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To determine whether exposure to child-targeted fast-food (FF) television (TV) advertising is associated with children’s FF intake in a non-experimental setting.
Cross-sectional survey conducted April–December 2013. Parents reported their pre-school child’s TV viewing time, channels watched and past-week FF consumption. Responses were combined with a list of FF commercials (ads) aired on children’s TV channels during the same period to calculate children’s exposure to child-targeted TV ads for the following chain FF restaurants: McDonald’s, Subway and Wendy’s (MSW).
Paediatric and Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) clinics in New Hampshire, USA.
Parents (n 548) with a child of pre-school age.
Children’s mean age was 4·4 years; 43·2 % ate MSW in the past week. Among the 40·8 % exposed to MSW ads, 23·3 % had low, 34·2 % moderate and 42·5 % high exposure. McDonald’s accounted for over 70 % of children’s MSW ad exposure and consumption. Children’s MSW consumption was significantly associated with their ad exposure, but not overall TV viewing time. After adjusting for demographics, socio-economic status and other screen time, moderate MSW ad exposure was associated with a 31 % (95 % CI 1·12, 1·53) increase and high MSW ad exposure with a 26 % (95 % CI 1·13, 1·41) increase in the likelihood of consuming MSW in the past week. Further adjustment for parent FF consumption did not change the findings substantially.
Exposure to child-targeted FF TV advertising is positively associated with FF consumption among children of pre-school age, highlighting the vulnerability of young children to persuasive advertising and supporting recommendations to limit child-directed FF marketing.
We studied the effect of a cross-conjugated bridging group (χC) on charge-transfer in a push-pull chromophore system. The hyperpolarizability of such molecules was found to be comparable to that of a fully π-conjugated molecule (πC) with the same donor and acceptor. The cross-conjugated moiety was then applied as a pendant to a fully π-conjugated chromophore containing a tricyanopyrroline acceptor (TCP). The addition of a χC moiety did not alter the intrinsic hyperpolarizability and provides an avenue for extending and aiding πC systems. The molecules were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), hyper-Raleigh scattering (HRS) and UV-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy. Experimental results were compared with the predictions of density functional theory (DFT). Cross-conjugated molecules have comparable β values, relative to πC molecules, due to reduced spatial overlap between the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO). Thus, the χC architecture could facilitate independent modification of donor and acceptor strengths while minimizing unfavorable effects on electronic transitions and dipole moments.
Extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation may be defined as the use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for the support of patients who do not respond to conventional cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Data from national and international paediatric databases indicate that the use of extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation is increasing. Guidelines from the American Heart Association suggest that any patient with refractory cardiopulmonary resuscitation and potentially reversible causes of cardiac arrest is a candidate for extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation. One possible framework for selection of patients for extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation includes dividing patients on the basis of favourable or unfavourable characteristics. Favourable characteristics include cardiac disease, witnessed event in the intensive care unit, ability to deliver effective cardiopulmonary resuscitation, active patient monitoring present, favourable arterial blood gases, and early institution of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Unfavourable characteristics potentially include non-cardiac disease, an unwitnessed cardiac arrest, ineffective cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and severely acidotic arterial blood gases. Considering the significant resources and cost involved in the use of extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation, its use needs to be critically examined to improve outcomes, assess neurological recovery and quality of life, and help identify populations and other factors that may help guide in the selection of patients for successful extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation.
The use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in infants and children with cardiac disease who develop refractory cardiogenic shock, cyanosis, or cardiac arrest is increasing. Early mortality in children with cardiac disease who require extracorporeal membrane oxygenation remains an important issue, as only 40% of cannulated patients survive to discharge from the hospital. However, it is encouraging that 90% children who are discharged alive from the hospital after extracorporeal membrane oxygenation are still alive at intermediate-term follow-up. Surviving patients are at risk for long-term dysfunction of multiple organ systems related to their underlying cardiac disease, non-cardiac comorbidities, treatment-related complications, and exposure to extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Among the most important acute complications related to support with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation is injury to the central nervous system, which may contribute to adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. All of these factors, in turn, influence quality of life. Many survivors remain medically complex related to their underlying cardiac disease, comorbidities, and sequelae of complications acquired over their lifetime. Neurological morbidity clearly plays an important role in approximately one-third of survivors, with significant deficits in approximately 10%. The limited data about quality of life data that are available for survivors of cardiac extracorporeal membrane oxygenation suggests that approximately 15–30% of survivors have at least moderately decreased quality of life. Overall, published data support the ongoing use of support with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in children with acute cardiac failure, most of whom would die without it. However, programmatic efforts to improve the selection of patients and the preservation of the function of end organs during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation are clearly needed in order to improve long-term outcomes.
This graceful crozier-head (pi. xxxvn, fig. 1) was found in December 1838 in a stone coffin containing an imperfect skeleton, on ground to the north-east of the cloisters supposed to have been the cemetery of the Abbey.
It is of latten, and cast hollow, as may be seen in a damaged part on one side of the volute. The stem is eight-sided; in place of a socket at the base, it has a tang driven into the top of the wooden staff, a short piece of which is preserved; above the tang is a moulding. In respect of the octagonal crosssection and the use of a tang in place of a socket, this example recalls the larger of those found at St. Davids (Archaeologia, lx, pl. LIII). Over the wood of the staff is passed a detached latten knop, above which is twisted a narrow band of metal to prevent splitting.2 The metal has been gilded. The two holes in the leaf may possibly have been filled by beads of coloured glass, or originally left empty as they now are.
During airway surgery, the anaesthetist may be required to manipulate or withdraw the endotracheal tube. Traditional surgical head drapes often make access to the tube difficult, therefore limiting control of the airway and risking de-sterilisation of the surgical field. We report a new method of draping for major neck operations that permits easy access to the endotracheal tube while maintaining sterility of the operative field.
New polymers incorporating a variety of electroactive moeities with defined π-electron conjugation lengths have been synthesized and characterized by degenerate four wave mixing (DFWM) techniques. The χ(3)/α values for these materials varied from 10−12 to 10−13 esu cm. This work has identified several promising structures with nonlinear optical activity including organometallic and purely organic materials. The preparation of composite materials has also permitted the measurement of χ(3)/α as a function of the electroactive unit concentration.
A series of new stable fiinctionalised aryl ethynyl compounds bearing nitronyl-nitroxy and galvinoxyl radicals were synthesised as potential organic magnets with optical properties. Our goal is to construct biradicals in linear or broken rod molecules with the aim of probing i) the efficiency of the conjugation for the intramolecular spin exchange, and / or ii) the inter-Molecular Magnetic interaction between the neighboring radicals in the solid state Materials.
We focused our attention on the preparation of phenoxy, and galvinoxyl biradicals of the conjugated phenyl and thienyl diethynyl Moieties. The synthesis of these new components will be presented. Their optical and magnetic properties will be discussed both in solution and in the solid state.
We have synthesized a new second-order NLO compound containing both the highly active tricyanovinyl electron acceptor group and appropriate funtionality for covalent bonding to an inorganic silica matrix by sol-gel processing. Sub-Micron films of this material can be prepared by spin-coating, and thicker films can be prepared by casting or by spinning multiple layers. After curing at 150 °C, these films exhibit good chemical durability. The chromophores can be aligned by either corona or parallel-plate poling during the curing process. In this paper we will discuss the synthesis of the NLO compounds; sol-gel processing and thin-film preparation; optical, thermal, and chemical properties of the films; and the results of both corona and parallel-plate poling experiments.
Recent advances in processing of polyaniline and polyacetylene have resulted in a new generation of conducting polymers with higher dc conductivities. We present the temperature (T) dependent microwave frequency dielectric constant, dc conductivity, and Kramers-Kronig analysis of conducting polyaniline and polyacetylene. The low temperature dielectric constant, ε, increases with the square of the x-ray crystalline domain length for preparations of HCl protonated polyaniline. For the highest crystalline polyaniline samples, ε increases dramatically with increasing T, supporting formation of three-dimensional (3-D) coupled “mesoscopic” Metallic regions. A “metallic” negative ε is observed for d,1-camphor sulfonie acid doped polyaniline prepared in m-cresol. Optical studies show a linear increase in reflectivity below 7000 cm-1. Below 600 cm-1 the reflectance increases rapidly. Kramers-Kronig analysis of the ir-visible results are presented. Highly conducting polyaniline is shown to have two plasma frequencies, one at ∼ 1.1 eV involving all the conduction band electrons, and one at ∼0.015 eV (120 cm-1) that is suggested to arise from the most delocalized electrons. The concept of inhomogeneous disorder is introduced. The results for polyaniline are compared to those of highly doped polyacetylene which also show metallic negative ε demonstrating the intrinsic metallic nature of the new generation of conducting polymers.
We have chosen the name of GYES, one of the mythological giants with one hundred arms,
offspring of Gaia and Uranus, for our instrument study of a multifibre spectrograph for
the prime focus of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. Such an instrument could provide an
excellent ground-based complement for the Gaia mission and a northern complement to the
HERMES project on the AAT. The CFHT is well known for providing a stable prime focus
environment, with a large field of view, which has hosted several imaging instruments, but
has never hosted a multifibre spectrograph. Building upon the experience gained at GÉPI
with FLAMES-Giraffe and X-Shooter, we are investigating the feasibility of a high
multiplex spectrograph (about 500 fibres) over a field of view one degree in diameter. We
are investigating an instrument with resolution in the range 15 000 to 30 000, which
should provide accurate chemical abundances for stars down to 16th magnitude and radial
velocities, accurate to 1 km s-1 for fainter stars. The study is led by
GÉPI-Observatoire de Paris with a contribution from Oxford for the study of the
positioner. The financing for the study comes from INSU CSAA and Observatoire de Paris.
The conceptual study will be delivered to CFHT for review by October 1st 2010.
A ∼13% increase in the absorption coefficient is seen by a weak probe beam to build-up exponentially in ∼50 ps and decay in ∼1.4 ns after a ∼30 ps intense pump pulse (∼220 mJ/cm2 ) at 532 nm goes through a bis-benzothiazole/H2SO4 solution. We propose a three-level model to explain the effect and obtain the basic parameters by fitting our data to the model.
We provide experimental evidence of a transition from thermally activated hopping of small polarons to band transport of delocalized polarons in polycrystalline oligothiophene fieldeffect transistors. We demonstrate that these transport mechanisms are intrinsic, i.e. governed by material-specific parameters such as the electronic overlap integral and the polaron binding energy. At high temperatures the field-effect mobility decreases with decreasing temperature and the transport mechanism is thermally activated hopping. Below a critical temperature Tτ, the field-effect mobility abruptly increases by more than two orders of magnitude and the transport becomes band-like. This behavior is consistent with the theory T. Holstein developed in 1959 for small polaron transport.
We have demonstrated a 3 to 13 times increase in the effective electro-optic (EO) coefficient of electrode poled nonlinear optical polymers using a conductive polymer cladding, compared to using passive polymer claddings. We have also demonstrated the lowest poling voltage to date, 300 V, for a 2 μm thick NLO polymer film. Since the cladding material is more conductive than the core material, the majority of the applied poling voltage is dropped across the core, realizing a higher EO coefficient than for conventional devices using passive polymer claddings and has the potential for in-situ poling. These results show promise for shorter, lower operating voltage devices.
We report the application of the blue light emitting conjugated polymer m-LPPP (methyl substituted laddertype poly(paraphenylene) ) in light emitting electrochemical cells. The active layer of the LEC consists of a blend of m-LPPP with the ionically conductive polymer PEO and LiCF3SO3 as ionic salt. Investigations of different concentrations of PEO and salt showed that the best LECs made of m-LPPP up to now where realised with an active layer consisting of a blend of m-LPPP:PEO:salt in the range of 20:10:3. In this case we are able to realise LECs with response times in the range of 30 μs. The I/U characteristics show low turn on voltages both for current and electroluminescence, but only in the case of ITO biased as a cathode. The initial electroluminescence spectra are quite the same as those for LEDs made of m-LPPP but turn into green after some time of operation.
Thin films of self-assembled supramolecular grid structures were prepared by electrochemical deposition. The surface structure of the films was determined by electrochemical insitu scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), revealing ordered monolayers of the grid molecules on a Au( 111) surface. The electronic structure of the films was studied by photoelectron spectroscopy. The thin films show semiconducting behavior with an insulating gap of ca. 2.5 eV. The size of insulating gap can be reduced to 0.5 eV by doping the films with additional Cd2+ ions, which is in agreement with molecular orbital calculations. Additionally, conductivity measurements were performed. By doping of the thin films, their conductivity could be increased by several orders of magnitude. This is due to additional electronic states in the insulating HOMO-LUMO gap, which is confirmed by UPS measurements.
N-(3-nitrobenzylidene)-p-phenylenediamine (NBPDA) was used as ultrahigh density data storage medium by scanning tunneling microscope (STM) technique. Data marks of 1.4nm in diameter were written by applying voltage pulses between the STM tip and the substrate. Structures of single crystal and thin films were characterized by IR, UV–Vis, XRD, STM and verified by DFT quantum chemical calculation.
We report a study of the electrical and optical properties of thin films of tetraanilinobenzene (TAB) and polyaniline (PANI) deposited using the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB), layer-by-layer selfassembly and vacuum-evaporation techniques. The paper will mainly concentrate on TAB LB films, but also results for other films are presented for comparison. The optical studies of undoped TAB LB films indicate H-aggregates. Upon doping new polaronic absorption bands appear and the photoluminescence of TAB becomes quenched. Doped LB and self-assembled films can reach conductivities up to about 10−4/cm for TAB and a few S/cm for PANT. The conductivity has a temperature dependence logσ α T−1/2, suggesting variable-range hopping in a quasi-gap, possibly due to the Coulomb interactions between localized carriers.
We demonstrate that polyaniline (PANI) dissolved in dodecyl benzene sulphonic acid (DBSA) shows thermoreversible gelation. The dissolution has been performed in formic acid which allows particle-free complexes according to optical microscopy. Below the gelation temperature the materials are rubber-elastic in compression experiments, the storage modulus G' does not essentially depend on frequency, and the samples are electronically conductive. Above the gelation temperature, G' indicates flow-like behavior and drastically lower ionic conductivity is observed. These results suggest reversible, i.e. fusible, network formation. The properties are compared with gels consisting of camphor sulphonic acid (CSA) doped PANI dissolved in m-cresol which are poorly thermoreversible.
This contribution describes the use of layer-by-layer self-limiting siloxane chemisorption processes to self-assemble structurally regular multilayer organic LED (OLED) devices. Topics discussed include: 1) the synthesis of silyl-functionalized precursor molecules for hole transport layer (HTL), emissive layer (EML), and electron transport layer (ETL) self-assembly, 2) the use of layer-by-layer self-assembly for ITO electrode modification/passivation/hole-electron balancing in a vapor-deposited device, 3) the microstructure/chemical characterization of HTL self-assembly using a prototype triarylamine precursor, 4) fabrication and properties of a hybrid self-assembled + vapor deposited two-layer LED, 4) fabrication and properties of a fully self-assembled two-layer OLED.