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The beneficial effects of physical activity (PA) for both physical and mental wellbeing are well established. Given that adolescence presents a critical developmental period during which life-long patterns of PA become established, the exploration of the longitudinal impact of adolescent psychopathology on adult PA status is of interest.
We analysed prospective data from 3663 young adults who participated in the Mater-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy. Psychopathology was measured using the Youth Self-Report (YSR) at age 14. Participants’ engagement in three types of PA (vigorous exercise, moderate exercise and walking) at age 21 were dichotomised into either ‘none’ or ‘any’. For our main analysis, we examined the association between the YSR score and subsequent PA engagement using logistic regression. We also conducted sensitivity analyses of longitudinal associations between the YSR internalising and externalising symptoms score at age 14 and PA engagement at age 21.
We found no longitudinal association between the total YSR score at age 14 and PA engagement at age 21. In addition, there was no longitudinal association between the YSR internalising or externalising symptoms and PA engagement.
Our findings suggest that there is no longitudinal association between adolescent psychopathology and PA in young adulthood.
Parents are a major supplier of alcohol to adolescents, yet there is limited research examining the impact of this on adolescent alcohol use. This study investigates associations between parental supply of alcohol, supply from other sources, and adolescent drinking, adjusting for child, parent, family and peer variables.
A cohort of 1927 adolescents was surveyed annually from 2010 to 2014. Measures include: consumption of whole drinks; binge drinking (>4 standard drinks on any occasion); parental supply of alcohol; supply from other sources; child, parent, family and peer covariates.
After adjustment, adolescents supplied alcohol by parents had higher odds of drinking whole beverages [odds ratio (OR) 1.80, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.33–2.45] than those not supplied by parents. However, parental supply was not associated with bingeing, and those supplied alcohol by parents typically consumed fewer drinks per occasion (incidence rate ratio 0.86, 95% CI 0.77–0.96) than adolescents supplied only from other sources. Adolescents obtaining alcohol from non-parental sources had increased odds of drinking whole beverages (OR 2.53, 95% CI 1.86–3.45) and bingeing (OR 3.51, 95% CI 2.53–4.87).
Parental supply of alcohol to adolescents was associated with increased risk of drinking, but not bingeing. These parentally-supplied children also consumed fewer drinks on a typical drinking occasion. Adolescents supplied alcohol from non-parental sources had greater odds of drinking and bingeing. Further follow-up is necessary to determine whether these patterns continue, and to examine alcohol-related harm trajectories. Parents should be advised that supply of alcohol may increase children's drinking.
To identify distinct trajectories of depression experienced by a population-based sample of women over a 27-year period and to assess the validity of the derived trajectories.
The Mater University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy is a birth cohort study which commenced in 1981. Women (N = 6753) were interviewed at their first clinic visit, at 6 months, then 5, 14, 21 and 27 years after the birth of their child, using the Delusions Symptoms – States Inventory. Some 3561 (52.7%) women were followed up at 27 years, with 3337 (49.4%) of the sample completing the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Depression trajectories over a 27-year period were identified using Latent Class Growth Modelling (LCGM). LCGM was used to identify respondents with similar patterns of depression over a 27-year period. At the 27-year follow-up women who completed the CIDI, were stratified according to their trajectory group membership.
Three trajectory groups, each with different life-course patterns of depression were identified. The low/no symptoms of depression trajectory group comprised 48.4% of women. The mid-depression group (41.7%) had a consistent pattern of occasional symptoms of depression. The high/escalating trajectory group comprised 9.9% of the women in the study. We then examined each trajectory group based on their completion of the CIDI at the 27-year follow-up. Using the CIDI, 27.0% of women in the study had met the DSM-IV criteria for lifetime ever depression by their mean age of 46.5 years. The responses to the CIDI differed greatly for each of the trajectory groups, suggesting that the trajectories validly reflect different life histories of depression. The high/escalating trajectory group had an earlier age of first onset, more frequent episodes, longer duration of each episode of depression and experienced higher levels of impairment for their episodes of depression. For the high symptoms trajectory group, clinically significant depression is estimated to be experienced by women almost one in every 6 days of their life.
While symptoms of depression are commonly experienced in a large community-based sample of women, a minority of women experience many episodes of depression in their lifetime. It is this group of women who are most impaired and should be of most concern, and who should be the main target of prevention and treatment initiatives.
To examine the prospective association of television (TV) watching from adolescence to young adulthood with BMI, waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and obesity.
A community-based longitudinal cohort study.
Mater–University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy (MUSP) Cohort, Brisbane, Australia.
A sub-sample of 2439 children was followed up at ages 14 years and 21 years as part of a population-based birth cohort. Offspring reported the number of TV viewing hours each day at 14 and 21 years. BMI, WC and WHR were measured at 21 years.
In the adjusted model, offspring who watched TV for <3 h/d at 14 years but for ≥3 h/d at 21 years, or who watched TV for ≥3 h/d at 14 and 21 years, had greater BMI, WC and WHR at 21 years. Offspring who watched TV for ≥3 h/d at 14 years but for <3 h/d at 21 years had similar mean BMI, WC and WHR at 21 years to those who watched TV for <3 h/d at 14 and 21 years. Those offspring who reduced their TV watching hours to <3 h/d during the transition from adolescence into young adulthood were at less risk of becoming obese and those who continued or increased their TV watching to ≥3 h/d were at greater risk of becoming obese. This association remained independent of the potential confounding factors considered.
The present findings suggest that our efforts to decrease obesity by reducing TV watching hours among adults should consider interventions to reduce TV time among adolescents.
Children of depressed mothers not only have higher risk of depression, but also may experience both elevated and continuing exposure to stressful experiences. The study tested hypotheses of the intergenerational transmission of stress and depression and examined the role of early childhood adversity and maternal depression in the interplay between youth depression and stress over 20 years.
In a longitudinal community study of 705 families selected for history or absence of maternal depression, mothers and youth were studied from pregnancy to age 5 years and at youth ages 15 and 20 years. Youth and maternal depression were assessed with diagnostic interviews, acute and chronic interview-based stress assessment in the youth and contemporaneous measures of childhood adversity obtained between pregnancy and youth age 5 years.
Regression analyses indicated evidence of intergenerational transmission and continuity of depression over time, continuity of acute and chronic stress and reciprocal predictive associations between depression and stress. Maternal depression and exposure to adversities by child's age 5 years contributed to the youth's continuing experiences of depression and stress. An overall path model was consistent with stress continuity and intergenerational transmission and highlighted the mediating role of age 15 youth chronic interpersonal stress.
Youth of depressed mothers are at risk not only for depression but also for continuing experiences of acute and chronic stress from childhood to age 20. The associations among depression and stress are bidirectional and portend continuing experiences of depression and further stress.
Birth cohort studies have shown that individuals who develop non-affective psychoses display subtle deviations in behaviour during childhood and adolescence. We had the opportunity to examine the widely used Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and the Youth Self-Report (YSR) to explore the antecedents of non-affective psychosis.
Based on a birth cohort of 3801 young adults, psychopathology was assessed at years 5 and 14 using the CBCL and/or the YSR. Screen-positive non-affective psychosis (SP-NAP) was assessed at year 21 by using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) or a self-report checklist. The association between childhood symptoms and SP-NAP was examined using logistic regression.
Of the cohort, 60 subjects were classified as SP-NAP. In males, SP-NAP was associated with higher scores: (a) on year 5 CBCL ‘Total’, ‘Aggression’ and ‘Social, Attention and Thought’ scores; (b) on year 14 CBCL ‘Social’, ‘Attention’ and ‘Delinquency’ scores, and (c) YSR ‘Total’ and many YSR subscores. These associations were less clear for females. Hallucinations at year 14 were associated with SP-NAP for both sexes. Boys with high ‘Total’ scores at both years 5 and 14 were at greatest risk of SP-NAP (a 5-fold risk), followed by boys and girls whose ‘Social, Attention and Thought’ scores either increased or remained high from years 5 to 14 (3- to 13-fold risk).
Individuals who screen positive for non-affective psychosis show increased psychopathology during childhood and adolescence. The psychopathological trajectory of children who go on to develop schizophrenia anticipates the heterogeneity associated with the full clinical syndrome.
While various conceptualizations of the link between childhood adversity and later depression have been offered, most have not accounted for the possibility that early adversity predicts continuing stress proximal to depression onset. Thus, the present study tested the possible mediating role of recent stress in the association between early adversity and depression in late adolescence.
Study questions were examined in a longitudinal community sample of 705 youth who were contemporaneously assessed for early adversity exposure prior to age 5 years, chronic and episodic stress at age 15 years, and major depression prior to age 15 years and between 15 and 20 years.
Total youth stress burden at age 15 years mediated the effect of early adversity on depression between ages 15 and 20 years, and none of the observed relationships were moderated by onset of depression prior to age 15 years.
These findings suggest that continued stress exposure proximal to depression onset largely accounts for the association between early adversity and depression in late adolescence. Intervention should thus focus on disrupting the continuity of stressful conditions across childhood and adolescence. Future studies of the neurobiological and psychosocial mechanisms of the link between early experiences and depression should explore whether the effects of early experiences are independent of continuing adversity proximal to depressive onset.
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