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Here we provide an update of the 2013 report on the Nigerian Twin and Sibling Registry (NTSR). The major aim of the NTSR is to understand genetic and environmental influences and their interplay in psychological and mental health development in Nigerian children and adolescents. Africans have the highest twin birth rates among all human populations, and Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa. Due to its combination of large population and high twin birth rates, Nigeria has one of the largest twin populations in the world. In this article, we provide current updates on the NTSR samples recruited, recruitment procedures, zygosity assessment and findings emerging from the NTSR.
Experiments were carried out in high Reynolds number turbulent boundary layers over rough surfaces of diverse geometries. Roughness configurations varied in element height, distribution (random versus ordered), shape and spacing. Rough surfaces comprising of two superposed element geometries were also tested. All flows were free of transitional effects with
upwards of 40 000 and
ratios above 73. The wall-pressure spectrum and turbulent velocity profiles revealed that the roughness element spacing has the greatest impact on the turbulent structures in the boundary layer. The high-frequency scaling on shear friction velocity,
, (Meyers et al.J. Fluid Mech., vol. 768, 2015, pp. 261–293) was validated and
was shown to be the viscous contribution to the overall surface drag. An empirical formula for the pressure drag on roughness elements was developed to reflect the finding that the pressure drag is a function of only two variables: sparseness ratio
and roughness Reynolds number
. Results also suggest that the viscous contribution to drag approaches a constant non-zero value at high Reynolds numbers, and ‘fully rough-wall flow’ may occur at higher
than previously thought.
It is widely recognized among state leaders and diplomats that personal relations play an important role in international politics. Recent work at the intersection of psychology, neuroscience, and sociology has highlighted the critical importance of face-to-face interactions in generating intention understanding and building trust. Yet, a key question remains as to why some leaders are able to ‘hit it off,’ generating a positive social bond, while other interactions ‘fall flat,’ or worse, are mired in negativity. To answer, we turn to micro-sociology – the study of everyday human interactions at the smallest scales – an approach that has theorized this question in other domains. Drawing directly from US sociologist Randall Collins, and related empirical studies on the determinants of social bonding, we develop a model of diplomatic social bonding that privileges interaction elements rather than the dispositional characteristics of the actors involved or the material environment in which the interaction takes place. We conclude with a discussion of how the study of interpersonal dyadic bonding interaction may move forward.
Humans are outstanding in their ability to cooperate with unrelated individuals, and punishment – paying a cost to harm others – is thought to be a key supporting mechanism. According to this view, cooperators punish defectors, who respond by behaving more cooperatively in future interactions. However, a synthesis of the evidence from laboratory and real-world settings casts serious doubts on the assumption that the sole function of punishment is to convert cheating individuals into cooperators. Instead, punishment often prompts retaliation and punishment decisions frequently stem from competitive, rather than deterrent motives. Punishment decisions often reflect the desire to equalise or elevate payoffs relative to targets, rather than the desire to enact revenge for harm received or to deter cheats from reoffending in future. We therefore suggest that punishment also serves a competitive function, where what looks like spiteful behaviour actually allows punishers to equalise or elevate their own payoffs and/or status relative to targets independently of any change in the target's behaviour. Institutions that reduce or remove the possibility that punishers are motivated by relative payoff or status concerns might offer a way to harness these competitive motives and render punishment more effective at restoring cooperation.
The early-life origins of disease hypothesis has been applied to obesity research and modeled through overnutrition, usually with a high-fat diet (HFD). Since the obesity epidemic coincided with societal change in dietary fat consumption, rather than amount, manipulation of fatty acid (FA) profile is an under-investigated area of study. Additionally, the binding of FAs to nuclear receptors may have persistent intergenerational, extranutritive endocrinological effects that interact with the actions of reproductive steroids causing sex-dependent effects. To determine the role of FA type in the effects underlying maternal HFD, we fed wild-type C57BL6/J mating pairs, from preconception through lactation, a HFD with high saturated fat levels from coconut oil or high linoleic acid (LA) levels from vegetable oil. Male and female offspring body weight and food intake were measured weekly for 25 weeks. Assays for glucose metabolism, body composition, and calorimetry were performed at 25 weeks. Plasma metabolic peptides and liver mRNA were measured terminally. Obesity was primarily affected by adult rather than maternal diet in males, yet in females, maternal HFD potentiated the effects of adult HFD. Maternal HFD high in LA impaired glucose disposal in males weaned onto HFD and insulin sensitivity of females. Plasma leptin correlated with adiposity, but insulin and insulin receptor expression in the liver were altered by maternal LA in males. Our results suggest that maternal FA profile is most influential on offspring glucose metabolism and that adult diet is more important than maternal diet for obesity and other parameters of metabolic syndrome.
There is now a strong body of literature showing that bullying victimisation during childhood and adolescence precedes the later development of anxiety and depressive disorders. This study aimed to quantify the burden of anxiety and depressive disorders attributable to experiences of bullying victimisation for the Australian population.
This study updated a previous systematic review summarising the longitudinal association between bullying victimisation and anxiety and depressive disorders. Estimates from eligible studies published from inception until 18 August 2018 were included and meta-analyses were based on quality-effects models. Pooled relative risks were combined with a contemporary prevalence estimate for bullying victimisation for Australia in order to calculate population attributable fractions (PAFs) for the two mental disorder outcomes. PAFs were then applied to estimates of the burden of anxiety and depressive disorders in Australia expressed as disability-adjusted life years (DALYs).
The findings from this study suggest 7.8% of the burden of anxiety disorders and 10.8% of the burden of depressive disorders are attributable to bullying victimisation in Australia. An estimated 30 656 DALYs or 0.52% (95% uncertainty interval 0.33–0.72%) of all DALYs in both sexes and all ages in Australia were attributable to experiences of bullying victimisation in childhood or adolescence.
There is convincing evidence to demonstrate a causal relationship between bullying victimisation and mental disorders. This study showed that bullying victimisation contributes a significant proportion of the burden of anxiety and depressive disorders. The investment and implementation of evidence-based intervention programmes that reduce bullying victimisation in schools could reduce the burden of disease arising from common mental disorders and improve the health of Australians.
Field studies were conducted in 2016 and 2017 at Clinton, NC, to quantify the effects of season-long interference of large crabgrass [Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop.] and Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Watson) on ‘AG6536’ soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]. Weed density treatments consisted of 0, 1, 2, 4, and 8 plants m−2 for A. palmeri and 0, 1, 2, 4, and 16 plants m−2 for D. sanguinalis with (interspecific interference) and without (intraspecific interference) soybean to determine the impacts on weed biomass, soybean biomass, and seed yield. Biomass per square meter increased with increasing weed density for both weed species with and without soybean present. Biomass per square meter of D. sanguinalis was 617% and 37% greater when grown without soybean than with soybean, for 1 and 16 plants m−2 respectively. Biomass per square meter of A. palmeri was 272% and 115% greater when grown without soybean than with soybean for 1 and 8 plants m−2, respectively. Biomass per plant for D. sanguinalis and A. palmeri grown without soybean was greatest at the 1 plant m−2 density. Biomass per plant of D. sanguinalis plants across measured densities was 33% to 83% greater when grown without soybean compared with biomass per plant when soybean was present for 1 and 16 plants m−2, respectively. Similarly, biomass per plant for A. palmeri was 56% to 74% greater when grown without soybean for 1 and 8 plants m−2, respectively. Biomass per plant of either weed species was not affected by weed density when grown with soybean due to interspecific competition with soybean. Yield loss for soybean grown with A. palmeri ranged from 14% to 37% for densities of 1 to 8 plants m−2, respectively, with a maximum yield loss estimate of 49%. Similarly, predicted loss for soybean grown with D. sanguinalis was 0 % to 37% for densities of 1 to 16 m−2 with a maximum yield loss estimate of 50%. Soybean biomass was not affected by weed species or density. Results from these studies indicate that A. palmeri is more competitive than D. sanguinalis at lower densities, but that similar yield loss can occur when densities greater than 4 plants m−2 of either weed are present.
Building on prior work regarding the potential for peer contagion or deviance training in group delivered interventions (Dishion & Dodge, 2005, 2006; Dodge, Dishion, & Lansford, 2006), we leveraged data from a randomized trial, testing the integration of two preventive interventions (Promoting Alternative THinking Strategies and PAX Good Behavior Game), to explore the extent to which classroom contextual factors served as either a barrier to or a motivator for teachers to implement the evidence-based PAX Good Behavior Game with high frequency or dosage. We included students’ baseline levels of behavior, measured with regard to both positive (i.e., engagement and social emotional skills) and negative (i.e., hyperactive and aggressive-disruptive) behaviors. Data were collected from 204 teachers in 18 urban elementary schools. A series of multilevel structural equation models were fit to the data. The analyses indicated that classrooms with higher classroom levels of aggressive behavior, on average, at baseline had teachers with lower implementation dosage (i.e., played fewer games) across the school year. In addition, teachers who reported higher baseline levels of emotional exhaustion, regardless of student behavior, also reported lower implementation dosage. Taken together, the results indicated that negative, but not positive, contextual factors at baseline were related to lower implementation dosage; this, in turn, suggests that negative contextual factors may serve as a barrier, rather than a motivator, of teachers’ implementation dosage of classroom-based preventive interventions.
In the 2015 review paper ‘Petawatt Class Lasers Worldwide’ a comprehensive overview of the current status of high-power facilities of
was presented. This was largely based on facility specifications, with some description of their uses, for instance in fundamental ultra-high-intensity interactions, secondary source generation, and inertial confinement fusion (ICF). With the 2018 Nobel Prize in Physics being awarded to Professors Donna Strickland and Gerard Mourou for the development of the technique of chirped pulse amplification (CPA), which made these lasers possible, we celebrate by providing a comprehensive update of the current status of ultra-high-power lasers and demonstrate how the technology has developed. We are now in the era of multi-petawatt facilities coming online, with 100 PW lasers being proposed and even under construction. In addition to this there is a pull towards development of industrial and multi-disciplinary applications, which demands much higher repetition rates, delivering high-average powers with higher efficiencies and the use of alternative wavelengths: mid-IR facilities. So apart from a comprehensive update of the current global status, we want to look at what technologies are to be deployed to get to these new regimes, and some of the critical issues facing their development.
The discovery of a tenth-century AD high-status burial at Prague Castle in 1928 led to multiple identifications in the context of two world wars and the Cold War. Recognised variously as both a Viking and Slavonic warrior according to Nazi and Soviet ideologies, interpretation of the interred individual and associated material culture were also entangled with the story of the burial's excavator, the remains and commemorative monuments of two Czech Unknown Soldiers and the creation of the Czechoslovak state. This epic narrative reflects the circumstances of Czechoslovakia and Central Europe across the twentieth century.
Twin registries often take part in large collaborative projects and are major contributors to genome-wide association (GWA) meta-analysis studies. In this article, we describe genotyping of twin-family populations from Australia, the Midwestern USA (Avera Twin Register), the Netherlands (Netherlands Twin Register), as well as a sample of mothers of twins from Nigeria to assess the extent, if any, of genetic differences between them. Genotyping in all cohorts was done using a custom-designed Illumina Global Screening Array (GSA), optimized to improve imputation quality for population-specific GWA studies. We investigated the degree of genetic similarity between the populations using several measures of population variation with genotype data generated from the GSA. Visualization of principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that the Australian, Dutch and Midwestern American populations exhibit negligible interpopulation stratification when compared to each other, to a reference European population and to globally distant populations. Estimations of fixation indices (FST values) between the Australian, Midwestern American and Netherlands populations suggest minimal genetic differentiation compared to the estimates between each population and a genetically distinct cohort (i.e., samples from Nigeria genotyped on GSA). Thus, results from this study demonstrate that genotype data from the Australian, Dutch and Midwestern American twin-family populations can be reasonably combined for joint-genetic analysis.
Evidence from randomised controlled trials supports beneficial effects of total dairy products on body weight, fat and lean mass, but evidence on associations of dairy types with distributions of body fat and lean mass is limited. We aimed to investigate associations of total and different types of dairy products with markers of adiposity, and body fat and lean mass distribution. We evaluated cross-sectional data from 12 065 adults aged 30–65 years recruited to the Fenland Study between 2005 and 2015 in Cambridgeshire, UK. Diet was assessed with an FFQ. We estimated regression coefficients (or percentage differences) and their 95 % CI using multiple linear regression models. The medians of milk, yogurt and cheese consumption were 293 (interquartile range (IQR) 146–439), 35·3 (IQR 8·8–71·8) and 14·6 (IQR 4·8–26·9) g/d, respectively. Low-fat dairy consumption was inversely associated with visceral:subcutaneous fat ratio estimated with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (–2·58 % (95 % CI –3·91, –1·23 %) per serving/d). Habitual consumption per serving/d (200 g) of milk was associated with 0·33 (95 % CI 0·19, 0·46) kg higher lean mass. Other associations were not significant after false discovery correction. Our findings suggest that the influence of milk consumption on lean mass and of low-fat dairy consumption on fat mass distribution may be potential pathways for the link between dairy consumption and metabolic risk. Our cross-sectional findings warrant further research in prospective and experimental studies in diverse populations.
This is a copy of the slides presented at the meeting but not formally written up for the volume.
We propose a novel approach to correlate electronic properties with superconductivity in high critical temperature cuprates. We have disassembled the superconductor in the constituent blocks and investigated separately the charge reservoir (CR) and the conduction planes or infinite layer (IL) blocks, which consist of BaCuO2+x (BCO) and CaCuO2 (CCO) respectively. Artificial BCO/CCO superconducting superlattices , obtained by stacking in a sequence the two blocks, have been also measured to study the effect of charge transfer (from the CR to the IL block). On such samples, in form of c-axis oriented thin films, we have performed polarization dependent X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) and Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering (RIXS) measurements at the Cu L3 edge, to investigate the hole doping effect and the low energy excitations. XAS results clearly show a significant number of Cu d(z2) holes, both in the pure BCO samples and the BCO/CCO superlattices linked to the presence of apical oxygen. The high energy shoulder related to the existence of itinerant Cu 3d holes hybridised with O 2p (doping holes) is evident in the XAS spectra of the pure BCO and the BCO/CCO superconducting superlattices. The relative shoulder intensity decreases by increasing the CCO block thickness, in agreement with the expected decrease of the doping level. RIXS spectra show similar dd-excitations in the ab-planes for BCO, CCO and 2X2 superlattice, as a consequence of similar in-plane crystal field effects . On the contrary, the charge transfer excitations  in ab-plane look similar only for the BCO film and the 2X2 superlattice. Namely, fluorescence activates at the absorption edge because of the metal character of both the CR block and the superconducting superlattice. On the contrary in CCO (insulator) the onset of the fluorescence signal is moved at higher photon energies, in agreement with the presence of a charge transfer band gap. In addition, we have detected an excitation at 0.5 eV in BCO and BCO/CCO superlattices, but not in CCO. This excitation could be interpreted as the stabilization energy of the Zhang-Rice (ZR) singlet  in doped compounds, or as the x2-y2 to z2 dd excitation. All the results are in agreement with the scenario of charge transfer from the BCO charge reservoir block to the CCO infinite layer block.  G. Balestrino et al., Phys. Rev. B 62, 9835 (2000)  P. Kuiper et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 5204 (1998)  G. Ghiringhelli et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 117406 (2004)  N.B.Brookes et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 237003 (2001).
This is a copy of the slides presented at the meeting but not formally written up for the volume.
As in vivo cellular imaging becomes the necessary norm for understanding cancer and other diseases, new non-toxic nanoprobes are going to be required to replace the high quality cadmium based nanoprobes in use today. We are developing less toxic probes based on two types of luminescent ceramic nanoparticles: naturally occurring fluorescent (NOF) mimics and Ln-based ceramic oxide materials. The NOF minerals of interest and that have demonstrated initial luminosity of sufficient brightness for use in cellular studies that include sphalerite, scheelite, manganoan and perovskite nanoparticles. For Ln-based materials we have shown that Ln-doped zincite will also luminesce enough to allow for quantification in cellular activity. Once formed, these probes are functionalized such that they can be delivered to desired cellular targets. Probe derivatization has focused on surface capping with functionalized poly(ethyleneglycol) molecules/lipids to yield water soluble NCs and polyarginine-based transporters for transmembrane delivery. The probes are being evaluated for their luminescent properties, as well as their non-toxicity and ability to report on cell-signaling events with various cell lines using multi-spectral, confocal microscopy, and other techniques. Preliminary interdisciplinary studies have validated the basic approaches for the synthesis of NOF nanoprobes and the bio-delivery and imaging of nanoparticles. Work to optimize the design, delivery, and imaging of these new nanoprobes is expected to achieve the NIH directed goal of increasing in the sensitivity and specificity of molecular probes for imaging. Details of the synthesis, functionalization and biological imaging using these probes will be presented. This work partially supported by the United States Department of Energy under contract number DE-AC04-94AL85000. Sandia is a multi-program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed-Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy and by the National Institutes of health through the NIH Roadmap for Medical Research, Grant #1 R21 EB005365-01. Information on this RFA (Innovation in Molecular Imaging Probes) can be found at http://grants.nih.gov/grants/guide/rfa-files/RFA-RM-04-021.html.
Rates and risk factors for suicidal behaviour require updating and comparisons among mood disorders.
To identify factors associated with suicidal risk in major mood disorders.
We considered risk factors before, during and after intake assessments of 3284 adults with/without suicidal acts, overall and with bipolar disorder (BD) versus major depressive disorder (MDD), using bivariate comparisons, multivariable regression modelling and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis.
Suicidal prevalence was greater in BD versus MDD: ideation, 29.2 versus 17.3%; attempts, 18.8 versus 4.78%; suicide, 1.73 versus 0.48%; attempts/suicide ratio indicated similar lethality, 10.9 versus 9.96. Suicidal acts were associated with familial BD or suicide, being divorced/unmarried, fewer children, early abuse/trauma, unemployment, younger onset, longer illness, more dysthymic or cyclothymic temperament, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), substance misuse, mixed features, hospital admission, percentage time unwell, less antidepressants and more antipsychotics and mood stabilisers. Logistic regression found five independent factors: hospital admission, more depression at intake, BD diagnosis, onset age ≤25 years and mixed features. These factors were more associated with suicidal acts in BD than MDD: percentage time depressed/ill, alcohol misuse, >4 pre-intake depressions, more dysthymic/cyclothymic temperament and prior abuse/trauma. ADHD and total years ill were similar in BD and MDD; other factors were more associated with MDD. By ROC analysis, area under the curve was 71.3%, with optimal sensitivity (76%) and specificity (55%) with any two factors.
Suicidal risks were high in mood disorders: ideation was highest with BD type II, attempts and suicides (especially violent) with BD type I. Several risk factors for suicidal acts differed between BD versus MDD patients.
Declaration of interest
No author or immediate family member has financial relationships with commercial entities that might appear to represent potential conflicts of interest with the information presented.
The study examined (a) whether alcohol use subgroups could be identified among African Americans assessed from adolescence through early adulthood, and (b) whether subgroup membership was associated with the interaction between internalizing symptoms and antisocial behavior polygenic risk scores (PRSs) and environmental characteristics (i.e., parental monitoring, community disadvantage). Participants (N = 436) were initially recruited for an elementary school-based prevention trial in a Mid-Atlantic city. Youths reported on the frequency of their past year alcohol use from ages 14–26. DNA was obtained from participants at age 21. Internalizing symptoms and antisocial behavior PRSs were created based on a genome-wide association study (GWAS) conducted by Benke et al. (2014) and Tielbeek et al. (2017), respectively. Parental monitoring and community disadvantage were assessed at age 12. Four classes of past year alcohol use were identified: (a) early-onset, increasing; (b) late-onset, moderate use; (c) low steady; and (d) early-onset, decreasing. In high community disadvantaged settings, participants with a higher internalizing symptoms PRS were more likely to be in the early-onset, decreasing class than the low steady class. When exposed to elevated community disadvantage, participants with a higher antisocial behavior PRS were more likely to be in the early-onset, increasing class than the early-onset, decreasing and late-onset, moderate use classes.
To estimate latent dietary profiles in a community-dwelling sample of older Americans and identify associations between dietary profile membership and individual demographic, socio-economic and health characteristics.
Secondary analysis of the 2012 Health and Retirement Study (HRS) and linked 2013 Health Care and Nutrition Study (HCNS). Latent profile analysis identified mutually exclusive subgroups of dietary intake and bivariate analyses examined associations between dietary profile membership, participant characteristics and nutrient intakes.
An analytic sample of 3558 adults aged 65 years or older.
Four dietary profiles were identified with 15·5 % of the sample having a ‘Healthy’ diet, 42·0 % consuming a ‘Western’ diet, 29·7 % having a diet consisting of high intake of all food groups and 12·7 % reporting relatively low intake of all food groups. Members of the ‘Healthy’ profile reported the greatest socio-economic resources and health, and members of the ‘Low Intake’ profile had the fewest resources and worst health outcomes. Macronutrient and micronutrient intakes varied across profile although inadequate and excessive intakes of selected nutrients were observed for all profiles.
We identified dietary patterns among older Americans typified by either selective intake of foods or overall quantity of foods consumed, with those described as ‘Low Intake’ reporting the fewest socio-economic resources, greatest risk of food insecurity and the worst health outcomes. Limitations including the presence of measurement error in dietary questionnaires are discussed. The causes and consequences of limited dietary intake among older Americans require further study and can be facilitated by the HRS and HCNS.
Inadequate protein quality may be a risk factor for poor growth. To examine the effect of a macronutrient–micronutrient supplement KOKO Plus (KP), provided to infants from 6 to 18 months of age, on linear growth, a single-blind cluster-randomised study was implemented in Ghana. A total of thirty-eight communities were randomly allocated to receive KP (fourteen communities, n 322), a micronutrient powder (MN, thirteen communities, n 329) and nutrition education (NE, eleven communities, n 319). A comparison group was followed cross-sectionally (n 303). Supplement delivery and morbidity were measured weekly and anthropometry monthly. NE education was provided monthly. Baseline, midline and endline measurements at 6, 12 and 18 months included venous blood draws, diet, anthropometry, morbidity, food security and socio-economics. Length-for-age Z-score (LAZ) was the primary outcome. Analyses were intent-to-treat using mixed-effects regressions adjusted for clustering, sex, age and baseline. No differences existed in mean LAZ scores at endline (−1·219 (sd 0·06) KP, −1·211 (sd 0·03) MN, −1·266 (sd 0·03) NE). Acute infection prevalence was lower in the KP than NE group (P = 0·043). Mean serum Hb was higher in KP infants free from acute infection (114·02 (sd 1·87) g/l) than MN (107·8 (sd 2·5) g/l; P = 0·047) and NE (108·8 (sd 0·99) g/l; P = 0·051). Compliance was 84·9 % (KP) and 87·2 % (MN) but delivery 60 %. Adjusting for delivery and compliance, LAZ score at endline was significantly higher in the KP v. MN group (+0·2 LAZ; P = 0·026). A macro- and micronutrient-fortified supplement KP reduced acute infection, improved Hb and demonstrated a dose–response effect on LAZ adjusting consumption for delivery.