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Additive and bidirectional effects of executive control and hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis regulation on children's adjustment were examined, along with the effects of low income and cumulative risk on executive control and the HPA axis. The study utilized longitudinal data from a community sample of preschool age children (N = 306, 36–39 months at Time 1) whose families were recruited to overrepresent low-income contexts. We tested the effects of low income and cumulative risk on levels and growth of executive control and HPA axis regulation (diurnal cortisol level), the bidirectional effects of executive control and the HPA axis on each other, and their additive effects on children's adjustment problems, social competence and academic readiness. Low income predicted lower Time 4 executive control, and cumulative risk predicted lower Time 4 diurnal cortisol level. There was little evidence of bidirectional effects of executive control and diurnal cortisol. However, both executive control and diurnal cortisol predicted Time 4 adjustment, suggesting additive effects. There were indirect effects of income on all three adjustment outcomes through executive control, and of cumulative risk on adjustment problems and social competence through diurnal cortisol. The results provide evidence that executive control and diurnal cortisol additively predict children's adjustment and partially account for the effects of income and cumulative risk on adjustment.
Recent infection testing algorithms (RITA) for HIV combine serological assays with epidemiological data to determine likely recent infections, indicators of ongoing transmission. In 2016, we integrated RITA into national HIV surveillance in Ireland to better inform HIV prevention interventions. We determined the avidity index (AI) of new HIV diagnoses and linked the results with data captured in the national infectious disease reporting system. RITA classified a diagnosis as recent based on an AI < 1.5, unless epidemiological criteria (CD4 count <200 cells/mm3; viral load <400 copies/ml; the presence of AIDS-defining illness; prior antiretroviral therapy use) indicated a potential false-recent result. Of 508 diagnoses in 2016, we linked 448 (88.1%) to an avidity test result. RITA classified 12.5% of diagnoses as recent, with the highest proportion (26.3%) amongst people who inject drugs. On multivariable logistic regression recent infection was more likely with a concurrent sexually transmitted infection (aOR 2.59; 95% CI 1.04–6.45). Data were incomplete for at least one RITA criterion in 48% of cases. The study demonstrated the feasibility of integrating RITA into routine surveillance and showed some ongoing HIV transmission. To improve the interpretation of RITA, further efforts are required to improve completeness of the required epidemiological data.
Self-harm in young people is associated with later problems in social and emotional development. However, it is unknown whether self-harm in young women continues to be a marker of vulnerability on becoming a parent. This study prospectively describes the associations between pre-conception self-harm, maternal depressive symptoms and mother–infant bonding problems.
The Victorian Intergenerational Health Cohort Study (VIHCS) is a follow-up to the Victorian Adolescent Health Cohort Study (VAHCS) in Australia. Socio-demographic and health variables were assessed at 10 time-points (waves) from ages 14 to 35, including self-reported self-harm at waves 3–9. VIHCS enrolment began in 2006 (when participants were aged 28–29 years), by contacting VAHCS women every 6 months to identify pregnancies over a 7-year period. Perinatal depressive symptoms were assessed with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale during the third trimester, and 2 and 12 months postpartum. Mother–infant bonding problems were assessed with the Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire at 2 and 12 months postpartum.
Five hundred sixty-four pregnancies from 384 women were included. One in 10 women (9.7%) reported pre-conception self-harm. Women who reported self-harming in young adulthood (ages 20–29) reported higher levels of perinatal depressive symptoms and mother–infant bonding problems at all perinatal time points [perinatal depressive symptoms adjusted β = 5.40, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.42–7.39; mother–infant bonding problems adjusted β = 7.51, 95% CI 3.09–11.92]. There was no evidence that self-harm in adolescence (ages 15–17) was associated with either perinatal outcome.
Self-harm during young adulthood may be an indicator of future vulnerability to perinatal mental health and mother–infant bonding problems.
The paper examines the changing nature of publicity in the courts, tracing three distinct but interconnected phases of publicity using Jeremy Bentham's theory of open justice and publicity as a framework. The first phase is press coverage, with the news media chronicling the justice system for the general population, most recently including televised court proceedings. The second is the appointment of Courts Information Officers, occurring as early as the 1930s and growing in impact since the 1990s, established to facilitate the relationship between courts and the news media. The third and final phase is the Internet, including social media, resulting in changes to news media models and driving contemporary practices of court-generated media. The paper concludes that, while media and communication practices have changed radically since the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries and the concept of publicity has shifted, Bentham's approach to open justice remains salient for twenty-first-century courts’ communication.
The theatre shares many features with the law. One key commonality is the presence of dressers in both professions. In the law and the theatre, the dresser is a key intermediary in the transformation of bodies and the transmission of professional culture, while being relatively under-recognised in criticism and scholarship. The point of departure for this paper is that the dresser is a figure worthy of further scrutiny. As the Court and Ceremonial Manager at Ede and Ravenscroft, Christopher Allen is perhaps one of the common law's most important dressers. Allan is instrumental to the entry of the judiciary into their new roles by dressing them for the very first time in advance of their swearing-in ceremony. Established as a wig-making business in 1726 (later selling robes from 1871), Ede and Ravenscroft are the tailors and robe-makers of choice for the judiciary, not only in England and Wales, but in many common-law jurisdictions. This paper draws upon an interview with Allen about his work as the dresser of the judicial establishment of England and Wales in order to explore the role of dressing up in the production of images of the judiciary. Thinking about the role of the dresser in the production of the judicial image draws attention not simply to the function that dress plays in the law, but foregrounds the process of dressing up as a key aspect of the law's performance.
This paper offers a revisionist history of the banning of photography in English and Welsh courts in 1925 and explores the contention that a complete rationale for the ban has never been adequately articulated. While existing accounts of the ban have placed emphasis on the outrage caused by press coverage of a handful of sensational murder trials, this paper offers the first comprehensive analysis of photographs of trial scenes in the decades leading up to the ban. In doing so, it argues that the exposure of the legal system to scrutiny by the press and public, made possible by new technologies and reporting practices, was much more pervasive than has previously been suggested. It also contends that, although parliamentarians claimed that the purpose of the ban was to protect vulnerable members of the public, it actually did a much better job of preserving the interests of the legal, political and social elite, including judges, against a backdrop of fears about an increasingly disrespectful populace. More particularly, it is suggested that the ban allowed the state to take back its monopoly over the production, management and consumption of images of judges and other key actors in the courtroom in an effort to re-impose social order and retain the mystery of law.
This paper attempts to counter legal studies’ common reading of court TV shows by starting with an understanding of them as television, rather comparing them to ‘real courts’. It analyses two recent examples of British court TV shows – Judge Rinder (ITV, 2014–) and Judge Geordie (MTV, 2015) – to draw out how the text's form establishes particular kinds of ‘televisual legal consciousness’. Judge Rinder’s daytime address and his camped authority allow a frame in which humour can disarm conflict and reveal wider political injustice. Judge Geordie’s irreverent upturning of the judged into judge draws upon the registers of youth reality television to privilege affect and emotion. In staging some of the tensions between law's masculine rationality and popular culture's feminine emotionality, these shows enact their interdependence. Such an analysis that includes attention to form, address and genre allows us a deeper exploration of the relationship between television, law and the everyday.
Studies exploring the link between the representation of judges, photography and mass media tend to focus on the appearance of cameras in courtrooms and the reproduction of the resulting photographs in the press at the beginning of the twentieth century. But more than fifty years separate these developments from the birth of photography in the late 1830s. This study examines a previously unexplored encounter between the English judiciary and photography that began in the 1860s. The pictures where known as ‘carte de visite’. They were the first type of photographic image capable of being mass produced. It is a form of photography that, for a period of almost twenty years, attracted a frenzy of interest. Drawing upon a number of archives, including the library of Lincoln's Inn, London's National Portrait Gallery and my own personal collection this paper has two objectives. The first is to examine the carte portraits of senior members of the judiciary that were produced during that time. What appears within the frame of this new form of judicial portraiture? Of particular interest is the impact the chemical and technological developments that come together in carte photographs had on what appears within the frame of portraits. The second objective is to examine the manner in which they were displayed. This engages a commonplace of scholarship on portraiture; the location and mode of display shape the meaning of what lies within the frame of the picture. Carte portraits were produced with a particular display in mind: the album. They were to be viewed not in isolation, but as part of an assemblage of portraits. Few albums survive. Those that do offer a rare opportunity to examine the way carte portraits of judges were used and the meanings they generated through their display. Three albums containing carte portraits of judges will be considered.
Judges perform an important role on behalf of society, as impartial decision-makers, interpreting and applying the law, presiding over courtrooms and ensuring a fair trial. The image of the judge – how they are viewed culturally – reinforces their role, emphasising their authority and neutrality, thus supporting the legitimacy of the court as an institution. Increasingly, judges use video conferencing where either they, or other participants, are located away from the courtroom. Reporting on a three-year empirical study, this paper argues that the introduction of video-conferencing technologies in court has had a profound impact on the production, management and consumption of judicial images, with implications for the role of the judge. Video links challenge cultural assumptions about how the role of the judge is performed and what the image of the judge should be. We argue that greater congruence needs to be achieved over video links between that image and the role of the judge.
In 2014, something happened that changed how the media report on court proceedings in South Africa. The Oscar Pistorius trial proceedings attracted much media attention. International journalists flocked into South Africa in droves. Our newspapers, our televisions, our radios, even our Facebook feeds were flooded with information. An entire twenty-four-hour television channel was created with the sole purpose of televising, and then discussing, the proceedings. Everything about the trial – the judge's rulings, the witnesses who gave evidence and especially the verdict – clogged social-media newsfeeds on laptops and other devices for months on end. This has changed irreversibly the manner in which the media and the justice system in South Africa converge. Through a focus on the debates in and out of the courtroom that the Pistorius trial generated, this paper explores the intersection between the judicial function, the media and the public. It was an important moment in post-apartheid South Africa, ushering in a new way of making and distributing judicial images to the public and thereby bringing into being new ways for the media and the public to access and assess the adjudicative role of judges.
To summarize stakeholder recommendations and ratings of strategies to reduce sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption and increase water access and intake among young children (0–5 years).
Two online surveys: survey 1 asked respondents to recommend novel and innovative strategies to promote healthy beverage behaviour; survey 2 asked respondents to rank each of these strategies on five domains (overall importance, feasibility, effectiveness, reach, health equity). Open-ended questions were coded and analysed for thematic content.
Using a snowball sampling approach, respondents were invited to complete the survey through an email invitation or an anonymous listserv link. Of the individuals who received a private email invitation, 24 % completed survey 1 and 29 % completed survey 2.
Survey 1 (n 276) and survey 2 (n 182) included expert stakeholders who work on issues related to SSB and water consumption.
Six overarching strategies emerged to change beverage consumption behaviours (survey 1): education; campaigns and contests; marketing and advertising; price changes; physical access; and improving the capacity of settings to promote healthy beverages. Labelling and sugar reduction (e.g. reformulation) were recommended as strategies to reduce SSB consumption, while water testing and remediation emerged as a strategy to promote water intake. Stakeholders most frequently recommended (survey 1) and provided higher ratings (survey 2) to strategies that used policy, systems and/or environmental changes.
The present study is the first to assess stakeholder opinions on strategies to promote healthy beverage consumption. This knowledge is key for understanding where stakeholders believe resources can be best utilized.
Listeriosis is a rare but severe foodborne illness which is more common in populations such as pregnant women, and can result in serious complications including miscarriage, prematurity, maternal and neonatal sepsis, and death in the newborn. Population recommendations exist for specific foods and food preparation practices to reduce listeriosis risk during pregnancy. The aim of the present systematic review was to assess the association between listeriosis and these practices during pregnancy to confirm appropriateness of these recommendations. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL Plus, Web of Science Core Collection, included articles’ references, and contacted clinical experts. All databases were searched until July 2017. Case–control and cohort studies were included which assessed pregnant women or their newborn offspring with known listeriosis status and a nutritional exposure consistent with international population recommendations for minimising listeriosis. Outcomes included listeriosis with or without pregnancy outcomes. Risk of bias was assessed through the Newcastle–Ottawa Scale. Results were described narratively due to clinical heterogeneity in differences in nutritional exposures. Eleven articles comprising case–control or cross-sectional studies met the inclusion criteria. Cases of maternal, fetal or neonate listeriosis were more likely to have consumed high-risk dairy products, meat products or some fruits during pregnancy in comparison with women without listeriosis. Cases of listeriosis were more likely to have consumed foods that are highlighted in population guidelines to avoid to minimise listeriosis in comparison with those without listeriosis during pregnancy. Further research is warranted assessing means of improving the reach, uptake and generalisability of population guidelines for reducing listeriosis during pregnancy.
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with increased psychological distress in clinical populations. We aimed to assess depression, anxiety and perceived stress in women with and without PCOS in a large community-based sample and investigate the role of stress in contributing to and mediating the relationship between PCOS, depression and anxiety.
A cross-sectional analysis was performed from the Australian Longitudinal Study of Women's Health (ALWSH) comparing women with (n = 478) or without (n = 8134) a self-reported diagnosis of PCOS. Main outcome measures were depression, anxiety and perceived stress measured using validated scales. The χ2 and t tests were used to assess differences between groups. Univariable and multivariable regression were performed to determine factors contributing to each outcome.
Women reporting PCOS, compared with women not reporting PCOS, reported higher prevalence of depression (27.3% v. 18.8%), anxiety symptoms (50% v. 39.2%) and greater score for perceived stress (1.01 ± 0.03 v. 0.88 ± 0.01). After adjusting for body mass index, infertility and socio-demographic factors, women with PCOS were still more likely to be depressed, anxious and to have a higher level of perceived stress. There was a high-level mediation effect of stress between PCOS and both depression and anxiety.
Compared with women not reporting PCOS, women reporting PCOS have increased depression, anxiety and perceived stress. Stress may play a role in the association between PCOS, depression and anxiety. Further studies should consider assessment and management of stress in PCOS as it may be relevant for understanding the aetiology and treatment of psychological distress.
This experiment aimed to assess the effect of different indoor winter growth rates (WGR) followed by different concentrate supplementation levels at pasture on meat quality of 90 bulls. During the first winter, bulls were offered grass silage ad libitum and either 3 kg (WGR3) or 6 kg (WGR6) of concentrates. After turn-out to pasture, bulls were offered: grass without supplementation (PO), grass plus 0.2 predicted dry matter intake (DMI) as concentrates (PL) or grass plus 0.4 predicted DMI as concentrates (PH). After finishing, colour, chemical composition (unaged), instrumental texture and sensory characteristics (14 days of ageing) of longissimus thoracis were measured. WGR6 bulls had heavier carcasses than WGR3 bulls. There was an interaction between WGR and supplementation for instrumental texture and redness (a). Within WGR3, PO beef was the most tender, whereas within WRG6, PL was the most tender. However, these differences were not detected by the sensory panel. Within WGR3, redness was the lowest for PL, whereas within WRG6, PO was the least red. No differences were found for chemical composition. The multivariate analysis highlighted WGR as the main variable affecting meat quality characteristics. In conclusion, variations in growth path exerted minor effects on appearance and instrumental texture which did not affect the perception of bull beef by a trained sensory panel.
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is a significant cause of gastrointestinal infection and the haemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS). STEC outbreaks are commonly associated with food but animal contact is increasingly being implicated in its transmission. We report an outbreak of STEC affecting young infants at a nursery in a rural community (three HUS cases, one definite case, one probable case, three possible cases and five carriers, based on the combination of clinical, epidemiological and laboratory data) identified using culture-based and molecular techniques. The investigation identified repeated animal contact (animal farming and petting) as a likely source of STEC introduction followed by horizontal transmission. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) was used for real-time investigation of the incident and revealed a unique strain of STEC O26:H11 carrying stx2a and intimin. Following a public health intervention, no additional cases have occurred. This is the first STEC outbreak reported from Israel. WGS proved as a useful tool for rapid laboratory characterization and typing of the outbreak strain and informed the public health response at an early stage of this unusual outbreak.
Observations of HI in absorption made with the Very Large Array towards the thermal radio emission of the planetary nebula NGC 6302 show two velocity components at 6 and −40 km s−1 (radial velocity with respect to the local standard of rest). The 6 km s−1 component is almost certainly due to a line-of-sight cloud, but the −40 km s−1 component is most probably associated with NGC 6302. We interpret this absorption component as coming from the neutral, outer part of an expanding (~ 10 km s−1) ring whose inner part is ionized and produces the thermal continuum. The mass in atomic hydrogen of the outer (neutral) part of the ring is ~ 0.06 M⊙. NGC 6302 is in an evolutionary stage intermediate to those of protoplanetary nebulae such as GL 2688 and evolved planetary nebula such as NCG 7293. This is the first detection of neutral hydrogen associated with a planetary nebula.