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To study subglacial hydrological condition and its influence on the glacier dynamics, we drilled Johnsons Glacier on Livingston Island in the Antarctic Peninsula region. Subglacial water pressure was recorded in boreholes at two locations over 2 years, accompanied by high-frequency ice-speed measurements during two summer melt seasons. Water pressure showed two different regimes, namely high frequency and large amplitude variations during the melt season (January–April) and small fluctuations near the overburden pressure the rest of the year. Speed-up events were observed several times in each summer measurement period. Ice motion during these events substantially contributed to total glacier motion, for example, fast ice flow over 1 week accounted for ~70% of the total displacement over a 25-day long measurement period. We did not find a clear relationship between subglacial water pressure and ice speed. This was probably because subglacial hydraulic conditions were spatially inhomogeneous and thus our borehole data did not always represent a large-scale subglacial condition. Ice temperature measurements in the boreholes confirmed the existence of a cold ice layer near the glacier surface. Our data provide a basis to better understand the dynamic and hydrological conditions of relatively unstudied glaciers in the Antarctic Peninsula region.
This work combines very detailed measurements from terrestrial laser scanner (TLS), ground-based interferometry radar (GB-SAR) and ground-penetrating radar (GPR) to diagnose current conditions and to analyse the recent evolution of the Monte Perdido Glacier in the Spanish Pyrenees from 2011 to 2017. Thus, this is currently one of the best monitored small glacier (<0.5 km2) worldwide. The evolution of the glacier surface was surveyed with a TLS evidencing an important decline of 6.1 ± 0.3 m on average, with ice losses mainly concentrated over 3 years (2012, 2015 and 2017). Ice loss is unevenly distributed throughout the study period, with 10–15 m thinning in some areas while unchanged areas in others. GB-SAR revealed that areas with higher ice losses are those that are currently with no or very low ice motion. In contrast, sectors located beneath the areas with less ice loss are those that still exhibit noticeable ice movement (average 2–4.5 cm d─1 in summer, and annual movement of 9.98 ma─1 from ablation stakes data). GPR informed that ice thickness was generally <30 m, though locally 30–50 m. Glacier thinning is still accelerating and will lead to extinction of the glacier over the next 50 years.
Understanding the consequences of environmental fluctuations for parasite dynamics requires a long-term view stretching over many transmission cycles. Here we studied the dynamics of three malaria parasites (Plasmodium azurophilum, P. leucocytica and P. floridense) infecting the lizard Anolis gundlachi, in the rainforest of Puerto Rico. In this malaria–anole system we evaluated temporal fluctuations in individual probability of infection, the environmental drivers of observed variation and consequences for host body condition and Plasmodium parasites assemblage. We conducted a total of 15 surveys including 10 from 1990 to 2002 and five from 2015 to 2017. During the early years, a lizard's probability of infection by all Plasmodium species appeared stable despite disturbances ranging from two hurricanes to short droughts. Over a longer timescale, probability of infection and overall prevalence varied significantly, following non-linear relationships with temperature and rainfall such that highest prevalence is expected at intermediate climate measures. A perplexing result was that host body condition was maximized at intermediate levels of rainfall and/or temperature (when risk of infection was highest), yet we found no significant decreases in body condition due to infection. Plasmodium parasite species composition varied through time with a reduction and near local extinction of P. floridense. Our results emphasize the need for long-term studies to reveal host–parasite dynamics, their drivers and consequences.
We have developed a two-dimensional coupled glacier–fjord model, which runs automatically using Elmer/Ice and MITgcm software packages, to investigate the magnitude of submarine melting along a vertical glacier front and its potential influence on glacier calving and front position changes. We apply this model to simulate the Hansbreen glacier–Hansbukta proglacial–fjord system, Southwestern Svalbard, during the summer of 2010. The limited size of this system allows us to resolve some of the small-scale processes occurring at the ice–ocean interface in the fjord model, using a 0.5 s time step and a 1 m grid resolution near the glacier front. We use a rich set of field data spanning the period April–August 2010 to constrain, calibrate and validate the model. We adjust circulation patterns in the fjord by tuning subglacial discharge inputs that best match observed temperature while maintaining a compromise with observed salinity, suggesting a convectively driven circulation in Hansbukta. The results of our model simulations suggest that both submarine melting and crevasse hydrofracturing exert important controls on seasonal frontal ablation, with submarine melting alone not being sufficient for reproducing the observed patterns of seasonal retreat. Both submarine melt and calving rates accumulated along the entire simulation period are of the same order of magnitude, ~100 m. The model results also indicate that changes in submarine melting lag meltwater production by 4–5 weeks, which suggests that it may take up to a month for meltwater to traverse the englacial and subglacial drainage network.
We present the results of several radio-echo sounding surveys carried out on Johnsons and Hurd Glaciers, Livingston Island, Antarctica, between the 1999/2000 and 2004/05 austral summer campaigns, which included both radar profiling and common-midpoint measurements with low (20– 25 MHz)- and high (200 MHz)-frequency radars. The latter have allowed us to estimate the radio-wave velocity in ice and firn and the corresponding water contents in temperate ice, which vary between 0 and 1.6% depending on the zone. Maximum ice thickness is ~200 m, with a mean value of 93.6±2.5 m. Total ice volume is 0.968±0.026 km3, for an area of 10.34±0.03km2. The subglacial relief of Johnsons Glacier is quite smooth, while that of Hurd Glacier shows numerous overdeepenings and peaks. The radar records suggest that Hurd Glacier has a polythermal structure, contrary to the usual assumption that glaciers in Livingston Island are temperate. This is also supported by other dynamical and geomorphological evidence.
We present the results of low-frequency (20 MHz) radio-echo sounding (RES) carried out in December 2000 and December 2006 on the main ice divides of Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands (SSI), Antarctica, and Bowles Plateau, Antarctica, respectively, as well as high-frequency (200 MHz) RES on the latter, aimed at determining the ice thickness, internal structure and subglacial relief. Typical ice thickness along the main ice divides is ~150 m, reaching maxima of ~200 m. On Bowles Plateau the ice is much thicker, with an average of 265 m and maxima of ~500 m. The bed below the main ice divides is above sea level, while part of the outlet glaciers from Bowles Plateau lies significantly below sea level, down to –120 m. The strong scattering of the radio waves in the areas under study constitutes further evidence that the ice in the accumulation area of the ice masses of the SSI is temperate. Typical thickness of the firn layer in Bowles Plateau is 20–35 m, similar to that found in King George ice cap. A strong internal reflector within the firn layer, interpreted as a tephra layer from the 1970 eruption at Deception Island, has allowed a rough estimate of the specific mass balances for Bowles Plateau within 0.20–0.40ma–1w.e., as average values for the period 1970–2006.
Calving from tidewater glaciers and ice shelves accounts for around half the mass loss from both polar ice sheets, yet the process is not well represented in prognostic models of ice dynamics. Benn and others proposed a calving criterion appropriate for both grounded and floating glacier tongues or ice shelves, based on the penetration depth of transverse crevasses near the calving front, computed using Nye’s formula. The criterion is readily incorporated into glacier and ice-sheet models, but has not been fully validated with observations. We apply a three-dimensional extension of Benn and others’ criterion, incorporated into a full-Stokes model of glacier dynamics, to estimate the current position of the calving front of Johnsons Glacier, Antarctica. We find that two improvements to the original model are necessary to accurately reproduce the observed calving front: (1) computation of the tensile deviatoric stress opening the crevasse using the full-stress solution and (2) consideration of such a tensile stress as a function of depth. Our modelling results also suggest that Johnsons Glacier has a polythermal structure, rather than the temperate structure suggested by earlier studies.
As part of ongoing work to obtain a reliable estimate of the total ice volume of Svalbard glaciers and their potential contribution to sea-level rise, we present here volume calculations, with detailed error estimates, for ten glaciers on western Nordenskiöld Land, central Spitsbergen, Svalbard. The volume estimates are based upon a dense net of GPR-retrieved ice thickness data collected over several field campaigns spanning the period 1999-2012. The total area and volume of the ensemble are 116.06 ± 4.53 km2 and 10.439 ±0.373 km3, respectively, while the individual areas, volumes and average ice thickness lie within 2.6-50.4 km2, 0.08-5.54 km3 and 29-108 m, respectively. Volume/area scaling relationships overestimate the total volume of these glaciers by up to 35% with respect to our calculation. On the basis of the pattern of scattering in the radargrams, we also analyse the hydrothermal structure of these glaciers. Nine of the ten are polythermal, while only one is entirely cold.
We present a set of new volume scaling relationships specific to Svalbard glaciers, derived from a sample of 60 volume–area pairs. Glacier volumes are computed from ground-penetrating radar (GPR)-retrieved ice thickness measurements, which have been compiled from different sources for this study. The most precise scaling models, in terms of lowest cross-validation errors, are obtained using a multivariate approach where, in addition to glacier area, glacier length and elevation range are also used as predictors. Using this multivariate scaling approach, together with the Randolph Glacier Inventory V3.2 for Svalbard and Jan Mayen, we obtain a regional volume estimate of 6700 ± 835 km3, or 17 ± 2 mm of sea-level equivalent (SLE). This result lies in the mid- to low range of recently published estimates, which show values as varied as 13 and 24 mm SLE. We assess the sensitivity of the scaling exponents to glacier characteristics such as size, aspect ratio and average slope, and find that the volume of steep-slope and cirque-type glaciers is not very sensitive to changes in glacier area.
Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and social anxiety disorder (SAD) are co-morbid and associated with similar neural disruptions during emotion regulation. In contrast, the lack of optimism examined here may be specific to GAD and could prove an important biomarker for that disorder.
Unmedicated individuals with GAD (n = 18) and age-, intelligence quotient- and gender-matched SAD (n = 18) and healthy (n = 18) comparison individuals were scanned while contemplating likelihoods of high- and low-impact negative (e.g. heart attack; heartburn) or positive (e.g. winning lottery; hug) events occurring to themselves in the future.
As expected, healthy subjects showed significant optimistic bias (OB); they considered themselves significantly less likely to experience future negative but significantly more likely to experience future positive events relative to others (p < 0.001). This was also seen in SAD, albeit at trend level for positive events (p < 0.001 and p < 0.10, respectively). However, GAD patients showed no OB for positive events (t17 = 0.82, n.s.) and showed significantly reduced neural modulation relative to the two other groups of regions including the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and caudate to these events (p < 0.001 for all). The GAD group further differed from the other groups by showing increased neural responses to low-impact events in regions including the rostral mPFC (p < 0.05 for both).
The neural dysfunction identified here may represent a unique feature associated with reduced optimism and increased worry about everyday events in GAD. Consistent with this possibility, patients with SAD did not show such dysfunction. Future studies should consider if this dysfunction represents a biomarker for GAD.
We compared the cost-effectiveness (CE) of an active case-finding (ACF) programme for household contacts of tuberculosis (TB) cases enrolled in first-line treatment to routine passive case-finding (PCF) within an established national TB programme in Peru. Decision analysis was used to model detection of TB in household contacts through: (1) self-report of symptomatic cases for evaluation (PCF), (2) a provider-initiated ACF programme, (3) addition of an Xpert MTB/RIF diagnostic test for a single sputum sample from household contacts, and (4) all strategies combined. CE was calculated as the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) in terms of US dollars per disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) averted. Compared to PCF alone, ACF for household contacts resulted in an ICER of $2155 per DALY averted. The addition of the Xpert MTB/RIF diagnostic test resulted in an ICER of $3275 per DALY averted within a PCF programme and $3399 per DALY averted when an ACF programme was included. Provider-initiated ACF of household contacts in an urban setting of Lima, Peru can be highly cost-effective, even including costs to seek out contacts and perform an Xpert/MTB RIF test. ACF including Xpert MTB/RIF was not cost-effective if TB cases detected had high rates of default from treatment or poor outcomes.
Using carbon and oxygen isotopic relationships from dental enamel, diet and habitat were inferred for both mesomammals and megamammals that lived in Cedral (San Luis Potosi, north-central México) during Late Pleistocene time. δ13C and δ18O values show that bison, some horses and mammoth were eating C4 plants and lived in open areas, while tapir, camel and some llamas ate C3 plants and inhabited closed areas. All other studied herbivores (pronghorn, glyptodont, mylodont ground sloth, javelina, mastodon, and other llamas, horses and mammoth) had a C3/C4 mixed diet, living in areas with some percentage of tree coverage. On the other hand, American lion and dire wolf ate either C4 or mixed-diet herbivores, and short-faced bear ate C3 herbivores. At Cedral, more humid conditions existed than presently, allowing the presence of a forested area near the grassland.
This paper is the third (Paper III) in a set of studies of the errors involved in the estimate of ice thickness and ice volume. Here we present a methodology to estimate the error in the calculation of the volume of an ice mass from an ice-thickness DEM. We consider the two main error sources: the ice-thickness error at each DEM grid point and the uncertainty in the boundary delineation. To accurately estimate the volume error due to the error in thickness of the DEM, it is crucial to determine the degree of correlation among the ice-thickness errors at the grid points. We find that the two-dimensional integral range, which represents the equivalent area of influence of each independent value, allows estimation of the equivalent number of independent values of error within the DEM. Hence, it provides an easy way to obtain the volume error resulting from the uncertainty in ice thickness of a DEM. We show that the volume error arising from the uncertainty in boundary delineation, often neglected in the literature, can be of the same order of magnitude as the volume error resulting from ice-thickness errors. We illustrate our methodology through the case study of Werenskioldbreen, Svalbard.
This is the first (Paper I) of three companion papers focused respectively, on the estimates of the errors in ice thickness retrieved from pulsed ground-penetrating radar (GPR) data, on how to estimate the errors at the grid points of an ice-thickness DEM, and on how the latter errors, plus the boundary delineation errors, affect the ice-volume estimates. We here present a comprehensive analysis of the various errors involved in the computation of ice thickness from pulsed GPR data, assuming they have been properly migrated. We split the ice-thickness error into independent components that can be estimated separately. We consider, among others, the effects of the errors in radio-wave velocity and timing. A novel aspect is the estimate of the error in thickness due to the uncertainty in horizontal positioning of the GPR measurements, based on the local thickness gradient. Another novel contribution is the estimate of the horizontal positioning error of the GPR measurements due to the velocity of the GPR system while profiling, and the periods of GPS refreshing and GPR triggering. Their effects are particularly important for airborne profiling. We illustrate our methodology through a case study of Werenskioldbreen, Svalbard.
This paper is the second (Paper II) in a set of studies concerning the errors involved in the estimate of ice thickness and ice volume. Here we present a detailed analysis of the errors involved in the generation of ice-thickness DEMs constructed, most often, from GPR data, complemented by boundary data and sometimes, additional synthetic data arising from estimates based on theoretical considerations supported by independent data. We describe a complete methodology of error analysis that, starting from the errors in the data, propagates them to the grid nodes. In turn, the interpolation error at the grid nodes is calculated using a novel procedure that also provides an estimate of the bias introduced by the interpolation process. Finally, both errors are combined at the grid nodes to produce a gridpoint-dependent error estimate, which is complemented by an overall error estimate providing an assessment of the quality of the DEM. This methodology is illustrated with the case study of Werenskioldbreen, a land-terminating polythermal glacier in Svalbard.
Social anxiety disorder involves fear of social objects or situations. Social referencing may play an important role in the acquisition of this fear and could be a key determinant in future biomarkers and treatment pathways. However, the neural underpinnings mediating such learning in social anxiety are unknown. Using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging, we examined social reference learning in social anxiety disorder. Specifically, would patients with the disorder show increased amygdala activity during social reference learning, and further, following social reference learning, show particularly increased response to objects associated with other people's negative reactions?
A total of 32 unmedicated patients with social anxiety disorder and 22 age-, intelligence quotient- and gender-matched healthy individuals responded to objects that had become associated with others’ fearful, angry, happy or neutral reactions.
During the social reference learning phase, a significant group × social context interaction revealed that, relative to the comparison group, the social anxiety group showed a significantly greater response in the amygdala, as well as rostral, dorsomedial and lateral frontal and parietal cortices during the social, relative to non-social, referencing trials. In addition, during the object test phase, relative to the comparison group, the social anxiety group showed increased bilateral amygdala activation to objects associated with others’ fearful reactions, and a trend towards decreased amygdala activation to objects associated with others’ happy and neutral reactions.
These results suggest perturbed observational learning in social anxiety disorder. In addition, they further implicate the amygdala and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex in the disorder, and underscore their importance in future biomarker developments.
The α-aminonitrile, 2-morpholino-2-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)acetonitrile (C15H20N2O4), was prepared through a silica sulfuric acid-catalyzed Strecker reaction between 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzaldehyde, morpholine, and two different cyanide sources. Molecular characterization was performed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, (1H, 13C – mono and bidimensional) nuclear magnetic resonance; crystallographic characterization was completed by X-ray powder diffraction of polycrystalline samples. The title compounds crystallized in a monoclinic system and unit-cell parameters are reported [a = 13.904(2), b = 5.1696(6), c = 21.628(3) Å, β = 104.31(1)°, unit-cell volume V = 1506.3(3) Å3, Z = 4]. All measured lines were indexed with the P21/a (No. 14) space group.
The ATP-binding cassette transporter G2/breast cancer resistance protein (ABCG2/BCRP) is an efflux protein involved in the bioavailability and milk secretion of endogenous and exogenous compounds, actively affecting milk composition. A limited number of physiological substrates have been identified. However, no studies have reported the specific effect of this polymorphism on the secretion into milk of compounds implicated in milk quality such as vitamins or endogenous compounds. The bovine ABCG2 Y581S polymorphism is described as a gain-of-function polymorphism that increases milk secretion and decreases plasma levels of its substrates. This work aims to study the impact of Y581S polymorphism on plasma disposition and milk secretion of compounds such as riboflavin (vitamin B2), enterolactone, a microbiota-derived metabolite from the dietary lignan secoisolariciresinol and uric acid. In vitro transport of these compounds was assessed in MDCK-II cells overexpressing the bovine ABCG2 (WT-bABCG2) and its Y581S variant (Y581S-bABCG2). Plasma and milk levels were obtained from Y/Y homozygous and Y/S heterozygous cows. The results show that riboflavin was more efficiently transported in vitro by the Y581S variant, although no differences were noted in vivo. Both uric acid and enterolactone were substrates in vitro of the bovine ABCG2 variants and were actively secreted into milk with a two-fold increase in the milk/plasma ratio for Y/S with respect to Y/Y cows. The in vitro ABCG2-mediated transport of the drug mitoxantrone, as a model substrate, was inhibited by enterolactone in both variants, suggesting the possible in vivo use of this enterolignan to reduce ABCG2-mediated milk drug transfer in cows. The Y581S variant was inhibited to a lesser extent probably due to its higher transport capacity. All these findings point to a significant role of the ABCG2 Y581S polymorphism in the milk disposition of enterolactone and the endogenous molecules riboflavin and uric acid, which could affect both milk quality and functionality.
Protected areas are regarded as the main strategy to halt biodiversity loss; however, protected area effectiveness evaluations remain scarce and mostly rely on limited scientific evidence. Protected area managers from two case studies in the Mediterranean basin biodiversity hotspot (networks of Spanish terrestrial protected areas and individual Mediterranean marine protected areas) were surveyed to assess the use of two protected area evaluation systems: the ‘System for the Integrated Assessment of Protected Areas’ (SIAPA) and the ‘System for Quick Evaluation of Management in Mediterranean MPAs’ using the ‘Knowledge Systems for Sustainable Development’ framework. A second survey in Spain ascertained the degree of implementation of protected area evaluation systems and the institutional interest in implementing such systems. The main weaknesses attributable to the systems presented were limited salience (for the SIAPA) and legitimacy in terms of costs (for the System for Quick Evaluation of Management in Mediterranean MPAs). However, the main reasons for the limited uptake of the evaluation systems presented were not attributable to the systems themselves, but to management or institutional limitations: the lack of basic data for and weak institutional interest in evaluation in Spain, and the scarce resources available for evaluation in the case of some Mediterranean marine protected areas.