The trend toward smaller dimensions in integrated circuit technology presents severe physical and engineering challenges for ion implantation. These challenges, together with the need for physically-based models at exceedingly small dimensions, are leading to a new level of understanding of fundamental defect science in silicon. Recently the DOE Council on Materials requested that our panel examine the current status and future research opportunities in the area of ion beams in semiconductor processing. Particularly interesting are the emerging approaches to defect and dopant distribution modeling, transient enhanced diffusion, high energy implantation and defect accumulation, and metal impurity gettering. These topics were explored both from the perspective of the emerging science issues and the technology challenges.