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Cognitive theories of generalised anxiety disorder (GAD) posit that cognitive and behavioural factors maintain the disorder. This study examined whether avoidance and safety behaviours mediated the relationship between cognitive factors and GAD symptoms. We also examined the reverse mediation model; that is, whether cognitive factors mediated the relationship between maladaptive behaviours and GAD symptoms. Undergraduate psychology students (N = 125 and N = 292) completed the Worry Behaviours Inventory (a recently developed measure of maladaptive behaviours associated with GAD), in addition to measures of intolerance of uncertainty, cognitive avoidance, metacognitive beliefs, and symptoms of GAD and depression. Analyses supported the reliability and validity of the WBI. We consistently found that engagement in maladaptive behaviours significantly mediated the relationship between cognitive factors and symptoms of GAD. The reverse mediation model was also supported. Our results are consistent with the contention that cognitive and behavioural factors contribute to GAD symptom severity.
Background: Cognitive models of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) suggest that maladaptive behaviours may contribute to the maintenance of the disorder; however, little research has concentrated on identifying and measuring these behaviours. To address this gap, the Worry Behaviors Inventory (WBI) was developed and has been evaluated within a classical test theory (CTT) approach. Aims: As CTT is limited in several important respects, this study examined the psychometric properties of the WBI using an Item Response Theory approach. Method: A large sample of adults commencing treatment for their symptoms of GAD (n = 537) completed the WBI in addition to measures of GAD and depression symptom severity. Results: Patients with a probable diagnosis of GAD typically engaged in four or five maladaptive behaviours most or all of the time in an attempt to prevent, control or avoid worrying about everyday concerns. The two-factor structure of the WBI was confirmed, and the WBI scales demonstrated good reliability across a broad range of the respective scales. Together with previous findings, our results suggested that hypervigilance and checking behaviours, as well as avoidance of saying or doing things that are worrisome, were the most relevant maladaptive behaviours associated with GAD, and discriminated well between adults with low, moderate and high degrees of the respective WBI scales. Conclusions: Our results support the importance of maladaptive behaviours to GAD and the utility of the WBI to index these behaviours. Ramifications for the classification, theoretical conceptualization and treatment of GAD are discussed.
Background: The use of maladaptive behaviors by individuals with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is theoretically important and clinically meaningful. However, little is known about the specificity of avoidant behaviors to GAD and how these behaviors can be reliably assessed. Aims: This study replicated and extended the psychometric evaluation of the Worry Behaviors Inventory (WBI), a brief self-report measure of avoidant behaviors associated with GAD. Method: The WBI was administered to a hospital-based sample of adults seeking treatment for symptoms of anxiety and/or depression (n = 639) and to a community sample (n = 55). Participants completed measures of symptom severity (GAD, depression, panic disorder, health anxiety, and personality disorder), and measures of checking, reassurance-seeking and behavioral inhibition. Analyses evaluated the factor structure, convergent, divergent, incremental, and discriminant validity, as well the temporal stability and treatment sensitivity of the WBI. Results: The two-factor structure found in the preliminary psychometric evaluation of the WBI was replicated. The WBI was sensitive to changes across treatment and correlated well with measures of GAD symptom severity and maladaptive behaviors. The WBI was more strongly related to GAD symptom severity than other disorders. The WBI discriminated between clinical and community samples. Conclusions: The WBI provides clinicians and researchers with a brief, clinically meaningful index of problematic behaviors that may guide treatment decisions and contribute to our understanding of maintaining factors in GAD.
Almost nothing is known about the potential negative effects of Internet-based psychological treatments for depression. This study aims at investigating deterioration and its moderators within randomized trials on Internet-based guided self-help for adult depression, using an individual patient data meta-analyses (IPDMA) approach.
Studies were identified through systematic searches (PubMed, PsycINFO, EMBASE, Cochrane Library). Deterioration in participants was defined as a significant symptom increase according to the reliable change index (i.e. 7.68 points in the CES-D; 7.63 points in the BDI). Two-step IPDMA procedures, with a random-effects model were used to pool data.
A total of 18 studies (21 comparisons, 2079 participants) contributed data to the analysis. The risk for a reliable deterioration from baseline to post-treatment was significantly lower in the intervention v. control conditions (3.36 v. 7.60; relative risk 0.47, 95% confidence interval 0.29–0.75). Education moderated effects on deterioration, with patients with low education displaying a higher risk for deterioration than patients with higher education. Deterioration rates for patients with low education did not differ statistically significantly between intervention and control groups. The benefit–risk ratio for patients with low education indicated that 9.38 patients achieve a treatment response for each patient experiencing a symptom deterioration.
Internet-based guided self-help is associated with a mean reduced risk for a symptom deterioration compared to controls. Treatment and symptom progress of patients with low education should be closely monitored, as some patients might face an increased risk for symptom deterioration. Future studies should examine predictors of deterioration in patients with low education.
To determine the prospective relationship between changes in sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake and central adiposity in older children.
Dietary intakes of children were obtained by 3 d food records at ages 10 and 13 years. Waist circumference (WC) and weight and height to determine BMI were measured at 10 and 13 years and total body fat mass (TBFM) at 13 years by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Analyses were conducted using multivariable linear regression. Reporting errors were measured and participants were categorized as under-, plausible and over-reporters of dietary intakes.
Community-based British cohort of children participating in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children.
Among 2455 older children, increased SSB consumption from ages 10 to 13 years was associated with higher WC (standardized β=0·020, P=0·19), BMI (β=0·028, P=0·03) and TBFM (β=0·017, P=0·20) at 13 years. Effects were strengthened among plausible dietary reporters (n 1059): WC (β=0·097, P<0·001), BMI (β=0·074, P<0·001) and TBFM (β=0·065, P=0·003). The association between change in SSB and WC was weakened, but remained statistically significant after accounting for BMI (β=0·042, P=0·02) and TBFM (β=0·048, P=0·01).
Higher consumption of SSB from ages 10 to 13 years was associated with a larger WC at age 13 years independent of differences in total adiposity. Accounting for dietary reporting errors strengthened associations. Our findings further support recommendations to limit intakes of SSB to reduce excess weight gain in children and suggest that SSB have an additional deleterious effect on central adiposity.
Major depressive disorder (MDD) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) have the highest co-morbidity rates within the internalizing disorders cluster, yet no Internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy (iCBT) programme exists for their combined treatment.
We designed a six-lesson therapist-assisted iCBT programme for mixed anxiety and depression. Study 1 was a randomized controlled trial (RCT) comparing the iCBT programme (n = 46) versus wait-list control (WLC; n = 53) for patients diagnosed by structured clinical interview with MDD, GAD or co-morbid GAD/MDD. Primary outcome measures were the Patient Health Questionnaire nine-item scale (depression), Generalized Anxiety Disorder seven-item scale (generalized anxiety), Kessler 10-item Psychological Distress scale (distress) and 12-item World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II (disability). The iCBT group was followed up at 3 months post-treatment. In study 2, we investigated the adherence to, and efficacy of the same programme in a primary care setting, where patients (n = 136) completed the programme under the supervision of primary care clinicians.
The RCT showed that the iCBT programme was more effective than WLC, with large within- and between-groups effect sizes found (>0.8). Adherence was also high (89%), and gains were maintained at 3-month follow-up. In study 2 in primary care, adherence to the iCBT programme was low (41%), yet effect sizes were large (>0.8). Of the non-completers, 30% experienced benefit.
Together, the results show that iCBT is effective and adherence is high in research settings, but there is a problem of adherence when translated into the ‘real world’. Future efforts need to be placed on developing improved adherence to iCBT in primary care settings.
Despite the extensive literature on global slavery and servitude, human bondage in Xinjiang (Eastern Turkestan) during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries has been largely neglected. Here bondage did not discriminate between ethnic, racial or religious groups and fulfilled a wide range of social, economic, and political functions, reflecting both the region's geographical position at the edge of Central Asia and its political position—first as a dependency and then as a province of Qing China. This paper discusses the nature of the forms of bondage that emerged in this unique geopolitical setting and suggests that the emancipation of Xinjiang's ‘British’ slaves at the end of the nineteenth century and the gradual decline of bondage resulted from a convergence of local, regional, and global forces.
To evaluate long-term patterns of weight change and progression to overweight and obesity during adulthood.
Prospective study. Changes in mean BMI, waist circumference (WC) and weight were assessed over a mean 26-year follow-up (1971–1975 to 1998–2001). Mean BMI (95 % CI) and mean WC (95 % CI) of men and women in BMI and age groups were computed. Mean weight change in BMI and age categories was compared using analysis of covariance.
Framingham Heart Study Offspring/Spouse Nutrition Study.
Men and women (n 2394) aged 20–63 years.
During follow-up, increases in BMI (men: 2·2 kg/m2; women: 3·7 kg/m2) and WC (men: 5·7 cm; women: 15·1 cm) were larger in women than men. BMI gains were greatest in younger adults (20–39 years) and smallest in obese older adults (50–69 years). The prevalence of obesity doubled in men (to 33·2 %) and tripled in women (to 26·6 %). Among normal-weight individuals, abdominal obesity developed in women only. The prevalence of abdominal obesity increased 1·8-fold in men (to 53·0 %) and 2·4-fold in women (to 71·2 %). Weight gain was greatest in the youngest adults (20–29 years), particularly women. Gains continued into the fifth decade among men and then declined in the sixth decade; in women gains continued into the sixth decade.
Patterns of weight change and progression to obesity during adulthood differ in men and women. Preventive intervention strategies for overweight and obesity need to consider age- and sex-specific patterns of changes in anthropometric measures.
Major depressive disorder (MDD) during pregnancy increases the risk of adverse maternal and infant outcomes. Maternal nutritional status may be a modifiable risk factor for antenatal depression. We evaluated the association between patterns in mid-pregnancy nutritional biomarkers and MDD.
Prospective cohort study.
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA.
Women who enrolled at ≤20 weeks’ gestation and had a diagnosis of MDD made with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition) at 20-, 30- and 36-week study visits. A total of 135 women contributed 345 person-visits. Non-fasting blood drawn at enrolment was assayed for red cell essential fatty acids, plasma folate, homocysteine and ascorbic acid; serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, retinol, vitamin E, carotenoids, ferritin and soluble transferrin receptors. Nutritional biomarkers were entered into principal components analysis.
Three factors emerged: Factor 1, Essential Fatty Acids; Factor 2, Micronutrients; and Factor 3, Carotenoids. MDD was prevalent in 21·5 % of women. In longitudinal multivariable logistic models, there was no association between the Essential Fatty Acids or Micronutrients pattern and MDD either before or after adjustment for employment, education or pre-pregnancy BMI. In unadjusted analysis, women with factor scores for Carotenoids in the middle and upper tertiles were 60 % less likely than women in the bottom tertile to have MDD during pregnancy, but after adjustment for confounders the associations were no longer statistically significant.
While meaningful patterns were derived using nutritional biomarkers, significant associations with MDD were not observed in multivariable adjusted analyses. Larger, more diverse samples are needed to understand nutrition–depression relationships during pregnancy.
Obesity affects one in three American adult women and is associated with overall mortality and major morbidities. A composite diet index to evaluate total diet quality may better assess the complex relationship between diet and obesity, providing insights for nutrition interventions. The purpose of the present investigation was to determine whether diet quality, defined according to the previously validated Framingham nutritional risk score (FNRS), was associated with the development of overweight or obesity in women. Over 16 years, we followed 590 normal-weight women (BMI < 25 kg/m2), aged 25 to 71 years, of the Framingham Offspring and Spouse Study who presented without CVD, cancer or diabetes at baseline. The nineteen-nutrient FNRS derived from mean ranks of nutrient intakes from 3 d dietary records was used to assess nutritional risk. The outcome was development of overweight or obesity (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2) during follow-up. In a stepwise multiple logistic regression model adjusted for age, physical activity and smoking status, the FNRS was directly related to overweight or obesity (P for trend = 0·009). Women with lower diet quality (i.e. higher nutritional risk scores) were significantly more likely to become overweight or obese (OR 1·76; 95 % CI 1·16, 2·69) compared with those with higher diet quality. Diet quality, assessed using a comprehensive composite nutritional risk score, predicted development of overweight or obesity. This finding suggests that overall diet quality be considered a key component in planning and implementing programmes for obesity risk reduction and treatment recommendations.
The ultrafast dynamic reflectivity of vanadium pentoxide is measured using 40 fs pulses from a self-mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser. The laser pulses excite acoustic vibrations at wave numbers of 145 and 103 cm−1. The amplitudes of the induced oscillations depend strongly on the orientation between the linear polarization of the laser pulses and the crystal axes, with the largest oscillations observed for an orientation of 45°. The higher-frequency oscillation is induced immediately upon arrival of the laser pulse, while the lower-frequency oscillation appears a few picoseconds later. The oscillations persist for approximately 10 ps after the arrival of the pulse. The oscillations are attributed to transverse acoustic modes propagating along the a-axis of the crystal.
The Xinjiang People's Publishing House recently produced a series of booklets on the historical characters of Xinjiang. Included among the accounts of the region's heroes and heroines are the stories of some five hakim-begs, the local chief administrators during the Qing. They have all won inclusion in this series for demonstrations of loyalty to their Manchu conquerors and assistance rendered in the suppression of revolt against the Chinese empire. Heavily edited as these accounts may be, historical evidence of the hakims' co-operation with their conquerors is irrefutable.
The Okapi Wildlife Reserve was created in May 1992 to conserve a representative area of the Ituri rainforest in north-eastern Zaïre. This article examines the threats facing this large protected area and summarizes the management actions proposed to address these problems within the next 10 years. Emphasis is placed on the need to integrate the local population into reserve management and to empower people as much as possible to manage their own resources. The long-term future of the reserve in the context of national economic and political instability is discussed.
Key relatives of 30 first or early admission psychotic patients (mainly with a diagnosis of schizophrenia) were interviewed (for a second time) 18 months after participating in an initial assessment of expressed emotion (EE). The patients were followed up throughout the interim period, during which time 17 experienced a psychotic relapse. Although there continued to be a negligible association between initial EE rating (established during the index admission) and relapse, a significant association between EE rating at 18 months and psychiatric status of the patient during the follow-up period emerged. Results are discussed in the context of recent interactional theories of the relationship between household EE and psychiatric morbidity.
The Intestinal Immune System is obliged to recognise not only antigens associated with pathogenic organisms but also harmless dietary protein. Since chronic immune responses to these ubiquitous antigens present in food are likely to be harmful to normal intestinal function, regulatory mechanisms have evolved which reduce immune responses to such antigens to levels acceptable to the individual. It is essential to the effective working of these mechanisms that the introduction to new antigens should be gradual and not be associated with the sudden presentation of large amounts of a new dietary material. Modern intensive weaning methods pay scant attention to the needs of these immunoregulatory systems, and the resultant immune response may be the cause of the villous atrophy and crypt hyperplasia seen immediately after weaning and which are thought to precipitate post weaning E. coli diarrhoea.