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We have obtained Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Planetary Camera (PC) images of a number of Magellanic Cloud planetary nebulae. The objects, except for SMP 83 were observed as part of the Cycle I GO program. The observations were made in the [O III] λ5007Å line. The object SMP 83, was observed as part of the GTO program, and in this case observations were also made in the Hα line using the F650N filter. In order to characterise the point spread function, a star was placed at the same point on the chip as the PN. This allowed us to determine the diameters of barely resolved PN in an accurate manner, by convolving the PSF with a function until it matched the appearance of the PN image. The results are given in Table 1.
New collision strengths, from a 19-state quantum calculation for He I, are used to derive revised He/H ratios in planetary nebulae (PN). Empirical formulae are given, for the correction of He I recombination line fluxes for collisional effects, and for the calculation of the population of metastable helium (He I 23S) in gaseous nebulae. The revised He abundances for PN, for four samples of published line fluxes, show a mean ratio He/H = 0.100 ±0.007 if nebulae with neutral He and Type I PN are excluded. The mean reduction due to collisional effects is only 10% for Galactic PN. It is shown that the hypothesis, that He/H should be independent of nebular temperature and density, is better satisfied when collisional effects are allowed for. The new He abundances indicate that there is very little He enrichment in Galactic PN of Types II, III, and IV, and that the enhancement of Type I PN in He over H II regions is reduced from earlier values by one third.
Models of the dust grains in the planetary nebula NGC 3918 are presented. The models, which are calculated for four grain materials -graphite, amorphous carbon, silicate, and iron- have a size distribution of particles based on that found for the diffuse interstellar medium. The infrared spectrum of the nebula -described mainly by IRAS photometry corrected for line emission- can be matched either with graphite grains with a size range of 0.04 - 0.30 μm, or with amorphous carbon grains having a size range 0.0005 - 0.25 μm. The implied depletions of gas phase carbon are only 11% and 4%, respectively. It is shown that iron grains cannot be the dominant dust material.
We obtained new HST/STIS long-slit spectra and WFPC2 imagery of the planetary nebula NGC 7009 in order to obtain high spatial resolution of the intrinsic flux ratio [O III] 4364/5008, which is a well-known diagnostic for electron temperature (Te). Our primary purpose was to quantify Te variations across the nebula. We address whether the observational data support the possibility that the [fractional] mean-square Te variation (t2) (Peimbert 1967) in NGC 7009 may be as large as ~0.1. Such large values are required to reconcile the “abundance dichotomy” by Te variations alone. The abundance dichotomy (discussed by Liu at greater length elsewhere in this volume) refers to the significantly higher heavy element abundances derived from optical recombination lines (e.g., a factor of ~5 for NGC 7009, Liu et al. 1995) compared with the corresponding values deduced from collisionally-excited lines.
We present the results of our major HST study of the evolution of PN in the Magellanic Clouds. This consists of imaging studies in [O III] and FOS UV spectroscopy. These data are then used in theoretical photoionisation models in conjuction with ground-based spectrophotometry, absolute flux and expansion velocity and density to derive self consistent diameters, ages, masses, and nebular abundances and to accurately place the central stars on the H-R Diagram. We find that observed sizes and ages can be reconciled with evolutionary theory provided that the He-burners outnumber the H-burners in the approximate ratio 2:1. For the LMC observed abundance patterns are qualitatively consistent with the (mass-dependent) operation of the various chemical dredge-up processes as predicted by theory. However, the observed dredge-up efficiencies do not agree with current theory. Finally, since core masses are determined with adequate precision, we are able to derive, for the first time, the metallicity age relation for of the LMC. We find that the base metallicity of the LMC rapidly increased ∼ 2 Gyr ago, consistent with the age of the burst of star formation inferred from field stars and clusters.
The majority of planetary nebulae (PNe) at the distance of the Magellanic Clouds typically subtend 1 arcsec or less on the sky. The Planetary Camera onboard the Hubble Space Telescope has a scale of 0.044 arcsec per pixel and is therefore ideal to use to image these objects. At present, 16 LMC and 5 SMC objects have been imaged in the [O III] 5007 angstrom emission line, as part of this program. An additional 10 LMC and 5 SMC objects have been imaged in the same line under the Guaranteed Time Observer program.
Hydrogen-deficient planetary nebulae have central regions devoid of hydrogen. (See Harrington 1996 for a review of these nebulae.) They are characterized by exceptionally strong collisionally excited lines of [O III] and [Ne III], but relatively weak or undetected recombination lines of He or other elements. Such nebulae cannot be modeled successfully unless we include some source of heating in addition to photoionization by the central star.
Spectra at 16 - 45 μm of several regions within the central 80″ of the Galaxy have been obtained at 20″ resolution using the Goddard Cryogenic Grating Spectrometer No. 2 on the Kuiper Airborne Observatory. A broad band of excess emission extending from 24 to 45 μm is present in the spectra at positions covering the “tongue” and the inner edge of the circumnuclear disk. A similar dust emission feature has been observed in some carbon-rich evolved stars and in a nitrogen-rich evolved massive star. The observations reported here are the first detection of this dust emission feature in the interstellar medium. After considering several possible candidates of the carrier for this 30 μm dust feature, we find that MgS is the best owing to its good fit to the observed spectra. The origin of this ~ 30 μm feature in the Galactic center is unknown. Based on the theoretical results of dust condensation and elemental abundances in a supernova, we find that the supernovae in the central 500 pc could provide the amount of MgS dust, which we proposed as the carrier of the 30 μm dust feature, observed in the central 3 pc.
To examine the association between protective lifestyle behaviours (PLB) and depression in middle-aged Irish adults.
Secondary analysis of a cross-sectional study. PLB (non-smoker, moderate alcohol, physical activity, adequate fruit and vegetable intake) were assessed using a general health and lifestyle questionnaire and a validated FFQ. Depression was assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. A score of 15–21 indicates mild/moderate depression and a score of 22 or more indicates a possibility of major depression. Binary logistic regression was used to examine the association between PLB and depression.
Livinghealth Clinic, Mitchelstown, North Cork, Republic of Ireland.
Men and women aged 50–69 years were selected at random from a list of patients registered at the clinic (n 2047, 67 % response rate).
Over 8 % of participants engaged in zero or one PLB, 24 % and 39 % had two and three PLB respectively, while 28 % had four PLB. Those who practised three/four PLB were significantly more likely to be female, have a higher level of education and were categorised as having no depressive symptoms. Engaging in zero or one PLB was significantly associated with an increased odds of depression compared with four PLB. Results remained significant after adjusting for several confounders, including age, gender, education and BMI (OR=2·2; 95 % CI 1·2, 4·0; P for trend=0·001).
While causal inference cannot be established in a cross-sectional study, the findings suggest that healthy behaviours may play a vital role in the promotion of positive mental health or, at a minimum, are associated with lower levels of depression.
The Darwin region in northern Australia has experienced rapid population growth in recent years, and with it, an increased incidence of melioidosis. Previous studies in Darwin have associated the environmental presence of Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of melioidosis, with anthropogenic land usage and proximity to animals. In our study, we estimated the occurrence of B. pseudomallei and Burkholderia spp. relatives in faecal matter of wildlife, livestock and domestic animals in the Darwin region. A total of 357 faecal samples were collected and bacteria isolated through culture and direct DNA extraction after enrichment in selective media. Identification of B. pseudomallei, B. ubonensis, and other Burkholderia spp. was carried out using TTS1, Bu550, and recA BUR3–BUR4 quantitative PCR assays, respectively. B. pseudomallei was detected in seven faecal samples from wallabies and a chicken. B. cepacia complex spp. and Pandoraea spp. were cultured from wallaby faecal samples, and B. cenocepacia and B. cepacia were also isolated from livestock animals. Various bacteria isolated in this study represent opportunistic human pathogens, raising the possibility that faecal shedding contributes to the expanding geographical distribution of not just B. pseudomallei but other Burkholderiaceae that can cause human disease.
We have assembled a new sample of some of the most FIR-luminous galaxies in the Universe and have imaged them in 1.1 mm dust emission and measured their redshifts 1 < z < 4 via CO emission lines using the 32-m Large Millimeter Telescope / Gran Telescopio Milimétrico (LMT/GTM). Our sample of 31 submm galaxies (SMGs), culled from the Planck and Herschel all-sky surveys, includes 14 of the 21 most luminous galaxies known, with LFIR > 1014L⊙ and SFR > 104M⊙/yr. These extreme inferred luminosities – and multiple / extended 1.1 mm images – imply that most or all are strongly gravitationally lensed, with typical magnification μ ~ 10 × . The gravitational lensing provides two significant benefits: (1) it boosts the S/N, and (2) it allows investigation of star formation and gas processes on sub-kpc scales.
We describe two cases of infant botulism due to Clostridium butyricum producing botulinum type E neurotoxin (BoNT/E) and a previously unreported environmental source. The infants presented at age 11 days with poor feeding and lethargy, hypotonia, dilated pupils and absent reflexes. Faecal samples were positive for C. butyricum BoNT/E. The infants recovered after treatment including botulism immune globulin intravenous (BIG-IV). C. butyricum BoNT/E was isolated from water from tanks housing pet ‘yellow-bellied’ terrapins (Trachemys scripta scripta): in case A the terrapins were in the infant's home; in case B a relative fed the terrapin prior to holding and feeding the infant when both visited another relative. C. butyricum isolates from the infants and the respective terrapin tank waters were indistinguishable by molecular typing. Review of a case of C. butyricum BoNT/E botulism in the UK found that there was a pet terrapin where the infant was living. It is concluded that the C. butyricum-producing BoNT type E in these cases of infant botulism most likely originated from pet terrapins. These findings reinforce public health advice that reptiles, including terrapins, are not suitable pets for children aged <5 years, and highlight the importance of hand washing after handling these pets.
Data-driven approaches to dietary patterns are under-utilized; latent class analyses (LCA) are particularly rare. The present study used an LCA to identify subgroups of people with similar dietary patterns, explore changes in dietary patterns over a 10-year period and relate these dynamics to sociodemographic factors and health outcomes.
The 1998 baseline and 2008 follow-up of the Cork and Kerry Diabetes and Heart Disease Study. Diets were assessed with a standard FFQ. LCA, under the assumption of conditional independence, was used to identify mutually exclusive subgroups with different dietary patterns, based on food group consumption.
Republic of Ireland.
Men and women aged 50–69 years at baseline (n 923) and at 10-year follow-up (n 320).
Three dietary classes emerged: Western, Healthy and Low-Energy. Significant differences in demographic, lifestyle and health outcomes were associated with class membership. Between baseline and follow-up most people remained ‘stable’ in their dietary class. Most of those who changed class moved to the Healthy class. Higher education was associated with transition to a healthy diet; lower education was associated with stability in an unhealthy pattern. Transition to a healthy diet was associated with higher CVD risk factors at baseline: respondents were significantly more likely to be smokers, centrally obese and to have hypertension (non-significant).
LCA is useful for exploring dietary patterns transitions. Understanding the predictors of longitudinal stability/transitions in dietary patterns will help target public health initiatives by identifying subgroups most/least likely to change and most/least likely to sustain a change.
A new data analysis toolkit which is suitable for the analysis of large-scale, long-term datasets and the phenomenon/anomalies they represent is described. The toolkit aims to expose and quantify scientific information in a number of forms contained within a time-series based dataset in a quantitative and rigorous manner, reducing the subjectivity of observations made, thereby supporting the scientific observer. The features contained within the toolkit include the ability to handle non-uniform datasets, time-series component determination, frequency component determination, feature/event detection and characterization/parameterization of local behaviours. An application is presented of a case study dataset arising from the 'Lasgit' experiment.
In the Swedish KBS-3 repository concept, there is potential for gas to be generated from corrosion of ferrous materials under anoxic conditions, combined with the radioactive decay of the waste and radiolysis of water. A full understanding of the probable behaviour of this gas phase within the engineered barrier system (EBS) is therefore required for performance assessment. We demonstrate key features from gas transport experiments on pre-compacted Mx80 bentonite, under laboratory and field conditions, and discuss their implications in terms of a conceptual model for gas migration behaviour. On both scales, major gas entry is seen to occur close to the sum of the porewater and swelling pressures of the bentonite. In addition, gas pressure at breakthrough is profoundly sensitive to the number and location of available sinks for gas escape. Observations of breakthrough can be explained by the creation of dilatational pathways, resulting in localized changes in the monitored porewater pressures and total stresses. These pathways are highly unstable, evolving spatially and temporally, and must consequently influence the gas permeability as their distribution/geometry develops.
Such observations are poorly embodied by conventional concepts of two-phase flow, which do not fully represent the key processes involved. Although dilatancy based models provide a better description of these processes, the paucity of data limits further development and validation of these models at present.
Controlled flow-rate gas injection experiments have been performed on
pre-compacted samples of KBS-3 specification M×801 buffer
bentonite using helium as a safe replacement for hydrogen. By simultaneously
applying a confining pressure and backpressure, specimens were
isotropically-consolidated and fully water-saturated under pre-determined
effective stress conditions, before injecting gas using a syringe pump.
Ingoing and outgoing gas fluxes were monitored. All tests exhibited a
conspicuous threshold pressure for breakthrough, somewhat larger than the
sum of the swelling pressure and the backpressure. All tests showed a
post-peak negative transient leading to steady-state gas flow. Using a
stepped history of flow rate, the flow law was shown to be nonlinear. With
the injection pump stationary (i.e. zero applied flow rate), gas pressure
declined with time to a finite value. When gas flow was reestablished, the
threshold value for gas breakthrough was found to be significantly lower
than in virgin clay. There is strong evidence to suggest that the capillary
pressure for the penetration of interparticle pore space of buffer bentonite
is of such a magnitude that normal two-phase flow is impossible. Gas entry
and breakthrough is therefore accompanied by the development of microcracks
which propagate through the clay from gas source to sink. The experiments
suggest that these pathways open under high gas pressure conditions and
partially close if gas pressure falls, providing a possible explanation of
the nonlinearity of the flow law.
The significance of the potential impacts of microbial activity on the transport properties of host rocks for geological repositories is an area of active research. Most recent work has focused on granitic environments. This paper describes pilot studies investigating changes in transport properties that are produced by microbial activity in sedimentary rock environments in northern Japan. For the first time, these short experiments (39 days maximum) have shown that the denitrifying bacteria, Pseudomonas denitrificans, can survive and thrive when injected into flow-through column experiments containing fractured diatomaceous mudstone and synthetic groundwater under pressurized conditions. Although there were few significant changes in the fluid chemistry, changes in the permeability of the biotic column, which can be explained by the observed biofilm formation, were quantitatively monitored. These same methodologies could also be adapted to obtain information from cores originating from a variety of geological environments including oil reservoirs, aquifers and toxic waste disposal sites to provide an understanding of the impact of microbial activity on the transport of a range of solutes, such as groundwater contaminants and gases (e.g. injected carbon dioxide).
Poor-quality diet, regarded as an important contributor to health inequalities, is linked to adverse health outcomes. We investigated sociodemographic and lifestyle predictors of poor-quality diet in a population sample.
A cross-sectional analysis of the Survey of Lifestyle, Attitudes and Nutrition (SLÁN). Diet was assessed using an FFQ (n 9223, response rate = 89 %), from which a dietary score (the DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) score) was constructed.
General population of the Republic of Ireland.
The SLÁN survey is a two-stage clustered sample of 10 364 individuals aged 18 years.
Adjusting for age and gender, a number of sociodemographic, lifestyle and health-related variables were associated with poor-quality diet: social class, education, marital status, social support, food poverty (FP), smoking status, alcohol consumption, underweight and self-perceived general health. These associations persisted when adjusted for age, gender and social class. They were not significantly altered in the multivariate analysis, although the association with social support was attenuated and that with FP was borderline significant (OR = 1·2, 95 % CI 1·03, 1·45). A classical U-shaped relationship between alcohol consumption and dietary quality was observed. Dietary quality was associated with social class, educational attainment, FP and related core determinants of health.
The extent to which social inequalities in health can be explained by socially determined differences in dietary intake is probably underestimated. The use of composite dietary quality scores such as the DASH score to address the issue of confounding by diet in the relationship between alcohol consumption and health merits further study.