To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Patulous Eustachian tube appears to be caused by a concave defect in the anterolateral wall of the tubal valve of the Eustachian tube. This study aimed to compare the clinical features of patulous Eustachian tube patients with or without a defect in the anterolateral wall of the tubal valve.
Sixty-six patients with a patulous Eustachian tube completed a questionnaire, which was evaluated alongside endoscopic findings of the tympanic membrane, nasal cavity and Eustachian tube orifice.
Females were more frequently diagnosed with a patulous Eustachian tube, but the valve defect was more common in males (p = 0.007). The ratio of patulous Eustachian tube patients with or without defects in the anterolateral wall of the tubal valve was 1.6:1. Weight loss in the previous six months and being refractory to conservative management were significantly associated with the defect (p = 0.035 and 0.037, respectively). Symptom severity was significantly higher in patients with the defect.
Patulous Eustachian tube patients without a defect in the anterolateral wall of the tubal valve can be non-surgically treated more often than those with the defect. Identification of the defect could assist in making treatment decisions for patulous Eustachian tube patients.
The prevalence of internet game use among children and adolescents has been increased in the recent years.
Internet addiction has been found to cause various psychiatric symptoms and psychological problems. Internet addiction has been found to cause various psychiatric symptoms and psychological problems.
The aim of this study was to examine the association between problematic internet game use and psychiatric symptoms in a sample of the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinic, Ulsan University Hospital.
We analyzed data from 447 subjects who first visit the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinic of the Ulsan University Hospital. The level of Internet addiction was categorized as either high-risk (≥108; group 3), potential risk (95 to 107; group 2), or no risk (≤94, group 1) based on the total score. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 17.0 and one-way ANOVA and multiple logistic regression method were used.
Thirteen adolescents met the criteria for high risk group of internet game addiction. in the high risk group, 10 were male and 3 were female adolescents. There was an mean difference among group 3 (high risk)< 1 (no risk),2 (potential risk) in AHI ; whereas group 3 (high risk)>1 (no risk), 2 (potential risk) in BDI, BAI, inattention, hyperactivity/impulsivity and K-ARS score. with multiple logistic regression analysis, K-scale was significantly related with male sex, BDI, ARShyperactivity/ impulsivity score.
We conclude that having male sex, happiness and depressive symptoms is associated with the risk of developing internet use disorders.
Although a number of studies have examined the relationship between depression and obesity, it is still insufficient to establish the specific pattern of relationship between depression and body mass index (BMI) categories. Thus, this study was aimed to investigate the relationship between depression and BMI categories.
A cross-sectional study was conducted for a cohort of 159,390 Korean based on Kangbuk Samsung Health Study (KSHS). Study participants were classified into 5 groups by Asian-specific cut-off of BMI (18.5, 23, 25 and 30 kg/m2). The presence of depression was determined by Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scales (CES-D) = 16 and = 25. The adjusted odd ratios (ORs) for depression were evaluated by multiple logistic regression analysis, in which independent variable was 5 categories of BMI and dependent variable was depression. Subgroup analysis was conducted by gender and age.
When normal group was set as a reference, the adjusted ORs for depression formed U-shaped pattern of relationship with BMI categories [underweight: 1.31 (1.14–1.50), overweight: 0.94 (0.85–1.04), obese group: 1.01 (0.91–1.12), severe obese group: 1.28 (1.05–1.54)]. This pattern of relationship was more prominent in female and young age group than male and elderly subgroup. BMI level with the lowest likelihood of depression was 18.5 kg/m2 to 25 kg/m2 in women and 23 kg/m2 to 25 kg/m2 in men.
There was a U-shaped relationship between depression and BMI categories. This finding suggests that both underweight and severe obesity are associated with the increased risk for depression.
Psychotic experiences (PEs) may be associated with injuries, but studies focusing specifically on low- and middle-income countries (LAMICs) are scarce. Thus, the current study examined the link between injuries and PEs in a large number of LAMICs.
Cross-sectional data were used from 242 952 individuals in 48 LAMICs that were collected during the World Health Survey in 2002–2004 to examine the association between traffic-related and other (non-traffic-related) forms of injury and PEs. Multivariable logistic regression analysis and meta-analysis were used to examine associations while controlling for a variety of covariates including depression.
In fully adjusted analyses, any injury [odds ratio (OR) 2.07, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.85–2.31], traffic injury (OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.53–2.21) and other injury (OR 2.09, 95% CI 1.84–2.37) were associated with higher odds for PEs. Results from a country-wise analysis showed that any injury was associated with significantly increased odds for PEs in 39 countries with the overall pooled OR estimated by meta-analysis being 2.46 (95% CI 2.22–2.74) with a moderate level of between-country heterogeneity (I2 = 56.3%). Similar results were observed across all country income levels (low, lower-middle and upper-middle).
Different types of injury are associated with PEs in LAMICs. Improving mental health systems and trauma capacity in LAMICs may be important for preventing injury-related negative mental health outcomes.
Cosmopolitan habitat-forming taxa of algae such as the genus Corallina provide an opportunity to compare patterns of biodiversity over wide geographic scales. Nematode assemblages inhabiting Corallina turves were compared between the south coasts of the British Isles and South Korea. A fully nested design was used with three regions in each country, two shores in each region and replicate samples taken from three patches on each shore to compare differences in the taxonomic and biological trait composition of nematode assemblages across scales. A biological traits approach, based on functional diversity of nematodes, was used to make comparisons between countries, among regions, between shores and among patches. The taxonomic and biological trait compositions of nematode assemblages were significantly different across all spatial scales (patches, shores, regions and countries). There is greater variation amongst nematode assemblages at the scale of shore than at other spatial scales. Nematode assemblage structure and functional traits are influenced by the local environmental factors on each shore including sea-surface temperature, the amount of sediment trapped in Corallina spp. and tidal range. The sea-surface temperature and the amount of sediment trapped in Corallina spp. were the predominant factors determining nematode abundance and composition of assemblages and their functional diversity.
Lowering dietary protein concentration is known to decrease urinary nitrogen (N) losses and increase milk N efficiency in dairy cows, but it may negatively affect animal productivity. Plant-derived essential oils (EO) may alleviate these negative effects by improving the efficiency of rumen fermentation in cows fed reduced feed protein diets. The experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of lowering crude protein (CP) supply alone or in a combination with an EO product on feed intake, milk production and composition, rumen fermentation, total tract digestibility and N utilization in dairy cows. Twenty-one Holstein cows were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design experiment. Each period consisted of 14 days for adaptation and 14 days for data collection and sampling. Cows were randomly assigned to one of three experimental diets: a 165 g/kg CP diet (control), a 155 g/kg CP diet (LCP) and LCP supplemented with 35 g/day per cow EO (LCPEO). The dry matter (DM) intake was decreased by LCP and LCPEO compared with the control; there was no effect of EO on DM intake. Milk yield and composition and feed efficiency were similar among treatments. Ruminal pH, lactate, ammonia and volatile fatty acids concentrations were not affected by treatment, except increased valerate concentration by LCPEO compared with LCP. The supplementation of EO tended to decrease protozoal counts. The LCP and LCPEO increased total tract digestibility of DM and organic matter and decreased CP digestibility compared with the control. Supplementation with EO did not affect total tract digestibility of dietary nutrients compared with the control or LCP. The LCP and LCPEO decreased urinary and fecal N excretions and increased milk N efficiency; nitrogen losses were not affected by EO. In this study, lowering dietary CP by 10 g/kg decreased urinary and fecal N excretion without affecting productivity. The supplementation of EO to LCP had only minor effects on rumen fermentation and did not affect productivity, digestibility and N excretion in lactating dairy cows.
Cognitive deficits are an important factor in the pathogenesis of psychosis. Subjective cognitive complaints (SCCs) are often considered to be a precursor of objective cognitive deficits, but there are no studies specifically on SCC and psychotic experiences (PE). Thus, we assessed the association between SCC and PE using data from 48 low- and middle-income countries.
Community-based cross-sectional data of the World Health Survey were analysed. Two questions on subjective memory and learning complaints in the past 30 days were used to create a SCC scale ranging from 0 to 10 with higher scores representing more severe SCC. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used to identify past 12-month PE. Multivariable logistic regression and mediation analyses were performed.
The final sample consisted of 224 842 adults aged ⩾18 years [mean (SD) age 38.3 (16.0) years; 49.3% males]. After adjustment for sociodemographic factors, a one-unit increase in the SCC scale was associated with a 1.17 (95% CI 1.16–1.18) times higher odds for PE in the overall sample, with this association being more pronounced in younger individuals: age 18–44 years OR = 1.19 (95% CI 1.17–1.20); 45–64 years OR = 1.15 (95% CI 1.12–1.17); ⩾65 years OR = 1.14 (95% CI 1.09–1.19). Collectively, other mental health conditions (perceived stress, depression, anxiety, sleep problems) explained 43.4% of this association, and chronic physical conditions partially explained the association but to a lesser extent (11.8%).
SCC were associated with PE. Future longitudinal studies are needed to understand temporal associations and causal inferences, while the utility of SCC as a risk marker for psychosis especially for young adults should be scrutinised.
In the quest for dynamic multimodal probing of a material’s structure and functionality, it is critical to be able to quantify the chemical state on the atomic-/nanoscale using element-specific electronic and structurally sensitive tools such as electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS). Ultrafast EELS, with combined energy, time, and spatial resolution in a transmission electron microscope, has recently enabled transformative studies of photoexcited nanostructure evolution and mapping of evanescent electromagnetic fields. This article aims to describe state-of-the-art experimental techniques in this emerging field and its major uses and future applications.
Group-3 medulloblastoma (MBL) is highly resistant to radiation (IR) and chemotherapy and has the worst prognosis. Hence, there is an urgent need to elucidate targets that sensitize these tumors to chemotherapy and IR. Employing standard assays for viability and sensitization to IR, we identified PRDX1 as a therapeutic target in Group-3 MBL. Specifically, targeting PRDX1 by RNAi or inhibition by Adenanthin led to specific killing and sensitization to IR of Group-3 MBL cells. We rescued sensitization of Daoy and UW228 cells by hypermorphic expression of PRDX1. PRDX1 knockdown caused oxidative DNA damage and induced apoptosis. We correlated PRDX1 expression to patient outcomes in a validated MBL tumor-microarray. Whole genome sequencing identified pathways/genes that were dysregulated with PRDX1 inhibition or silencing. Our in vivo studies in mice employing flank/orthotopic tumors from patient derived xenografts/Group-3 MBL cells confirmed in vitro observations. Animals with tumors in which PRDX1 was targeted by RNAi or Adenanthin (using mini osmotic pumps) showed decreased tumor burden and increased survival when compared to controls. Since, Adenanthin does not cross the blood brain barrier (BBB) we used HAV6 peptide to transiently disrupt the BBB and deliver Adenanthin to the tumor. Immunohistochemistry confirmed that targeting PRDX1 resulted in increased oxidative DNA damage, apoptosis and decreased proliferation. In summary, we have validated PRDX1 as a therapeutic target in group-3 MBL, identified Adenanthin as a potent chemical inhibitor of PRDX1 and confirmed the role of HAV peptide (in the transient modulation of BBB permeability) in an orthotopic model of group-3 MBL.
Background: NEDA is a composite measure that may ultimately influence clinical decisions concerning switches of disease modifying therapy (DMT) for relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) patients. Cohort studies from MS clinics suggest NEDA is not sustained over time in most patients despite DMT but may be limited by referral bias. We investigated NEDA in a population-based RRMS cohort. Methods: We identified all incident cases of RRMS in Olmsted County from 01/01/2000-12/31/2011. Retrospective chart review was conducted to determine persistence of NEDA -following RRMS diagnosis. NEDA failure was defined as new MRI activity, relapse, or expanded disability status scale (EDSS) -worsening. Results: There were 93 incident cases of RRMS with 82 individuals having sufficient follow-up to determine persistence of NEDA. Prior to NEDA failure 44 were not on DMT, 37 were on first-tier, injectable DMT, and 1 received mitoxantrone. NEDA was maintained by 63% at 1 year, 38% at 2 years, 19% at 5 years, and 12% at 10 years. Disability measured by EDSS was no different at 10 years in patients maintaining NEDA versus those that failed NEDA at one year (p=0.3). Conclusions: Maintenance of NEDA beyond 2 years is infrequent among a population-based cohort of newly diagnosed RRMS patients and similar to prior clinic-based cohorts.
This study aimed to examine a range of factors influencing the long-term recovery of New York City residents affected by Hurricane Sandy.
In a series of logistic regressions, we analyzed data from a survey of New York City residents to assess self-reported recovery status from Hurricane Sandy.
General health, displacement from home, and household income had substantial influences on recovery. Individuals with excellent or fair health were more likely to have recovered than were individuals with poor health. Those with high and middle income were more likely to have recovered than were those with low income. Also, individuals who had not experienced a decrease in household income following Hurricane Sandy had higher odds of recovery than the odds for those with decreased income. Additionally, displacement from the home decreased the odds of recovery. Individuals who applied for assistance from the Build it Back program and the Federal Emergency Management Agency had lower odds of recovering than did those who did not apply.
The study outlines the critical importance of health and socioeconomic factors in long-term disaster recovery and highlights the need for increased consideration of those factors in post-disaster interventions and recovery monitoring. More research is needed to assess the effectiveness of state and federal assistance programs, particularly among disadvantaged populations. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;12:172–175)
Background: The Gilenya® Go ProgramTM offers education and support services, including coordination of first dose observation (FDO) and follow-up contact to reinforce monitoring recommendations and compliance in fingolimod-treated relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) patients. Methods: Data were analyzed for patients enrolled in the Canadian Gilenya® Go ProgramTM from March 2011 to January 2016. The retention to fingolimod therapy, reasons for treatment discontinuation and incidence of adverse events (AEs) during treatment are reported. Results: At data cut-off, 3956 patients had completed FDO; 3201 patients were being actively treated. Mean age at enrolment was 41.0 years; 74.9% patients were female. The overall fingolimod exposure was 7869 patient-years. Most recent previous therapies (n=3746) included interferons (43.3%) and glatiramer acetate (29.6%). Most common reasons for switching to fingolimod (n=3674) was lack of efficacy (31.8%). Retention to therapy at data cut-off was 81.3%. AEs (45.2%) were the most common reason (n=334) for treatment discontinuation and included low lymphocyte count/abnormal hematology values (13.8%), gastrointestinal disturbances (6.9%), and elevated liver enzyme levels (7.8%). Adherence to recommended ophthalmic examination was 92.4%. Conclusions: In real-world clinical practice in Canada, adherence to both fingolimod treatment and monitoring was high. The Gilenya® Go Program™ helps to meet the safety monitoring recommendations for fingolimod-treated RRMS patients.
Thermal plasma wind tunnels with power of 0.4 MW and 2.4 MW have been constructed at Chonbuk National University (CBNU) in Korea. This facility is capable of producing a heat flux greater than 10 MW/m2, a level that is relevant for testing thermal protection materials that are used for re-entry vehicles in space transportation. A segmented arc plasma torch was adopted as a plasma source; this was designed to have high thermal efficiency and long life, and to produce a supersonic plasma flow with enthalpy greater than 10 MJ/kg. We investigated the characteristics of the supersonic plasma flow using intrusive and non-intrusive diagnostic systems. Ablation characteristics of potential thermal protection materials such as carbon/carbon composites and graphite were investigated with the plasma wind tunnel. Cracks and pores in the materials accelerated the erosion. For carbon/carbon composites, the pores grew and the cracks which occurred at the interfaces between the carbon fibres and the matrix propagated, while for the graphite, the erosion started at the pores and peeled off the surface.
Victimisation by the police is purported to be widespread in cities in the USA, but there is limited data on police–public encounters from community samples. This is partly due to an absence of measures for assessing police violence exposure from the standpoint of civilians. As such, the demographic distribution and mental health correlates of police victimisation are poorly understood. The aims of this study were to present community-based prevalence estimates of positive policing and police victimisation based on assessment with two novel measures, and to test the hypotheses that (1) exposure to police victimisation would vary across demographic groups and (2) would be associated with depression and psychological distress.
The Survey of Police–Public Encounters study surveyed adults residing in four US cities to examine the prevalence, demographic distribution and psychological correlates of police victimisation. Participants (N = 1615) completed measures of psychological distress (K-6 scale), depression (Patient Health Questionnaire 9) and two newly constructed measures of civilian-reported police–public encounters. Both measures were developed to assess police victimisation based on the WHO domains of violence, which include physical violence (with and without a weapon, assessed separately), sexual violence (inappropriate sexual contact, including public strip searches), psychological violence (e.g., threatening, intimidating, stopping without cause, or using discriminatory slurs) and neglect (police not responding when called or responding too late). The Police Practices Inventory assesses lifetime history of exposure to positive policing and police victimisation, and the Expectations of Police Practices Scale assesses the perceived likelihood of future incidents of police victimisation. Linear regression models were used to test for associations between police–public encounters and psychological distress and depression.
Psychological violence (18.6%) and police neglect (18.8%) were commonly reported in this sample and a substantial minority of respondents also reported more severe forms of violence, specifically physical (6.1%), sexual (2.8%) and physical with a weapon (3.3%). Police victimisation was more frequently reported by racial/ethnic minorities, males, transgender respondents and younger adults. Nearly all forms of victimisation (but not positive policing) were associated with psychological distress and depression in adjusted linear regression models.
Victimisation by police appears to be widespread, inequitably distributed across demographic groups and psychologically impactful. These findings suggest that public health efforts to both reduce the prevalence of police violence and to alleviate its psychological impact may be needed, particularly in disadvantaged urban communities.
The co-existence of depression and psychotic experiences (PEs) is associated with more pronounced adverse health outcomes compared to depression alone. However, data on its prevalence and correlates are lacking in the general adult population, and there is no published data on its association with chronic physical conditions.
Cross-sectional, community-based data from 201 337 adults aged ⩾18 years from 47 low- and middle-income countries from the World Health Survey were analyzed. The presence of past 12-month PE and DSM-IV depression was assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Information on six chronic medical conditions (chronic back pain, edentulism, arthritis, angina, asthma, diabetes) were obtained by self-report. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed.
The crude overall prevalence of co-morbid depression/PEs was 2.5% [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.3–2.7%], with the age- and sex-adjusted prevalence ranging from 0.1% (Sri Lanka, Vietnam) to 9.03% (Brazil). Younger age, urban setting, current smoking, alcohol consumption, and anxiety were significant correlates of co-existing depression/PEs. Co-occurring depression/PEs was associated with significantly higher odds for arthritis, angina, and diabetes beyond that of depression alone after adjusting for sociodemographics, anxiety, and country, with odds ratios (depression/PEs v. depression only) being: arthritis 1.30 (95% CI 1.07–1.59, p = 0.0086); angina 1.40 (95% CI 1.18–1.67, p = 0.0002); diabetes 1.65 (95% CI 1.21–2.26, p = 0.0017).
The prevalence of co-existing depression/PEs was non-negligible in most countries. Our study suggests that when depression/PE or a chronic condition (e.g. arthritis, angina, diabetes) is detected, screening for the other may be important to improve clinical outcomes.
Studies on whether the co-occurrence of psychotic experiences (PEs) and depression confers a more pronounced decrement in health status and function compared with depression alone are scarce in the general adult population.
Data on 195 479 adults aged ⩾18 years from the World Health Survey were analysed. Using the World Mental Health Survey version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI), depression in the past 12 months was categorized into four groups: depressive episode, brief depressive episode, subsyndromal depression, and no depression. Past 12-month psychotic symptoms were assessed using four questions on positive symptoms from the CIDI. Health status across seven domains (cognition, interpersonal activities, sleep/energy, self-care, mobility, pain/discomfort, vision) and interviewer-rated presence of a mental health problem were assessed. Multivariable logistic and linear regression analyses were performed to assess the associations.
When compared with those with no depression, individuals with depression had higher odds of reporting at least one PE, and this was seen across all levels of depression severity: subsyndromal depression [odds ratio (OR) 2.38, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.02–2.81], brief depressive episode (OR 3.84, 95% CI 3.31–4.46) and depressive episode (OR 3.75, 95% CI 3.24–4.33). Having coexisting PEs and depression was associated with a higher risk for observable illness behavior and a significant decline in health status in the cognition, interpersonal activities and sleep/energy domains, compared with those with depression alone.
This coexistence of depression and PEs is associated with more severe social, cognitive and sleep disturbances, and more outwardly apparent illness behavior. Detecting this co-occurrence may be important for treatment planning.
We present recent observation results of Sgr A* at millimeter obtained with VLBI arrays in Korea and Japan.
7 mm monitoring of Sgr A* is part of our AGN large project. The results at 7 epochs during 2013-2014, including high resolution maps, flux density and two-dimensional size measurements are presented. The source shows no significant variation in flux and structure related to the G2 encounter in 2014. According to recent MHD simulations by kawashima et al., flux and magnetic field energy can be expected to increase several years after the encounter; We will keep our monitoring in order to test this prediction.
Astrometric observations of Sgr A* were performed in 2015 at 7 and 3.5 millimeter simultaneously. Source-frequency phase referencing was applied and a combined ”core-shift” of Sgr A* and a nearby calibrator was measured. Future observations and analysis are necessary to determine the core-shift in each source.
Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assess whether age-related differences in white matter microstructure are associated with altered task-related connectivity during episodic recognition. Methods: Using functional magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging from 282 cognitively healthy middle-to-late aged adults enrolled in the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer’s Prevention, we investigated whether fractional anisotropy (FA) within white matter regions known to decline with age was associated with task-related connectivity within the recognition network. Results: There was a positive relationship between fornix FA and memory performance, both of which negatively correlated with age. Psychophysiological interaction analyses revealed that higher fornix FA was associated with increased task-related connectivity amongst the hippocampus, caudate, precuneus, middle occipital gyrus, and middle frontal gyrus. In addition, better task performance was associated with increased task-related connectivity between the posterior cingulate gyrus, middle frontal gyrus, cuneus, and hippocampus. Conclusions: The findings indicate that age has a negative effect on white matter microstructure, which in turn has a negative impact on memory performance. However, fornix microstructure did not significantly mediate the effect of age on performance. Of interest, dynamic functional connectivity was associated with better memory performance. The results of the psychophysiological interaction analysis further revealed that alterations in fornix microstructure explain–at least in part–connectivity among cortical regions in the recognition memory network. Our results may further elucidate the relationship between structural connectivity, neural function, and cognition. (JINS, 2016, 22, 191–204)
The aim of this study was to examine cross-sectionally whether higher cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) might favorably modify amyloid-β (Aβ)-related decrements in cognition in a cohort of late-middle-aged adults at risk for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Sixty-nine enrollees in the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer’s Prevention participated in this study. They completed a comprehensive neuropsychological exam, underwent 11C Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB)-PET imaging, and performed a graded treadmill exercise test to volitional exhaustion. Peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) during the exercise test was used as the index of CRF. Forty-five participants also underwent lumbar puncture for collection of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples, from which Aβ42 was immunoassayed. Covariate-adjusted regression analyses were used to test whether the association between Aβ and cognition was modified by CRF. There were significant VO2peak*PiB-PET interactions for Immediate Memory (p=.041) and Verbal Learning & Memory (p=.025). There were also significant VO2peak*CSF Aβ42 interactions for Immediate Memory (p<.001) and Verbal Learning & Memory (p<.001). Specifically, in the context of high Aβ burden, that is, increased PiB-PET binding or reduced CSF Aβ42, individuals with higher CRF exhibited significantly better cognition compared with individuals with lower CRF. In a late-middle-aged, at-risk cohort, higher CRF is associated with a diminution of Aβ-related effects on cognition. These findings suggest that exercise might play an important role in the prevention of AD. (JINS, 2015, 21, 841–850)