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This paper presents a combined experimental and large-eddy simulation study to characterise the effect of aspect ratio on the near-wake structure of a square finite wall-mounted cylinder (FWMC). The cylinder aspect ratios (span
) investigated in the experiments were
$1.4\leqslant L/W\leqslant 21.4$
and the oncoming boundary-layer thicknesses were
at a Reynolds number based on cylinder width of
, respectively. In complementary simulations, the cylinder aspect ratios investigated were 1.4, 4.3, 10 and 18.6. The cylinder wake structure was visualised in three-dimensional space using a vortex core detection method and decomposed to its oscillation modes using the spectral proper orthogonal decomposition (SPOD) technique. A parametric diagram is proposed to predict whether the time-averaged wake structure is a dipole or a quadrupole pattern, based on oncoming boundary-layer height and aspect ratio. Cellular shedding occurs when the aspect ratio is high with up to three shedding cells occurring across the span for aspect ratios
. Each of these cells sheds at a distinct frequency, as evidenced by the spectral content of the surface pressure measured on the side face and the near-wake velocity. Amplitude modulation is also observed in the vortex shedding, which explains the amplitude modulation of the acoustic pressure emitted by square FWMCs. SPOD is shown to be a viable method to identify the occurrence of cellular shedding in the wake.
A better understanding of the dynamics of different particulate organic matter (OM) pools in the coastal carbon budget is a key issue for quantifying the role of the coastal ocean in the global carbon cycle. To elucidate the benthic component of this carbon cycle at the land-sea interface, we investigated the carbon isotope signatures (δ13C and ∆14C) in the sediment pore waters dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in addition to the sediment OM to constrain the origin of the OM mineralized in sediments. The study site is located at the outlet of the Rhône River (Mediterranean Sea), which was chosen because this river is one of the most nuclearized rivers in Europe and nuclear 14C can serve as a tracer to follow the fate of the OM discharged by the river to the coastal sea. The ∆14C results found in the pore waters DIC show a general offset between buried and mineralized OM following a preferential mineralization model of young and fresh particles. For example, we found that the sediment OM has values with a mean ∆14C=–33‰ at sampling stations near the river mouth whereas enriched ∆14C values around +523‰ and +667‰ respectively were found for the pore waters DIC. This indicates complete mineralization of a riverine fraction of OM enriched in 14C in the river conduit during in-stream photosynthesis. In shelf sediments, the ∆14C of pore waters DIC is slightly enriched (+57‰) with sediment OM reaching –570‰. A mixing model shows that particles mineralized near the river mouth are certainly of riverine phytoplanktonic origin whereas OM mineralized on the shelf is of marine origin. This work highlights the fact that pore waters provide additional information compared to sediments alone and it seems essential to work on both pools to study the carbon budget in river prodelta.
The acoustics of a straight annular lined duct containing a swirling mean flow is considered. The classical Ingard–Myers impedance boundary condition is shown not to be correct for swirling flow. By considering behaviour within the thin boundary layers at the duct walls, the correct impedance boundary condition for an infinitely thin boundary layer with swirl is derived, which reduces to the Ingard–Myers condition when the swirl is set to zero. The correct boundary condition contains a spring-like term due to centrifugal acceleration at the walls, and consequently has a different sign at the inner (hub) and outer (tip) walls. Examples are given for mean flows relevant to the interstage region of aeroengines. Surface waves in swirling flows are also considered, and are shown to obey a more complicated dispersion relation than for non-swirling flows. The stability of the surface waves is also investigated, and as in the non-swirling case, one unstable surface wave per wall is found.
In this paper, first results comparing modified Longin and ninhydrin collagen extraction methodologies are presented. The goal of this study is to investigate the bones of several species with different ages, preservation conditions, and collagen contents to determine the most suitable preparation method. Different types of samples are used such as VIRI samples, previously dated bones, and background samples. Each bone has undergone elemental analysis, infrared analysis, and 14C measurement. The results are presented and the advantages and disadvantages of each preparation method are discussed. In general, results obtained by the two methods are in accordance with the consensus value for 2σ uncertainty. For VIRI I and a mammoth bone, the ninhydrin preparation gives, respectively, 8450±70 BP and 14,870±60 BP whereas the modified Longin process gives 8365±45 BP and 14,750±100 BP in agreement with the expected values. From the experimental point of view, the modified Longin process is easier to implement than the ninhydrin protocol. From this approach, we can conclude that the modified Longin process could be preferred in most cases and particularly when the amount of bone is small and the sample is not too contaminated.
This paper presents the results of an experimental study that relates the flow structures in the wake of a square finite wall-mounted cylinder with the radiated noise. Acoustic and hot-wire measurements were taken in an anechoic wind tunnel. The cylinder was immersed in a near-zero-pressure gradient boundary layer whose thickness was 130 % of the cylinder width,
. Aspect ratios were in the range
$0.29\leqslant L/W\leqslant 22.9$
is the cylinder span), and the Reynolds number, based on width, was
. Four shedding regimes were identified, namely R0 (
), RI (
), RII (
) and RIII (
), with each shedding regime displaying an additional acoustic tone as the aspect ratio was increased. At low aspect ratios (R0 and RI), downwash dominated the wake, creating a highly three-dimensional shedding environment with maximum downwash at
. Looping vortex structures were visualised using a phase eduction technique. The principal core of the loops generated the most noise perpendicular to the cylinder. For higher aspect ratios in RII and RIII, the main noise producing structures consisted of a series of inclined vortex filaments, where the angle of inclination varied between vortex cells.
For the first time, to our knowledge, a scientific study of the formation and evolution of waterfall ice, the ephemeral ice structures that form from the freezing of liquid water seeping on steep rock, was performed. We surveyed and analysed three waterfall ice structures near Glacier d’Argentière, Mont Blanc massif, France, between winter 2007 and spring 2009. We reconstruct the global evolution of two vertical ice structures using automatic digital cameras, while the internal ice microstructure was analysed using ice coring and sampling. Macro- and microstructural observations are considered, along with temperature conditions recorded at a nearby meteorological station and directly within the ice structure. They reveal that vertical structures initially grow rapidly from the aggregation of stalactites with microstructures indicative of temperature conditions during their crystallization. After this initial stage, the volume of the ice structure reaches an asymptotic value, as water continues to flow inside the structure, isolated from the outside cold ice; the outer surface remains dry. At the end of the season, the collapse of the free-standing structure does not occur by progressive melting, but is initiated by a horizontal crack propagation at the top. The initiation of this crack seems to be triggered by a drastic temperature decrease.
We present a study of the mechanical (in)stability of the ephemeral waterfall ice structures that form from the freezing of liquid water seeping on steep rock. Three vertical structures were studied, two near Glacier d’Argentière, France, and one in the Valsavarenche valley, northern Italy. The generation of internal stresses in the ice structure in relation to air- and ice-temperature conditions is analyzed from pressure sensor records. Their role in the mechanical instability of the structures is discussed from a photographic survey of these structures. The main result is that dramatic air cooling (several °Ch−1 over several hours) and low temperatures (<−10°C), generating tensile stresses and brittleness, can trigger a spontaneous or climber-induced mechanical collapse, leading to unfavorable climbing conditions. Ice internal pressure fluctuations are also associated with episodes of marked diurnal air-temperature cycle, with mild days (few above 0) and cool nights (few below 0), through the occurrence of water ↔ ice phase transitions within the structure. These ice internal stress fluctuations seem, however, to have a local influence, are associated with warm (near 0), wet and therefore particularly soft ice and do not trigger a collapse of the structure.
The main objective of this report is to present the dating process routinely applied to different types of samples at the Laboratoire de Mesure du Carbone 14 (LMC14). All the results and protocols refer to our procedures over the last 5 years. A description of the sorting and chemical pretreatments of the samples as well as the extraction and graphitization of CO2 are reported. Our last study concerning the degradation of the blank level according to the storage time of the targets between graphitization and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) measurement is also presented. This article also provides information on how to submit a valid laboratory sample. We give details relating to sampling procedures on site as well as contamination issues relative to the 14C dating methodology.
The new facility Artemis was installed in 2003 in Saclay, France. This 3MV NEC Pelletron is dedicated to high-precision radiocarbon measurements for French 14C laboratories. We will present information on Artemis along with our sample preparation methods. Results from measurements on some intercalibration samples will be given along with the values of measured blanks. Finally, we report on some problems we have encountered when measuring sputter cathodes with high CH− outputs.
Lascaux Cave is renowned for its outstanding prehistoric paintings, strikingly well-preserved over about 18,000 yr. While stalagmites and stalactites are almost absent in the cave, there is an extensive calcite flowstone that covered a large part of the cave until its opening for tourists during the 1950s. The deposit comprises a succession of calcite rims, or “gours,” which allowed seepage water to pond in large areas in the cave. Their possible role in preservation of the cave paintings has often been evoked, but until now this deposit has not been studied in detail. Here, we present 24 new radiocarbon accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and 6 uranium-thorium (U-Th) analyses from the calcite of the gours, 4 AMS 14C dates from charcoals trapped in the calcite, and 4 AMS 14C analyses on organic matter extracted from the calcite. Combining the calibrated 14C ages obtained on charcoals and organic matter and U-Th ages from 14C analyses made on the carbonate, has allowed the calculation of the dead carbon proportion (dcp) of the carbonate deposits. The latter, used with the initial atmospheric 14C activities reconstructed with the new IntCal09 calibration data, allows high-resolution age estimation of the gour calcite samples and their growth rates. The carbonate deposit grew between 9530 and 6635 yr cal BP (for dcp = 10.7 ± 1.8%; 2 σ) or between 8518 and 5489 yr cal BP (for dcp = 20.5 ± 1.9%; 2 σ). This coincides with humid periods that can be related to the Atlantic period in Europe and to Sapropel 1 in the eastern Mediterranean Sea. However, geomorphological changes at the cave entrance might also have played a role in the gour development. In the 1940s, when humans entered the cave for the first time since its prehistoric occupation, the calcite gours had already been inactive for several thousand years.
The flow and noise created by sawtooth trailing-edge serrations has been studied experimentally at a low Reynolds number. Experiments have been performed on a flat-plate model with an elliptical leading edge and an asymmetrically bevelled trailing edge at Reynolds numbers of Rec = 1 × 105–1.3 × 105, based on chord. Wide serrations with a wavelength (λs) to amplitude (2h) ratio of λs/h = 0.6 were found to reduce the overall sound pressure level by up to 11dB. In contrast, narrower serrations with λs/h = 0.2 produce tonal noise and increase the overall noise level by up to 4dB. Intense vortices across the span of the trailing edge with narrow serrations are shown to be the source of tonal noise. Wide serrations reduce turbulent velocity fluctuations at low frequencies which explains the lower radiated noise. The narrow serrations that produce low Reynolds number tonal noise were shown previously to be effective at higher Reynolds numbers (Rec > 2 × 105), demonstrating that care is needed to fully understand the flow field over serrations for all intended operating conditions.
Trois résolutions ont été adoptées par la 4e Assemblée générale de l’Union astronomique internationale, à Cambridge (Mass.) en 1932.
Elles se rapportaient à l’opération internationale des longitudes (réalisée en 1933) et avaient pour objet:
(1)L’émission d’un trait d’une durée de 10 secondes après tout envoi de signaux horaires.
(2)La mission confiée au Bureau international de l’Heure (B.I.H.) de centraliser, discuter et publier les résultats de l’opération.
(3)L’approbation du programme des opérations, exposé dans le Rapport présenté à Cambridge par le Président et le Secrétaire de la Commission.
Le Président est heureux de constater que les propositions de ce Rapport ont pu être réalisées dans une très large part. Il remercie tous les Observatoires et organismes participants de leur collaboration et les félicite vivement de l’activité qu’ils ont déployée pendant la campagne scientifique de 1933.
A circular letter was sent out to all members of the Commission in December 1937, to which the majority have replied. While work is going on steadily in the Observatories where meridian observations are carried out, comparatively few catalogues have been published since 1935. In view of the very full report made three years ago it is only necessary to draw attention to the progress which has been made in the interval.
Since the last meeting of the Union, Sir Frank Dyson, who for forty years had devoted himself to the advancement of meridian astronomy, has resigned the position of president of the Commission. The Executive Committee have done me the honour of inviting me to fill the vacancy.
I have sent a circular letter to all members of the Commission asking for a report on the meridian astronomy being carried on in the institutions with which they are connected, and for suggestions of subjects which might be discussed in Paris. In some countries, particularly Germany and U.S.S.R., there are a number of observatories carrying on meridian astronomy but not represented on the Commission, and I have asked the representatives of these countries to send me details of the work of the various institutions in their countries. The following report is largely based on the replies I have received.
La centralisation au Bureau international de l’Heure des résultats d’observations de l’Opération internationale de 1933 a été très lente, puisque les dernières données attendues ont été reçues vers la fin de 1937.
Le nombre des stations ayant coopéré à l’Opération internationale et ayant transmis leurs observations à l’organisme centralisateur s’élève à soixante et onze. Ainsi qu’il a été expliqué à notre Commission mixte, lors du Congrès de l’Union géodésique et géophysique internationale tenu à Édimbourg en 1936, ces stations ont été réparties en trois groupes:
Le Ier comprenant vingt Observatoires, disposant chacun de plusieurs horloges de première classe (soit à poids sous pression et à température constantes, soit à quartz piézoélectrique);
A new sample of active galaxies was obtained with the ESO Schmidt telescope. We derived quantitative redshifts for 97 emission line galaxies and semi-quantitative photometric and spectro-photometric properties for 62 of them. The results are directly extracted from the Schmidt plates after digitization by the MAMA machine of Observatoire de Paris (C.A.I, INSU Paris).
We present here the new line installed at the LMC14 laboratory (Saclay, France) for dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) extraction from marine and freshwater samples. The operating system and extraction process are described. The efficiency of the line design was checked, and the background (0.42 ± 0.11 pMC) and the reproducibility on artificial samples obtained by dissolution of IAEA-C1, IAEA-C2, and commercial bicarbonate in water were evaluated. An intercomparison with an independent lab (IDES) was also carried out on a natural sample. The line processes 3 samples a day under a helium flow and is able to run samples up to 40,000 ka.
The Artemis accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) facility is dedicated to high-precision radiocarbon measurements. It routinely measures over 4500 samples a year for French laboratories. This paper is a status report, showing the measurements of standard, blank, and FIRI intercomparison samples. Since 2008, research and development programs have been established by the Artemis team. During the collaborations with other research laboratories, intercomparisons on archaeological samples were performed and are listed here to show the quality of the Artemis measurements. Three areas of specific research and development are investigated: technical development, beam optic simulations, and specific archaeological studies. The technical developments of the facility are based on the setup of a new bench for water sample preparation and routine microsample preparation and measurement. Beam optic simulations are carried out to control the quality of the measurement related to the tuning of the facility. International collaborations are always in progress. In 2012, the programs include improving the accuracy of reigns for the dynastic Egypt period and the 14C dating of ancient iron.
The Artemis accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) facility, installed in 2003 in Saclay, France, is devoted to radiocarbon measurements. Samples are submitted by scientists in the fields of Quaternary geology, environmental sciences, and archaeology. The entire preparation process, originally optimized for samples with about 1 mg of carbon, has been tested in recent years for samples with a lower carbon content. In particular, we prepared and measured carbonate and organic background and reference samples ranging in mass from 0.01 to 1 mg C. These tests helped define our protocol's practical limits and determine necessary improvements. Furthermore, our experiments demonstrated that satisfactory graphitization yields (80% and higher) and low background values can be obtained with samples down to 0.2 mg of carbon. For handling smaller samples, we developed a specific process. We tested smaller reactors (5 mL in volume) and adapted the reduction parameters (H2 pressure and temperature) accordingly. We also tested the effect of a chemical water trap on graphitization yields and 14C results. This paper presents in detail the aforementioned developments and reports the 14C results obtained for background and standard small samples prepared with the modified reactors.
The Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement (LSCE) research program on prehistoric art conducts chronological studies of parietal representations with their associated archaeological context. This multidisciplinary approach provides chronological arguments about the creation period of parietal representations. This article presents chronological investigations carried out in several decorated caves in France (La Grande Grotte, Labastide, Lascaux, La Tête-du-Lion, Villars) and Spain (La Garma, Nerja, La Pileta, Urdiales). Several types of organic materials, collected from different areas of the caves close to the walls and in connection with parietal art, were dated to determine the periods of human presence in the cave, a presence that may have been related to artistic activities. These new radiocarbon results range from 33,000–29,000 (La Grande Grotte) to 16,000–14,000 cal BP (Urdiales).