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For more than 60 years, Colombia experienced an armed conflict involving government forces, guerrillas, and other illegal armed groups. Violence, including torture and massacres, has caused displacement of entire rural communities to urban areas. Lack of information on the problems displaced communities face and on their perceptions on potential solutions to these problems may prevent programs from delivering appropriate services to these communities. This study explores the problems of Afro-Colombian survivors from two major cities in Colombia; the activities they do to take care of themselves, their families, and their community; and possible solutions to these problems.
This was a qualitative, interview-based study conducted in Quibdó and Buenaventura (Colombia). Free-list interviews and focus groups explored the problems of survivors and the activities they do to take care of themselves, their families, and their community. Key-informant interviews explored details of the identified mental health problems and possible solutions.
In Buenaventura, 24 free-list interviews, one focus group, and 17 key-informant interviews were completed. In Quibdó, 29 free-list interviews, one focus group, and 15 key-informant interviews were completed. Mental health problems identified included: (1) problems related to exposure to torture/violent events; (2) problems with adaptation to the new social context; and (3) problems related to current poverty, lack of employment, and ongoing violence. These problems were similar to trauma symptoms and features of depression and anxiety, as described in other populations. Solutions included psychological help, talking to friends/family, relying on God’s help, and getting trained in different task or jobs.
Afro-Colombian survivors of torture and violence described mental health problems similar to those of other trauma-affected populations. These results suggest that existing interventions that address trauma-related symptoms and current ongoing stressors may be appropriate for improving the mental health of survivors in this population.
Santaella-TenorioJ, Bonilla-EscobarFJ, Nieto-GilL, Fandiño-LosadaA, Gutiérrez-MartínezMI, BassJ, BoltonP. Mental Health and Psychosocial Problems and Needs of Violence Survivors in the Colombian Pacific Coast: A Qualitative Study in Buenaventura and Quibdó. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2018;33(6):567–574.
In ewe lambs, acceleration of growth and accumulation of both muscle and fat leads to earlier sexual maturity and better reproductive performance. The next stage in the development of this theme is to test whether these aspects of growth in young ewes affect milk production in their first lactation and the growth of their first progeny. We studied 75 young Merino ewes that had known phenotypic values for depth of eye muscle (EMD) and fat (FAT), and known Australian Sheep Breeding Values for post-weaning weight (PWT) and depths of eye muscle (PEMD) and fat (PFAT). They lambed for the first time at 1 year of age. Their lambs were weighed weekly from birth to weaning at 10 weeks to determine live weight gain and weaning weight. Progeny birth weight was positively associated with live weight gain and weaning weight (P<0.001). The PWT of the mothers was positively associated with birth weight (P<0.01), live weight gain and weaning weight of the progeny (P<0.05); however, these progeny traits were not influenced by EMD, FAT, PEMD, PFAT of the mothers (P>0.05). The PWT of the sire was positively associated with live weight gain (P<0.05) and weaning weight of the progeny (P<0.01). At around day 20 postpartum, we measured milk production and milk composition (fat, protein, lactose, total solids). Milk production was influenced positively by birth type (single or twin; P<0.05) and negatively by birth weight (P<0.05), but not by mother phenotype or genotype, sire genotype of the mother or the sex of the progeny (P>0.05). The concentrations of fat, protein, lactose and total solids in the milk were not affected by the phenotype or genotype of the mothers or of the sires of the mothers, or by the sex of the progeny (P>0.05). We conclude that selection of young Merino ewes for better growth, and more rapid accumulation of muscle and fat, will lead to progeny that are heavier at birth, grow faster and are heavier at weaning. Moreover, milk production and composition do not seem to be affected by the genetic merit of the mother for post-weaning live weight or PEMD or PFAT. Therefore, Merino ewes can lamb at 1 year of age without affecting the production objectives of the Merino sheep industry.
We propose a multi-layer approach to simulate hyperpycnal and hypopycnal plumes in flows with free surface. The model allows to compute the vertical profile of the horizontal and the vertical components of the velocity of the fluid flow. The model can describe as well the vertical profile of the sediment concentration and the velocity components of each one of the sediment species that form the turbidity current. To do so, it takes into account the settling velocity of the particles and their interaction with the fluid. This allows to better describe the phenomena than a single layer approach. It is in better agreement with the physics of the problem and gives promising results. The numerical simulation is carried out by rewriting the multilayer approach in a compact formulation, which corresponds to a system with nonconservative products, and using path-conservative numerical scheme. Numerical results are presented in order to show the potential of the model.
We analyze the different contributing factors in a previous study by Seldner and Peebles (1979) who found statistically significant evidence for a correlation between a list of 382 QSOs at |b| > 40°, δ > −23° and the Lick counts of galaxies (m < 19.0), namely, that there are on the average 1.45 ± 0.39 more galaxies within 15′ of a QSO than expected if QSOs were placed at random across the sky. Taking into account these different factors and using a larger sample of QSOs whose detection is not expected to bias our statistical results, we conclude that: i) There is no longer statistically significant evidence for an excess of Lick galaxies close to QSOs from our list considered as a whole. After removing the different possible biases, if there was any excess left in that previous study, it was rather due to radio QSOs and not to optical QSOs. This effect is marginal if we adopt a mean density of galaxies in a ring between 2° and 5°, and null if the mean density is taken between 1° and 2° from QSOs; ii) The whole correlation function w(θ) shows in general a hump between and 2°. This is either an off-set value or a maximum value preceding a slow decrease in w(θ) between and 5°. This feature seems to pertain more to high redshift QSOs (z > 0.4) and to radio QSOs than to optical QSOs. It seems slightly more pronounced at the polar galactic caps and at very low galactic latitudes; iii) Numerical simulations seem to indicate that the error bars determined by assuming that cell numbers are independent are slightly underestimated. They reproduce fairly well some features within 1° from the QSOs and suggest that the hump at would not be as unlikely as indicated by the error bars.
Nieto (1979) found an excess of optically variable QSOs (OV) near bright galaxies (m < 15.7): 6 observed versus 1.6 expected for r < 5′. The probability involved was p = 5 × 10−3. Because of the small number of OV QSOs in this sample (N = 41, sample 1), this result needed a confirmation. So the same analysis was repeated with a sample of 112 QSOs (sample 3) from Hewitt and Burbidge (1980). Eleven objects were observed at r < 5′ versus 4.4 expected, so p = 4 × 10−3, the sample made up with 71 objects (sample 2) supporting slightly the result found with the first 41 objects. A notable difference between these two samples 1 and 2 is that the objects included in sample 2 are fainter than the objects included in sample 1. Repeating then the same analysis on samples of QSOs at different brightness levels suggests that the excess is related to the apparent brightness of the QSOs.
Continuing a long project of investigations of the optical morphology of the M87 jet (see review in Nieto, 1983), we have obtained at the Cassegrainan focus of the CFH telescope in March 1983 three UV exposures with the wide-field electronographic camera (Lallemand et al., 1970). The aim was to achieve the same order of resolution as that of the photographic plates obtained by Nieto and Lelièvre (1982), but with a much higher signal to noise ratio.
We present preliminary results of a detailed photometric study of NGC 6702, from high resolution photographs taken at the Cassegrain focus of the Canada-France-Hawaii (CFH) telescope. The luminosity distribution of the galaxy follows an r1/4 law (re* = 11.6″, μe* = 22.17). The axis ratio is 0.75 (corresponding to the morphological type E3) and the position angle of the major axis is 60 and fairly constant. Fig. 1 is an image in intensity of the galaxy, from a 30mn exposure in B. The galaxy is crossed by a dust lane, reported first by Capaccioli et al. (1984).
We consider a fractional equation involving the left and right Riemann–Liouville fractional integrals and with Sturm–Liouville boundary-value conditions. We establish the variational structure of the problem and, by using critical-point theory, the existence of an unbounded sequence of solutions is obtained.
We present a photometric (U band) investigation of the globular clusters in the central region of M87 from deep calibrated photographic and electronographic material, obtained with the CFH telescope. The aim of this work is to complete previous photometric studies at longer wavelengths (Grillmair et al., 1986; Lauer and Kormendy, 1986).
In this work we present a multilayer shallow model to approximate the Navier–Stokes equations with the
-rheology through an asymptotic analysis. The main advantages of this approximation are (i) the low cost associated with the numerical treatment of the free surface of the modelled flows, (ii) the exact conservation of mass and (iii) the ability to compute two-dimensional profiles of the velocities in the directions along and normal to the slope. The derivation of the model follows Fernández-Nieto et al. (J. Comput. Phys., vol. 60, 2014, pp. 408–437) and introduces a dimensional analysis based on the shallow flow hypothesis. The proposed first-order multilayer model fully satisfies a dissipative energy equation. A comparison with steady uniform Bagnold flow – with and without the sidewall friction effect – and laboratory experiments with a non-constant normal profile of the downslope velocity demonstrates the accuracy of the numerical model. Finally, by comparing the numerical results with experimental data on granular collapses, we show that the proposed multilayer model with the
-rheology qualitatively reproduces the effect of the erodible bed on granular flow dynamics and deposits, such as the increase of runout distance with increasing thickness of the erodible bed. We show that the use of a constant friction coefficient in the multilayer model leads to the opposite behaviour. This multilayer model captures the strong change in shape of the velocity profile (from S-shaped to Bagnold-like) observed during the different phases of the highly transient flow, including the presence of static and flowing zones within the granular column.
A total of 16 pure-bred Iberian (IB) sows, all of them suckling six piglets, were used, eight of them in each of the two consecutive trials (1 and 2). Daily milk yield and composition were determined weekly over a 34-day lactation period. Within each litter, one piglet at birth and four piglets on day 35 of life were slaughtered. Milk intake per piglet tended to be greater in trial 2 (832 v. 893 g/day; P=0.066), but piglets grew at 168±3.3 g/day, irrespective of the trial. In the IB sow milk, the linoleic (LA) : linolenic (LNA) acid ratio averaged 14.6 and 15.2 in trial 1 and trial 2, respectively. A fivefold increase in piglet body fat content was observed over lactation (P<0.001). Most of this fat (81.4%) was present in the carcass. After 34 days of lactation, whole-body relative content of palmitic, palmitoleic, stearic and oleic acids were very close to those in the milk consumed, suggesting direct deposition. Daily deposition of LA derivatives and of LNA and its derivatives was found to be extremely low (<0.02 g, on average). Moreover, some of the arachidonic acid (ARA) in tissues of the IB piglet at birth disappeared throughout the lactating period. An overall fractional deposition for total fatty acids (FA) was 0.409. Fractional oxidation (disappearance) rates were 0.939 and 0.926 for n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated FA. The overall rate of disappearance for the major non-essential FA (myristic, palmitic, palmitoleic, stearic and oleic acids), estimated as 1−the overall fractional deposition rate, was 0.546. It is concluded that the high degree of FA unsaturation, high oxidation rate of LA and LNA, and poor synthesis of ARA from LA and of docosahexaenoic acid from LNA found in the suckling piglet might increase the energy cost of whole-body fat accretion, a contributor to the observed low efficiency of use of milk energy for growth.
There is an increasing evidence that small-scale phenomena occuring in the inner regions of galaxies are related to large-scale phenomena such as, e.g., merging or violent interactions between galaxies. Plausible scenarios (e.g. Rees, 1978) involve, for instance, accumulation of material from the outside along the accretion disk of a black hole and subsequent ejection in two opposite directions into the intergalactic medium. Active galaxies and QSO's may be the extreme examples of the link between large-scale phenomena contributing to the evolution of gala, xies. Moderately active or even normal galaxies are also submitted to entangled events on both scales. The aim of this communication is to illustrate the complementarity between high-resolution, small-field telescopes and Schmidt-type telescopes for the study of this phenomenology, and to stimulate further research by a few challenging examples.
With reference to the complementarity between large-scale, low-resolution and small-scale, high-resolution telescopes (Capaccioli et al., 1984), we briefly report here on very recent CFH telescope photographic observations of early-type galaxies which are good candidates for further investigations with Schmidt-type telescopes. The photographs were taken at the newly installed f/8 Cassegrain focus with good seeing conditions. The large scale ( ~ 7 arcsec mm -1) allows to overcame some of the major difficulties encountered in the reduction of the prime focus high resolution (FWHM~0".75) material (Nieto,1983).
Nine wheat genotypes, bred for the high-input agronomical conditions of Henan Province (China), were tested under the high-yielding Mediterranean conditions of Spain. Two cultivars widely grown in the zone were included as controls. Crop growth and leaf chlorophyll (Chl) content, leaf stomatal conductance (gs) and canopy temperature (CT) were measured during the crop cycle and stable carbon (C), oxygen (O) and nitrogen (N) isotope compositions (δ13C, δ18O and δ15N) were analysed on different plant parts. The lower yield of the Chinese genotypes compared with the controls was due to fewer grains/unit area, associated with lower tillering and a plant height clearly below the optimal range. Moreover, Chinese wheat exhibited a lower spike fertility index than the controls, and this was associated with a less compact spike structure. The physiological characteristics that were related to better performance under high-yielding Mediterranean conditions consisted of a higher green aerial biomass, particularly during the reproductive stage, together with more favourable water conditions (higher gs and lower CT and δ13C), the capacity to take up water during grain fill (higher δ18O) and a more efficient uptake (lower δ15N) and utilization (lower leaf N and Chl content) of N fertilizer. It is concluded that Chinese genotypes exhibited a low acclimation capacity to the moderate stress typical of the high-yielding Mediterranean conditions.
The formation of uranyl peroxide phases was identified as a corrosion product of spent fuel by Hanson et al . The subsequent analysis of this phase showed that metastudtite retained 241Am, 237Np and 239Pu . In this study, the retention of radionuclide Pu4+ and An3+, released from the spent fuel matrix into studtite structure, has been evaluated by the precipitation of studtite from uranyl dissolution with variable concentrations of REE (Th, Nd, Sm and Eu). Three different precipitation conditions parameters were studied: media of synthesis, time of synthesis and REE concentration. Synthesized phases were characterized by XRD and the cell parameter was calculated. The REE incorporation was determined by ICP-MS analysis. The results showed that studtite could incorporate 63% of Th in solution during its precipitation. Changes in the “a” cell parameter were identified. The results suggest that studtite coprecipitated with REE could play a role as a limiting for the REE mobility.
Piglet body composition at weaning could be a determinant for pig’s viability and may be influenced by factors such as the nutritional management followed during suckling. An experiment was conducted to study whether intermittent suckling (IS) affects body composition at weaning and nutrient and energy retention during a 34-day lactation period in Iberian piglets. Litters were subjected to conventional suckling (CS) or IS (n=10 litters of six piglets per treatment) in two trials. All piglets had ad libitum access to creep feed from day 15 onwards. In IS, piglets were progressively separated from the sow for 6, 8 and 10 h daily during the last week of lactation, whereas in CS piglets had continuous access to their dams. Creep feed intake in litters and BW development of individual piglets were measured throughout the 34-day lactation. Within each litter, both at birth and at weaning (day 35), one piglet was used to assess nutrient retention and body composition by the comparative slaughter approach. During days 29 to 35 of the experiment, daily creep feed intake was greater in IS piglets (IS 124, CS 67 g/piglet, P=0.040), and average daily gain differed significantly between groups (IS 190, CS 150 g/day, P=0.010). BW at weaning was higher in the IS than in the CS piglets (IS 8.19, CS 7.48 kg, P=0.011). Empty-body fat and energy content at weaning were higher in the IS compared with CS litters, as well as fat content in the carcass (P=0.04). The IS treatment did not affect empty-body protein deposition, but significantly increased daily retention of fat, energy, ash and calcium, compared with CS litters (P<0.05). Thus, IS in Iberian piglets seems to enhance feed intake, growth rate and retention of some body components, which may contribute to a higher body fat content at weaning and facilitate the weaning process.
In this paper, a bilayer model is derived to simulate the evolution of a thin film flow over water. This model is derived from the incompressible Navier–Stokes equations together with suitable boundary conditions including friction and capillary effects. The derivation is based on the different properties of the fluids; thus, we perform a multiscale analysis in space and time, and a different asymptotic analysis to derive a system coupling two different models: the Reynolds lubrication equation for the upper layer and the shallow water model for the lower one. We prove that the model verifies a dissipative entropy inequality up to a second-order term. Moreover, we propose a correction of the model – by taking into account the second-order extension for the pressure – that admits an exact dissipative entropy inequality. Two numerical tests are presented. In the first test, we compare the numerical results with the viscous bilayer shallow water model proposed in Narbona-Reina et al. (Comput. Model. Eng. Sci., 2009, Vol. 43, pp. 27–71). In the second test, the objective is to show some of the characteristic situations that can be studied with the proposed model. We simulate a problem of pollutant dispersion near the coast. For this test, the influence of the friction coefficient on the coastal area affected by the pollutant is studied.
The reproductive efficiency of the entire sheep flock could be improved if ewe lambs go through puberty early and produce their first lamb at 1 year of age. The onset of puberty is linked to the attainment of critical body mass, and therefore we tested whether it would be influenced by genetic selection for growth rate or for rate of accumulation of muscle or fat. We studied 136 Merino ewe lambs with phenotypic values for depth of eye muscle (EMD) and fat (FAT) and Australian Sheep Breeding Values at post-weaning age (200 days) for live weight (PWT), eye muscle depth (PEMD) and fat depth (PFAT). First oestrus was detected with testosterone-treated wethers and then entire rams as the ewes progressed from 6 to 10 months of age. Blood concentrations of leptin and IGF-I were measured to test whether they were related to production traits and reproductive performance (puberty, fertility and reproductive rate). In total, 97% of the lambs reached first oestrus at average weight 39.4 ± 0.4 kg (mean ± s.e.m.) and age 219 days (range 163 to 301). Age at first oestrus decreased with increases in values for PWT (P < 0.001), and concentrations of IGF-I (P < 0.05) and leptin (P < 0.01). The proportion of ewe lambs that achieved puberty was positively related with increases in values for EMD (P < 0.01), FAT (P < 0.05) or PWT (P < 0.01), and 75% of the ewe lambs were pregnant at average weight 44.7 ± 0.5 kg and age 263 days (range 219 to 307). Ewe lambs that were heavier at the start of mating were more fertile (P < 0.001) and had a higher reproductive rate (P < 0.001). Fertility and reproductive rate were positively correlated with increases in values for EMD (P < 0.01), FAT (P < 0.05), PWT (P < 0.01) and leptin concentration (P < 0.01). Fertility, but not reproductive rate, increased as values for PFAT increased (P < 0.05). Leptin concentration increased with increases in values for EMD (P < 0.001), FAT (P < 0.001), PWT (P < 0.001), PEMD (P < 0.05) and PFAT (P < 0.05). Many of these relationships became non-significant when PWT or live weight was added to the statistical model. We conclude that selection for genetic potential for growth can accelerate the onset of puberty and increase fertility and reproductive rate of Merino ewe lambs. The metabolic hormones, IGF-I and leptin, might act as a physiological link between the growing tissues and the reproductive axis.
Botulism is a severe neuroparalytic disorder that can be potentially life-threatening. In Barcelona, Spain, no outbreaks had been reported in the past 25 years. However, in September 2011, two outbreaks occurred involving two different families. A rare case of Clostridium baratii which produced a neurotoxin F outbreak was detected in five family members who had shared lunch, and several days before that another family was affected by C. botulinum toxin A which was probably present in homemade pâté.
The lipid content and fatty acid (FA) profile in pig tissues are strongly influenced by genotype and nutrient supply, with implications in meat quality. The de novo lipid synthesis and pattern of FA unsaturation could be an important cause of variation in the overall efficiency of energy utilization among breeds. To test the effects of pig genotype and CP supply on the evolution of back-fat tissue FA profile throughout the growing and finishing stages, 32 Iberian (IB) and Landrace × Large White (LR × LW) barrows were offered one of two diets differing in CP content (13% or 17% as fed). A pair-fed procedure (0.8 × ad libitum intake of IB pigs) was used. Subcutaneous fat samples were taken at the dorso-lumbar region at ∼38, 50, 65, 90 and 115 kg BW. Higher proportions of total monounsaturated FA (MUFA; P < 0.01) and lower proportions of total saturated FA (SFA; P < 0.01 to 0.05) were found in the outer back-fat layer of pigs both at 50 and 115 kg BW. Pig genotype affected the FA composition of both subcutaneous back-fat layers. The proportions of C18:0 and SFA in fat tissue were higher in IB than in LR × LW pigs from 38 to 65 kg BW, especially in the outer layer. In addition, MUFA contents were higher in IB pigs at 115 kg BW in both layers (+5% on average; P < 0.01). Increased proportions of C18:2 n-6 and polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) were found in LR × LW pigs, irrespective of the stage of growth and back-fat layer (P⩽0.02). At 50 kg BW, pigs receiving the high-protein diet presented the highest C18:2 n-6, C18:3 n-3, C20:5 n-3 and PUFA contents. A significant genotype × CP content interaction was observed for C18:3 n-3 because of the increased concentration of this FA in LR × LW pigs when offered the 17% CP diet (P < 0.05). Higher C16:0 and SFA contents (+5%; P = 0.03) were found in pigs offered the 13% CP diet and slaughtered at 115 kg BW. There was a genotype × CP interaction for MUFA concentration because of the higher MUFA content observed in IB pigs offered the highest protein content diet (P = 0.03). Our results suggest that genetic variation in de novo lipid synthesis and pattern of FA unsaturation might contribute to explain differences in back-fat FA profile of IB and LR × LW pigs under identical nutritional management. They could be also relevant to explain the low efficiency of nutrient and energy utilization in the IB pig.