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Food security status is a continuum ranging from high to very low food security. While marginal food security falls next to high food security on the spectrum, new quantitative research indicates marginal food security status is associated with negative health outcomes and poor academic performance among college students. Qualitative research focusing on college students experiencing marginal food security has not been conducted. The current study aims to qualitatively explore experiences of college students with marginal food security and to identify themes to better understand and provide context regarding how marginal food security impacts students.
Students were recruited for semi-structured interviews with questions designed to study the challenges associated with students’ food situations. All interviews were recorded and transcribed with themes identified via an inductive approach.
A large public university on the US west coast.
Thirty college students.
Key themes that emerged: purchasing cheap unhealthy foods, insufficient time to prepare and eat meals on a regular basis, stress and anxiety around the inability to eat healthy food and future health issues, self-perception of health when eating poorly along with physical symptoms and low academic motivation by not fully participating in their courses due to few healthy food options or missing meals.
Marginal food security can potentially diminish students’ health and their capacity to learn and succeed in their coursework. The results emphasise that students experiencing marginal food security should not be grouped with students experiencing high food security.
ABSTRACT IMPACT: Despite its importance in systemic diseases such as diabetes, the eye is notably difficult to examine for non-specialists; this study introduces a fully automated approach for eye disease screening, coupling a deep learning algorithm with a robotically-aligned optical coherence tomography system to improve eye care in non-ophthalmology settings. OBJECTIVES/GOALS: This study aims to develop and test a deep learning (DL) method to classify images acquired from a robotically-aligned optical coherence tomography (OCT) system as normal vs. abnormal. The long-term goal of our study is to integrate artificial intelligence and robotic eye imaging to fully automate eye disease screening in diverse clinical settings. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Between August and October 2020, patients seen at the Duke Eye Center and healthy volunteers (age ≥18) were imaged with a custom, robotically-aligned OCT (RAOCT) system following routine eye exam. Using transfer learning, we adapted a preexisting convolutional neural network to train a DL algorithm to classify OCT images as normal vs. abnormal. The model was trained and validated on two publicly available OCT datasets and two of our own RAOCT volumes. For external testing, the top-performing model based on validation was applied to a representative averaged B-scan from each of the remaining RAOCT volumes. The model’s performance was evaluated against a reference standard of clinical diagnoses by retina specialists. Saliency maps were created to visualize the areas contributing most to the model predictions. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: The training and validation datasets included 87,697 OCT images, of which 59,743 were abnormal. The top-performing DL model had a training accuracy of 96% and a validation accuracy of 99%. For external testing, 43 eyes of 27 subjects were imaged with the robotically-aligned OCT system. Compared to clinical diagnoses, the model correctly labeled 18 out of 22 normal averaged B-scans and 18 out of 21 abnormal averaged B-scans. Overall, in the testing set, the model had an AUC for the detection of pathology of 0.92, an accuracy of 84%, a sensitivity of 86%, and a specificity of 82%. For the correctly predicted scans, saliency maps identified the areas contributing most to the DL algorithm’s predictions, which matched the regions of greatest clinical importance. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS: This is the first study to develop and apply a DL model to images acquired from a self-aligning OCT system, demonstrating the potential of integrating DL and robotic eye imaging to automate eye disease screening. We are working to translate this technology for use in emergency departments and primary care, where it will have the greatest impact.
Compulsory admission procedures of patients with mental disorders vary between countries in Europe. The Ethics Committee of the European Psychiatric Association (EPA) launched a survey on involuntary admission procedures of patients with mental disorders in 40 countries to gather information from all National Psychiatric Associations that are members of the EPA to develop recommendations for improving involuntary admission processes and promote voluntary care.
The survey focused on legislation of involuntary admissions and key actors involved in the admission procedure as well as most common reasons for involuntary admissions.
We analyzed the survey categorical data in themes, which highlight that both medical and legal actors are involved in involuntary admission procedures.
We conclude that legal reasons for compulsory admission should be reworded in order to remove stigmatization of the patient, that raising awareness about involuntary admission procedures and patient rights with both patients and family advocacy groups is paramount, that communication about procedures should be widely available in lay-language for the general population, and that training sessions and guidance should be available for legal and medical practitioners. Finally, people working in the field need to be constantly aware about the ethical challenges surrounding compulsory admissions.
During the COVID-19 pandemic, the antimicrobial stewardship module in our electronic medical record was reconfigured for the management of COVID-19 patients. This change allowed our subspecialist providers to review charts quickly to optimize potential therapy and management during the patient surge.
One hypothesis proposed to underlie formal thought disorder (FTD), the incoherent speech is seen in some patients with schizophrenia, is that it reflects impairment in frontal/executive function. While this proposal has received support in neuropsychological studies, it has been relatively little tested using functional imaging. This study aimed to examine brain activations associated with FTD, and its two main factor-analytically derived subsyndromes, during the performance of a working memory task.
Seventy patients with schizophrenia showing a full range of FTD scores and 70 matched healthy controls underwent fMRI during the performance of the 2-back version of the n-back task. Whole-brain corrected, voxel-based correlations with FTD scores were examined in the patient group.
During 2-back performance the patients showed clusters of significant inverse correlation with FTD scores in the inferior frontal cortex and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex bilaterally, the left temporal cortex and subcortically in the basal ganglia and thalamus. Further analysis revealed that these correlations reflected an association only with ‘alogia’ (poverty of speech, poverty of content of speech and perseveration) and not with the ‘fluent disorganization’ component of FTD.
This study provides functional imaging support for the view that FTD in schizophrenia may involve impaired executive/frontal function. However, the relationship appears to be exclusively with alogia and not with the variables contributing to fluent disorganization.
Functional brain activity has been only studied marginally in schizoaffective disorder (SAD), a disorder whose nosological status is controversial. The present study investigated the prefrontal cortex (PFC) activity of schizomanic patients during performance of a working memory task.
13 schizoaffective patients, with current schizomanic episode (Young> 18); and 26 sex- and age-matched healthy controls underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while performing baseline, 1-back and 2-back versions of the n-back task. Linear models were used to obtain maps of activations and deactivations in the groups.
During performance of the n-back task, controls showed activation in a cluster of frontal areas and de-activation in the medial orbitofrontal and anterior cingulate cortex. The SAD patients showed significantly less activation in prefrontal areas than the controls. They also showed a marked failure to de-activate in medial frontal cortex. The SAD patients’ impaired task performance was associated with both reduced activation of the dorsolateral PFC and reduced de-activation of the medial frontal areas.
Schizomanic patients show failure of activation in a network of cortical regions, and also a failure to de-activate the ventromedial PFC and anterior cingulate cortex. This latter area corresponds to the one of the components of the 'default mode network´. This pattern of abnormality is similar to that found by our group to characterise schizophrenia (failure to activate and failure to de-activate), but different from that which characterises manic patients (failure to de-activate only).
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurobehavioral disorder, characterized by developmentally inappropriate levels of overactivity, inattention and impulsivity. Measuring inattention is a controversial question in ADHD diagnosis. Eye movement could provide a method to assess distractibility. Several studies have related visual attention and perceptual dominance in binocular rivalry.
To assess visual attention through the measurement of fixations in a binocular rivalry task in ADHD children and control groups.
We proposed a task for the assessment of distractibility and to enhance the diagnosis of attention disorders.
Forty children, 20 with ADHD-combined type and 20 controls, matched by gender, age and intelligence, were tested with a binocular rivalry task (i.e. an anaglyph image) with an exogenous distractor appearing regularly. The stimulus was divided in four Areas of Interest (AOI). Measurements of duration of the periods of exclusive dominance, perceptual alternations in dominance / suppression and fixations were taken by an eye tracker and a response box. Analysis of Variance was used to test differences between ADHD and control groups.
Significant differences between ADHD and control groups were found in dwells at the main AOI. Also, significant differences between groups in “Fixation over alternations ratio” were found.
ADHD participants looked at the relevant region (AOI_1) for a shorter time than the control group; they also looked at the no demanded regions (AOI_2, AOI_3, AOI_4) longer than the control group. Moreover, the ratio fixations/alternations were greater for the control group than the ADHD group.
The underlying genetic heterogeneity in Bipolar Disorder (BD) has led to the search of potential markers associated with subtypes of the disorder; as such, age at onset (AAO) could be considered as a factor that defines more genetically homogeneous subgroups.
To analyze the modal distribution of a BD population according to the AAO of the disorder, as well as the clinical characteristics related to the distribution findings.
357 patients with a BD diagnosis were included in the study. AAO was defined as the age when the patient first met DSM-IV criteria for a major mood episode. Using an admixture analysis, patients were distributed among different parameters; and parametric analyses were conducted in order to compare the demographic and clinical characteristics between groups.
The model that best fit the observed distribution was a mixture of three Gaussian distributions (mean ± SD): 17±3.7 years, 26±8.8 years, and 35.5±12.54 years. Statistically significant differences were found with respect to social status, course of illness, suicidal behavior, rapid cycling, medical co-morbidities and lithium response (p<0.05).
Our results support the existence of a tri-modal distribution in BD defined by AAO, each one with different clinical characteristics; and suggest that early-onset and late-onset BD reflect an underlying genetic heterogeneity in bipolar disorder, being early-onset BD implicitly a more serious subtype of disorder.
Improving adherence in the early stages of illness by means of long-acting antipsychotics can lead to reduced number of readmissions and enhanced remission rates, which could lead to improved performance in the medium-long term.
Assessing clinical remission, number of admissions and personal and social performance in recent-onset schizophrenic patients undergoing LAIR.
Longitudinal retrospective study of a cohort of thirty-one recent-onset schizophrenic patients ( ≤ 2 years) who started LAIR treatment between 2004–2008. Twenty-six (83.9%) were treated for two years. PANSS scale was assessed at baseline; PANSS, Personal and Social Performance scale (PSP) and remission criteria after two years.
Twenty-six patients (83.9%), 61.5% male aged between 16–44 years old, completed two years of treatment. All patients met criteria for schizophrenia (DSM-IV) with an average duration of 0.8 year since diagnosis. The main reason to using LAIR was poor adherence (76.9%). The PANSS total and all its subscale scores improved significantly (p < 0.005) with 80.8% of patients showing a ≥ 50% improvement on the PANSS total. Seventeen patients (65.4%) achieved remission criteria. Five patients (19.2%) were admitted during the follow-up. The average on global functioning (PSP) was 72.4 (IC 95%, 66.4-78.4). LAIR doses at baseline were 25 mg (46.2%), 37.5 mg (30.8%) or 50 mg (23.1%); after two years, 25 mg (34.6%), 37.5 mg (34.6%), 50 mg (23.1%) or 75 mg (7.7%).
Despite the limitation of retrospective observational studies, our data, including the good adherence rate (83.9%), suggest that LAIR could be effective in the treatment of recent-onset schizophrenia.
Apathy and depression are the two most frequent neuropsychiatric symptoms in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and related disorders. Whereas neuroimaging studies have shown different neural pathways for these two symptoms, a clinical overlap between apathy and depression is frequently described.
To describe the prevalence of apathy and depression among elderly subjects with or without dementia criteria using specific diagnostic criteria for apathy and depression.
Subjects from an ongoing cross-sectional study were recruited in 4 centers (France, Indonesia, Spain, Argentina). Apathy and depression were assessed using the diagnostic criteria for apathy and for depression. Additionally, the apathy and dysphoria domains of the NPI-C (Neuropsychiatric Inventory-Clinician), as well as the 12 domains of the original NPI (Neuropsychiatric Inventory) were assessed.
431 subjects (mean age=74.6 ± 10.4 ; gender=♂ 29%) were recruited (France=100, Spain=90, Indonesia=182, Argentina=79). Among them, 25% were healthy elderly subjects, 9% had a diagnosis of MCI (Mild Cognitive Impairment), 46% had a diagnosis of dementia (including AD, Lewy body, vascular, mixed and fronto-temporal dementia). In the overall population, the prevalence of apathy and depression were respectively 41% and 25%. More specifically, the prevalence of apathy and depression in the AD sample were 67% and 25%.
Diagnostic criteria for apathy and depression, as well as the NPI-C, are recent assessment methods in the field of dementia, developed to increase the accuracy of the clinical evaluation of BPSD. It is therefore critical to propose multicenter observational studies comparing these new tools with classical assessment methods.
Previous studies suggest a relationship between decreased serum cholesterollevels and impulsive/aggressive behaviors ; howeverwe found just one study in the literature based in eating disorder .
To investigate the potentialrelationship between lipid profile (cholesterol, HDL, LDL, triglycerides) andmeasures of impulsivity, aggression or suicidal behavior in a sample of nevertreated patient whit Eating disorder and healthy controls.
The first episode of eatingdisorders group consisted of 199 (age range 14-60) subjects included in DETECTAprogram of Cantabria, Spain, from 2011 to 2013. Other group of 199healthy controls were initially recruited from the community and matched by ageand gender. Socio-demographic information was collected for each subject. Clinicalcharacteristics were ascertained either from clinical charts or by directquestioning the study participants. Lifetime diagnosis of impulse control wasassessed with questionnaires developed ad hoc. Impulsivity was evaluated using self-administered questionnaires, EatingDisorder Inventory and Cloninger's Temperament and Character Inventory.
Differences found betweensubgroups did not differ from those shown in the literature, with higher levelsof impulsivity in the group of Bulimia. However in the partial correlation we did not find a relationship betweencholesterol levels and Impulsivity. We neither found this relationshipbetween suicide attempts, pathological gambling, compulsive buying disorder, self-harm or kleptomania.
Although the biological mechanism between plasma hypocholesterolemia andimpulsive behavior has not been fully elucidated this relationship has beenestablished in others pathologies , howeverin eating disorders so far, this theory has not been proved.
The use of second-generation antipsychotic (SGA) treatments in psychosis has been associated with metabolic changes. However, there are differences in metabolic profile between SGAs. In a previous study conducted in our sample of first episode psychosis patients, we observed that the ziprasidone had a more benign metabolic profile compare to aripiprazole and quetiapine, at short-term (12 weeks). However, to detect clinically-relevant impairment in metabolic parameters a long-term follow-up is preferred.
The aim of this study was to investigate if the differentiated metabolic profile of aripiprazole, ziprasidone and quetiapine observed at short-term is maintained after 1 year of treatment in a sample of drug-naïve patients with a first episode of psychosis.
One hundred and sixty-eight, drug-naïve patients, suffering from a non-affective first episode of psychosis, were included in the present study. Patients were randomly assigned to receive quetiapine, ziprasidone or aripiprazole. Weight and glucemic/lipid parameters were recorded at baseline and after 1 year of treatment. Other clinical and socio-demographic variables were recorded to eliminate potential confounding effects.
No significant differences between antipsychotic groups (all F < 2.61; P > 0.05) were found in any of the metabolic parameters studied after one year of treatment.
Despite the metabolic profile differences observed at short-term in our previous studies, we did not find significant differences in the metabolic and weight parameters studied between treatment groups after one year of treatment, concluding that they present similar metabolic profiles at long-term. Other clinical individual interventions (e.g.: diet, exercise), not here controlled, may have influenced possible differences in long-term metabolic outcomes.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
There is growing evidence indicating that the use of second-generation antipsychotic (SGA) treatments in psychosis is related to potential metabolic side effects. Previous studies have shown clear metabolic side effects at short-term (12 weeks). However, to detect clinically-relevant impairment in metabolic parameters a long-term follow-up is preferred.
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of aripiprazole, ziprasidone and quetiapine on metabolic measures in medication-naïve first episode psychosis patients after 1 year of treatment.
One hundred and sixty-eight, drug-naïve patients, suffering from a non-affective first episode of psychosis, were included in the present study. Patients were randomly assigned to quetiapine, ziprasidone or aripiprazole treatment lines. Weight and glucemic/lipid parameters were recorded at baseline and after 1 year of treatment. Other clinical and socio-demographic variables were recorded to eliminate potential confounding effects.
Weight (t = −10.85; P < 0.001), BMI (t = −11.38; P < 0.001), total cholesterol (t = −5.37; P < 0.001), LDL-cholesterol (t = −5.21; P < 0.001), triglycerides (t = −5.18; P < 0.001) and the triglyceride/HDL insulin resistance index (t = −4.09; P < 0.001), showed statistically significant increments after 1 year of treatment.
Moreover, on comparing the percentage of patients with pathological levels before and 1 year after the antipsychotic treatment, we detected higher percentages of patients with obesity (5.1% vs. 15.3%; P < 0.001), hypercholesterolemia (23.2% vs. 39.6%; P < 0.001) and hypertriglyceridemia (5.8% vs. 14.2%; P = 0.021) after 1 year of treatment.
The primary exposure to SGAs during the first year of psychosis was associated with significant increments in weight and metabolic parameters leading to a significant increment in the proportion of obesity, hypertriglyceridemia and hypercholesterolemia in our sample.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Psychiatric patients tend to have severe metabolic alterations of multifactorial causes, lifestyle, diet, drug use and psychopharmacological treatment, especially antipsychotic drugs which act as risk factors for cardiovascular disease, strokes, infections and complications of diseases basal negatively influencing its evolution and prognosis.
Rating the profile lipid and the prevalence of obesity in patients registered as disorder mental severe in treatment with antipsychotics.
A descriptive study was performed taking as variables to take into account levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, weight and size.
Of the 28 patients included in the study 7 refused to perform the corresponding measurements. Of the 21 remaining, 3 showed values higher than 150 mg/dl triglycerides and cholesterol figures higher than 200 mg/dl. Other 3 patients presented hypercholesterolemia without alteration of triglycerides and 2 hypertriglyceridemia without elevation of the cholesterol. Concerning the IMC, found that 7 patients presented overweight (BMI > 25 and < 30) and 5 patients obesity (BMI > 30). Of the 8 patients with lipid disorders, 2 had prescribed treatment with risperidone (oral or injectable) more quetiapine, 2 oral risperidone as monotherapy, risperidone1 more amisulpride, 1 quetiapine more aripiprazole, quetiapine 1 in monotherapyand 1 injection invega more oxcarbamacepina.
We found lipid alterations in a 38.1% of patients and a BMI greater than 25 in a 57.14% of 21 patients who agreed to the study. The most prescribed antipsychoticamong these patients were risperidone (5 patients) followed closely by quetiapine (4 patients).
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
There is substantial evidence suggesting that individual variability in antipsychotic treatment response could be genetically determined. Disrupted-in-Schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) gene has been previously associated to the illness and to treatment response in a sample of patients suffering from psychosis. However, there is a lack of studies on the effect of DISC1 on treatment response in samples of first episode psychosis.
The aim of this study was to explore the relation between variations in DISC1 gene and treatment response to antipsychotics in a sample of drug-naïve patients with a first episode of psychosis.
Two hundred and twenty Caucasian drug-naive patients experiencing a first episode of non-affective psychosis were genotyped for rs821616 (Ser704Cys), rs6675281 (Leu607Phe) and rs1000731. Early (6 weeks) response to antipsychotic treatment was assessed with the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, the Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms, and the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms. Other clinical and socio-demographic variables were recorded to eliminate potential confounding effects.
We found a significant association between rs1000731 and treatment response. Thus, those patients homozygous for the G allele of rs1000731 were more frequently non-responders, measured with SANS, after 6 weeks of treatment, than those carrying the A allele (X2 = 4.019; P = 0.032). Moreover, when analysing the clinical improvement longitudinally, we observed that those patients carrying the A allele for the rs1000731 presented a greater improvement in positive symptoms dimension (F = 8.905; P = 0.003).
Our results suggest a minor contribution to antipsychotic drug response of genetic alterations in the DISC1 gene.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Tuberous sclerosis complex is a rare genetic disorder leading to the growth of hamartomas in multiple organs, including cardiac rhabdomyomas. Children with symptomatic cardiac rhabdomyoma require frequent admissions to intensive care units, have major complications, namely, arrhythmias, cardiac outflow tract obstruction and heart failure, affecting the quality of life and taking on high healthcare cost. Currently, there is no standard pharmacological treatment for this condition, and the management includes a conservative approach and supportive care. Everolimus has shown positive effects on subependymal giant cell astrocytomas, renal angiomyolipoma and refractory seizures associated with tuberous sclerosis complex. However, evidence supporting efficacy in symptomatic cardiac rhabdomyoma is limited to case reports. The ORACLE trial is the first randomised clinical trial assessing the efficacy of everolimus as a specific therapy for symptomatic cardiac rhabdomyoma.
ORACLE is a phase II, prospective, randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind, multicentre protocol trial. A total of 40 children with symptomatic cardiac rhabdomyoma secondary to tuberous sclerosis complex will be randomised to receive oral everolimus or placebo for 3 months. The primary outcome is 50% or more reduction in the tumour size related to baseline. As secondary outcomes we include the presence of arrhythmias, pericardial effusion, intracardiac obstruction, adverse events, progression of tumour reduction and effect on heart failure.
ORACLE protocol addresses a relevant unmet need in children with tuberous sclerosis complex and cardiac rhabdomyoma. The results of the trial will potentially support the first evidence-based therapy for this condition.
Although executive and other cognitive deficits have been found in patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD), whether these have brain functional correlates has been little studied. This study aimed to examine patterns of task-related activation and de-activation during the performance of a working memory task in patients with the disorder.
Sixty-seven DSM-IV BPD patients and 67 healthy controls underwent fMRI during the performance of the n-back task. Linear models were used to obtain maps of within-group activations and areas of differential activation between the groups.
On corrected whole-brain analysis, there were no activation differences between the BPD patients and the healthy controls during the main 2-back v. baseline contrast, but reduced activation was seen in the precentral cortex bilaterally and the left inferior parietal cortex in the 2-back v. 1-back contrast. The patients showed failure of de-activation affecting the medial frontal cortex and the precuneus, plus in other areas. The changes did not appear to be attributable to previous history of depression, which was present in nearly half the sample.
In this study, there was some, though limited, evidence for lateral frontal hypoactivation in BPD during the performance of an executive task. BPD also appears to be associated with failure of de-activation in key regions of the default mode network.
To determine if specific dietary patterns are associated with risk of hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and high BMI in four sites in Peru.
We analysed dietary patterns from a cohort of Peruvian adults in four geographical settings using latent class analysis. Associations with prevalence and incidence of hypertension, T2DM and high BMI were assessed using Poisson regression and generalised linear models, adjusted for potential confounders.
Four sites in Peru varying in degree of urbanisation.
Adults aged ≥35 years (n 3280).
We identified four distinct dietary patterns corresponding to different stages of the Peruvian nutrition transition, reflected by the foods frequently consumed in each pattern. Participants consuming the ‘stage 3’ diet, characterised by high proportional consumption of processed foods, animal products and low consumption of vegetables, mostly consumed in the semi-urban setting, showed the highest prevalence of all health outcomes (hypertension 32·1 %; T2DM 10·7 %; high BMI 75·1 %). Those with a more traditional ‘stage 1’ diet characterised by potato and vegetables, mostly consumed in the rural setting, had lower prevalence of hypertension (prevalence ratio; 95 CI: 0·57; 0·43, 0·75), T2DM (0·36; 0·16, 0·86) and high BMI (0·55; 0·48, 0·63) compared with the ‘stage 3’ diet. Incidence of hypertension was highest among individuals consuming the ‘stage 3’ diet (63·75 per 1000 person-years; 95 % CI 52·40, 77·55).
The study found more traditional diets were associated with a lower prevalence of three common chronic diseases, while prevalence of these diseases was higher with a diet high in processed foods and low in vegetables.