- symptomatic C9orf72-linked ALS patients carrying the GGGGCC DNA repeat expansion. Consequently, our ALS-TES skin model could represent a renewable source of human tissue to better understand the physiopathological mechanisms underlying this disease, including cytoplasmic TDP43 accumulation, and lead to better tools for early diagnosis and disease monitoring.
This article reports an evaluation of the officer selection procedures of the Papua New Guinea Defence Force based on the performance of 195 officers. Results indicate that a linear combination of selection variables, including psychometric measures, academic achievement, interview impressions, and hands-on performance tests, was not predictably related to the criterion measure of officer performance. Post-hoc validation checks suggest that only one of the psychometric tests used in selection meets basic construct validation criteria and that the criterion measure of officer performance is unreliable. No evidence was found to support the predictive validity of selection procedures.
The gut microbiota and its metabolic products interact with the host in many different ways, influencing gut homoeostasis and health outcomes. The species composition of the gut microbiota has been shown to respond to dietary change, determined by competition for substrates and by tolerance of gut conditions. Meanwhile, the metabolic outputs of the microbiota, such as SCFA, are influenced both by the supply of dietary components and via diet-mediated changes in microbiota composition. There has been significant progress in identifying the phylogenetic distribution of pathways responsible for formation of particular metabolites among human colonic bacteria, based on combining cultural microbiology and sequence-based approaches. Formation of butyrate and propionate from hexose sugars, for example, can be ascribed to different bacterial groups, although propionate can be formed via alternative pathways from deoxy-sugars and from lactate by a few species. Lactate, which is produced by many gut bacteria in pure culture, can also be utilised by certain Firmicutes to form butyrate, and its consumption may be important for maintaining a stable community. Predicting the impact of diet upon such a complex and interactive system as the human gut microbiota not only requires more information on the component groups involved but, increasingly, the integration of such information through modelling approaches.
The Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory (DRAO) is carrying out a survey as part of an international collaboration to image the northe, at a common resolution, in emission from all major constituents of the interstellar medium; the neutral atomic gas, the molecular gas, the ionised gas, dust and relativistic plasma. For many of these constituents the angular resolution of the images (1 arcmin) will be more than a factor of 10 better than any previous studies. The aim is to produce a publicly-available database of high resolution, high-dynamic range images of the Galaxy for multi-phase studies of the physical states and processes in the interstellar medium. We will sketch the main scientific motivations as well as describe some preliminary results from the Canadian Galactic Plane Survey/Releve Canadien du Plan Galactique (CGPS/RCPG).
During the peel of a ductile material from a rigid substrate, a number of instabilities can arise in the shape and motion of the peel front. For instance, void formation, viscous fingering, and fibril formation and bifurcation can modulate the local rate of detachment between the two materials. These fluctuations affect the rate of energy dissipation and depend directly on the micromechanics of the detachment zone. Exploiting the consequences of contact charging between dissimilar materials, we have developed sensitive methods for detecting fluctuations during interfacial failure. We have also developed a sensitive probe of ductile deformation in reactive metals and use these measurements to probe energy dissipation during interfacial failure. We present examples of chaotic behavior and discuss the relation between these results with our current understanding of energy dissipation during interfacial crack growth.
Thermotropic liquid crystals (5CB and 8CB) were confined in silica porous matrices (xerogels and xero-aerogels) with different pore sizes. The structure and dynamics of confined liquid crystals were studied by Raman spectroscopy and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. In Raman, the frequency of the CN stretching peak is a good probe of the smectic_A-crystal phase transition. The CN peak is observed to split upon quenching. This suggests a coexistence of crystalline and supercooled liquid phases for confined LC which was not observed in the bulk. In NMR, strong differences in both chemical shifts and linewidths are observed in confinement with respect to the bulk. We present a model which analyses the changes in the spectra in terms of changes of the order parameter and molecular dynamics for the confined LC.