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Parents are a major supplier of alcohol to adolescents, yet there is limited research examining the impact of this on adolescent alcohol use. This study investigates associations between parental supply of alcohol, supply from other sources, and adolescent drinking, adjusting for child, parent, family and peer variables.
A cohort of 1927 adolescents was surveyed annually from 2010 to 2014. Measures include: consumption of whole drinks; binge drinking (>4 standard drinks on any occasion); parental supply of alcohol; supply from other sources; child, parent, family and peer covariates.
After adjustment, adolescents supplied alcohol by parents had higher odds of drinking whole beverages [odds ratio (OR) 1.80, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.33–2.45] than those not supplied by parents. However, parental supply was not associated with bingeing, and those supplied alcohol by parents typically consumed fewer drinks per occasion (incidence rate ratio 0.86, 95% CI 0.77–0.96) than adolescents supplied only from other sources. Adolescents obtaining alcohol from non-parental sources had increased odds of drinking whole beverages (OR 2.53, 95% CI 1.86–3.45) and bingeing (OR 3.51, 95% CI 2.53–4.87).
Parental supply of alcohol to adolescents was associated with increased risk of drinking, but not bingeing. These parentally-supplied children also consumed fewer drinks on a typical drinking occasion. Adolescents supplied alcohol from non-parental sources had greater odds of drinking and bingeing. Further follow-up is necessary to determine whether these patterns continue, and to examine alcohol-related harm trajectories. Parents should be advised that supply of alcohol may increase children's drinking.
The ESRO satellite COS-B carries one single experiment aiming at the measurement of arrival direction and energy of celestial gamma rays with energies between 25 MeV and 10 GeV. The experiment is conventional in design and consists of a veto counter, a wire spark chamber, a telescope and an energy calorimeter.
The energy measurement is obtained by a CsI scintillation crystal of 4.7 radiation length thickness. The expected energy resolution at 100 MeV is 50% FWHM. The other detector elements are designed as to cause the least possible degradation of the energy measurement.
The possibilities for the detection of a small contribution of π -origin gamma rays in the presence of a power-law type background spectrum will be discussed.
Between 2005 and 2007, E. coli obtained from clinical diagnostic submissions from cattle, goats, pigs and sheep to government laboratories in England and Wales were tested for sensitivity to 16 antimicrobials. Resistance was most commonly observed against ampicillin, streptomycin, sulphonamides and tetracyclines. Resistance levels varied significantly between species, with isolates from cattle frequently showing the highest levels. Verocytotoxigenic E. coli (VTEC) expressed less resistance than non-VTEC. Only 19·3% of non-VTEC and 43·5% of VTEC were susceptible to all antimicrobials, while 47·1% and 30·4%, respectively, were resistant to ⩾5 antimicrobials. The resistance phenotype SSuT was commonly observed, and isolates resistant to third-generation cephalosporins were also identified. We recommend judicious antimicrobial usage in the livestock industry in order to preserve efficacy.
Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is now the commonest infective cause of neurological handicap. Arguably, there is no other single contributor to developmental disability where a greater opportunity, and imperative, exists to improve outcomes than CMV. CMV is the most common intrauterine infection and congenital CMV is the leading non-inherited cause of sensorineural deafness. The public health impact of CMV is significant: the overall birth prevalence of congenital CMV is estimated at 0.64%, with 11% of live born infants displaying symptoms.
There is evidence that a range of socio-environmental exposures is associated with an increased risk of psychosis. However, despite the fact that such factors probably combine in complex ways to increase risk, the majority of studies have tended to consider each exposure separately. In light of this, we sought to extend previous analyses of data from the AESOP (Aetiology and Ethnicity in Schizophrenia and Other Psychoses) study on childhood and adult markers of disadvantage to examine how they combine to increase risk of psychosis, testing both mediation (path) models and synergistic effects.
All patients with a first episode of psychosis who made contact with psychiatric services in defined catchment areas in London and Nottingham, UK (n = 390) and a series of community controls (n = 391) were included in the AESOP study. Data relating to clinical and social variables, including parental separation and loss, education and adult disadvantage, were collected from cases and controls.
There was evidence that the effect of separation from, but not death of, a parent in childhood on risk of psychosis was partially mediated through subsequent poor educational attainment (no qualifications), adult social disadvantage and, to a lesser degree, low self-esteem. In addition, there was strong evidence that separation from, but not death of, a parent combined synergistically with subsequent disadvantage to increase risk. These effects held for all ethnic groups in the sample.
Exposure to childhood and adult disadvantage may combine in complex ways to push some individuals along a predominantly sociodevelopmental pathway to psychosis.
Estimates of uncertainties are essential when comparing the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from a variety of sources. Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) was applied to estimate the uncertainties in methane emissions and the methane emission intensities from livestock in Canada, calculated using the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) methodology. National methane emissions from enteric fermentation and manure management in 2008 were 21·2 and 4·3 Teragram CO2 equivalents (Tg CO2e) with uncertainties of 38 and 73%, respectively. The methane emission intensities (kg of CO2e per kg of live animal weight) were 5·9, 0·9 and 4·9 from Canadian beef, swine and lamb, respectively, with overall uncertainties of 44, 99 and 101%, defined as the 95% confidence interval relative to the mean. A sensitivity analysis demonstrated that IPCC default parameters such as the methane conversion rate (Ym), the coefficient for calculating net energy for maintenance (Cfi) and the methane conversion factor (MCF) were the greatest sources of uncertainty. Canadian agricultural methane emissions are usually calculated by province and by animal subcategories. However, the IPCC default parameters can be assumed to be correlated among regions and animal subcategories; therefore values are assigned at the national scale for the main cattle categories (dairy and non-dairy cattle). When it was assumed that these parameters were uncorrelated at the regional scale, the overall uncertainties were reduced to 20 and 48% for enteric fermentation and manure management, respectively, and assuming that parameters were uncorrelated at the animal subcategory scale reduced uncertainties to 13 and 41% for enteric fermentation and manure management, respectively. When the uncertainty is assigned at the most disaggregated level, even doubling the uncertainty of key parameters such as Ym and Cfi, only increased the national uncertainties to 22 and 52% for enteric fermentation and manure management, respectively. The current analysis demonstrated the importance of obtaining parameters specific to regions and animal subcategories in order to estimate GHG emissions more accurately and to reduce the uncertainties in agricultural GHG inventories. It also showed that assumptions made in the calculation of uncertainties can have a large influence on the uncertainty estimates.
The material and spectroscopic properties of Cr-doped Ca5(PO4)3F (FAP) were investigated using several different chemical and physical means. From analytical titration measurements the chromium in Cr:FAP was found to be tetravalent. ESR measurements detected a trace (0.5 - 10 ppm) of Cr5+ (3d1) and no evidence for Cr3+ (3d3). The absorption and emission spectra of Cr: FAP can be interpreted on the basis of Cr4+ (3d2) ions substituting for P within a distorted tetrahedron of oxygen ions. Calculated electronic (Stark) levels for Cr4+ based on an approximate site symmetry of C4 agree well with levels deduced from an analysis of the experimental optical data. The model Hamiltonian includes Coulombic parameters B and C, interconfiguration interaction terms and the spin-orbit coupling for the 3d2 atomic configuration of Cr4+ and crystal-field terms in C4 symmetry. The parametrized Hamiltonian was diagonalized within the complete d2 configuration. Both free ion and crystal field parameters are presented.
We estimated the excess risk of in-patient hospitalization in a large cohort of persons diagnosed with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, controlling for social deprivation. A total of 20 749 individuals diagnosed with HCV in Scotland by 31 December 2006 were linked to the Scottish hospital discharge database, and indirectly standardized hospitalization rates, adjusting for sex, age, year and deprivation were calculated. We observed significant excess morbidity considering episodes for: any diagnosis [standardized morbidity ratio (SMR) 3·4, 95% CI 3·3–3·5]; liver-related diagnoses (SMR 41·3, 95% CI 39·6–43·0); and only non-liver-related diagnoses (SMR 2·14, 95% CI 2·08–2·19). Cox regression analyses of the 2000–2006 data indicated increased relative risks of hospitalization for males [hazard ratio (HR) 1·1, 95% CI 1·0–1·2], older age (per 10 years) (HR 1·55, 95% CI 1·5–1·6), and those testing HIV-positive (HR 1·6, 95% CI 1·3–1·8). This study has revealed substantial excess all-cause and liver-related morbidity in the Scottish HCV-diagnosed population, even after allowing for deprivation.
Radial haemolysis (RH) was used to test sera for immunity to rubella from 1317 patients attending a general practice. One hundred and forty-one (10·7%) were treated as susceptible and offered an attenuated virus vaccine (RA 27/3). Pre-immunization sera from 43% of these patients were reactive at low levels in RH (< 15 international units rubella antibody per ml).
Pre- (S1) and post- (S2) immunization sera from 66 vaccinees were studied in detail. Antibody was detected by RH, haemagglutination inhibition (HI) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and the specific IgM response was measured by a solid-phase M-antibody capture radioimmunoassay (MACRIA). The vaccine-induced IgM response was only detected if the S1 serum was non-reactive by all tests for rubella antibody. It was weaker than that seen following wild virus infection. It could be detected reliably for six weeks, and in most cases for nine weeks, after immunization. In contrast, patients with S1 specimens reactive by RH, HI or ELISA never showed an IgM response in the S2 specimen despite ‘significant’ antibody rises often being present.
It was considered that an IgM response to RA 27/3 was the best indicator of pre-immunization susceptibility to rubella. The failure of many vaccinees to make an IgM response implied that a significant proportion were already immune. It is suggested that the threshold for a report of immunity to rubella could be lowered from 15 i.u. antibody per ml and so fewer women immunized without vaccine being withheld from those who need it.
Childhood adversity has been associated with onset of psychosis in adulthood but these studies have used only general definitions of this environmental risk indicator. Therefore, we sought to explore the prevalence of more specific adverse childhood experiences amongst those with and without psychotic disorders using detailed assessments in a large epidemiological case-control sample (AESOP).
Data were collected on 182 first-presentation psychosis cases and 246 geographically matched controls in two UK centres. Information relating to the timing and frequency of exposure to different types of childhood adversity (neglect, antipathy, physical and sexual abuse, local authority care, disrupted living arrangements and lack of supportive figure) was obtained using the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Questionnaire.
Psychosis cases were three times more likely to report severe physical abuse from the mother that commenced prior to 12 years of age, even after adjustment for other significant forms of adversity and demographic confounders. A non-significant trend was also evident for greater prevalence of reported severe maternal antipathy amongst those with psychosis. Associations with maternal neglect and childhood sexual abuse disappeared after adjusting for maternal physical abuse and antipathy. Paternal maltreatment and other forms of adversity were not associated with psychosis nor was there evidence of a dose–response effect.
These findings suggest that only specific adverse childhood experiences are associated with psychotic disorders and only in a minority of cases. If replicated, this greater precision will ensure that research into the mechanisms underlying the pathway from childhood adversity to psychosis is more fruitful.
African-Caribbean and black African people living in the UK are reported to have a higher incidence of diagnosed psychosis compared with white British people. It has been argued that this may be a consequence of misdiagnosis. If this is true they might be less likely to show the patterns of structural brain abnormalities reported in white British patients. The aim of this study therefore was to investigate whether there are differences in the prevalence of structural brain abnormalities in white and black first-episode psychosis patients.
We obtained dual-echo (proton density/T2-weighted) images from a sample of 75 first-episode psychosis patients and 68 healthy controls. We used high resolution magnetic resonance imaging and voxel-based methods of image analysis. Two separate analyses were conducted: (1) 34 white British patients were compared with 33 white British controls; (2) 41 African-Caribbean and black African patients were compared with 35 African-Caribbean and black African controls.
White British patients and African-Caribbean/black African patients had ventricular enlargement and increased lenticular nucleus volume compared with their respective ethnic controls. The African-Caribbean/black African patients also showed reduced global grey matter and increased lingual gyrus grey-matter volume. The white British patients had no regional or global grey-matter loss compared with their normal ethnic counterparts but showed increased grey matter in the left superior temporal lobe and right parahippocampal gyrus.
We found no evidence in support of our hypothesis. Indeed, the finding of reduced global grey-matter volume in the African-Caribbean/black African patients but not in the white British patients was contrary to our prediction.
We describe a community outbreak of campylobacter enteritis associated with the consumption of untreated milk, apparently contaminated by two cows with campylobacter mastitis. The outbreak occurred in two phases. Strains of Campylobacter jejuni of the Penner serogroup complex 4, 13, 16, 50 and Preston biotype code 6100 were isolated from patients in both episodes and from the faeces of the cattle, milk filters, bulk milk and retail milk. Milk samples from two of 40 milking cows were found to contain C. jejuni, and the wheys from these two cows had high titres of antibody to C. jejuni detected by ELISA techniques.
We estimated the extent of undiagnosed hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in injecting drug users (IDUs) in Scotland. We used record-linkage to determine HCV diagnosis status for 41 062 current/former IDUs attending drug treatment and support services between 1 April 1995 and 31 March 2006; the extent of undiagnosed HCV infection was estimated by comparing the number HCV-diagnosed to the number HCV-infected (estimated from an unlinked anonymous testing survey of 2141 current/former IDUs). In all, 9145 IDUs (22%) were diagnosed HCV antibody-positive since first attendance at drug services (diagnosis rate of 33·6/1000 person-years, 95% CI 32·7–34·4). By 31 March 2006, of the 19 632 current/former IDUs who had attended drug services and were determined to be living with HCV, an estimated 58% (95% CI 45–62) had not been HCV-diagnosed. It is essential that the deployment of resources for identifying at-risk IDUs with a view to offering antiviral therapy is guided by evidence.
We have assessed the effectiveness of flexible-film negative-pressure isolators by physical and biological means. We have found that they afford a high degree of containment and therefore also of safety to hospital staff. We offer some recommendations on the operation of these isolators to ensure the optimum degree of protection.
A large outbreak of Legionnaires’ disease was associated with Stafford District General Hospital. A total of 68 confirmed cases was treated in hospital and 22 of these patients died. A further 35 patients, 14 of whom were treated at home, were suspected cases of Legionnaires’ disease. All these patients had visited the hospital during April 1985. Epidemiological investigations demonstrated that there had been a high risk of acquiring the disease in the out patient department (OPD), but no risk in other parts of the hospital. The epidemic strain of Legionella pneumophila, serogroup 1, subgroup Pontiac la was isolated from the cooling water system of one of the air conditioning plants. This plant served several departments of the hospital including the OPD. The water in the cooling tower and a chiller unit which cooled the air entering the OPD were contaminated with legionellae. Bacteriological and engineering investigations showed how the chiller unit could have been contaminated and how an aerosol containing legionellae could have been generated in the U–trap below the chiller unit. These results, together with the epidemiological evidence, suggest that the chiller unit was most likely to have been the major source of the outbreak.
Nearly one third of hospital staff had legionella antibodies. These staff were likely to have worked in areas of the hospital ventilated by the contaminated air conditioning plant, but not necessarily the OPD. There was evidence that a small proportion of these staff had a mild legionellosis and that these ‘influenza–like’ illnesses had been spread over a 5–month period. A possible explanation of this finding is that small amounts of aerosol from cooling tower sources could have entered the air–intake and been distributed throughout the areas of the hospital served by this ventilation system. Legionellae, subsequently found to be of the epidemic strain, had been found in the cooling tower pond in November 1984 and thus it is possible that staff were exposed to low doses of contaminated aerosol over several months.
Control measures are described, but it was later apparent that the outbreak had ended before these interventions were introduced. The investigations revealed faults in the design of the ventilation system.
The aim of this study was to determine the extent to which selective under-coverage of births to mothers more likely to be at risk of HIV-1 infection will result in a significant underestimation of the true neonatal seroprevalence. Census data, local birth statisties, maternity data and data from the prevalence monitoring programme were used to produce a model to predict the effects of under-coverage in the uptake of neonatal metabolic screening which has been observed in babies with a mother of ethnic group black African. The adjustment factor which allows for under-coverage is the relative inclusion ratio (RIR); the probability that samples from a group at different risk of HIV infection were included in the survey divided by the probability of inclusion for samples from all other babies. The RIR was found to be close to unity (0·97), indicating a minimal bias. Under usual conditions only if the relative inclusion ratio (RIR) declined to values of 0·87 or below would there be a substantial bias. Despite some selective under representation, the results obtained from the Unlinked Anonymous HIV Monitoring Programme Dried Blood Spot Survey would seem to identity levels of prevalence in the population of child-bearing women with a good degree of accuracy and remains a useful tool for resource allocation, planning of services, provision of care and counselling.