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Precise instrumental calibration is of crucial importance to 21-cm cosmology experiments. The Murchison Widefield Array’s (MWA) Phase II compact configuration offers us opportunities for both redundant calibration and sky-based calibration algorithms; using the two in tandem is a potential approach to mitigate calibration errors caused by inaccurate sky models. The MWA Epoch of Reionization (EoR) experiment targets three patches of the sky (dubbed EoR0, EoR1, and EoR2) with deep observations. Previous work in Li et al. (2018) and (2019) studied the effect of tandem calibration on the EoR0 field and found that it yielded no significant improvement in the power spectrum (PS) over sky-based calibration alone. In this work, we apply similar techniques to the EoR1 field and find a distinct result: the improvements in the PS from tandem calibration are significant. To understand this result, we analyse both the calibration solutions themselves and the effects on the PS over three nights of EoR1 observations. We conclude that the presence of the bright radio galaxy Fornax A in EoR1 degrades the performance of sky-based calibration, which in turn enables redundant calibration to have a larger impact. These results suggest that redundant calibration can indeed mitigate some level of model incompleteness error.
Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) is an important grain legume in tropical and subtropical regions. It requires low resource inputs and has a high nutritional value. Therefore, cowpea can play an important role in the development of agriculture. In southern Mexico, Mayan farmers have conserved and developed cowpea landraces for centuries. Nevertheless, information on their genetic diversity, conservation status and potential use is minimal. To generate information toward sustainable use, management and conservation of this species, we evaluated the genetic diversity and structure of 20 cowpea landraces from southeast Mexico using 10 inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) molecular markers. These ISSR markers generated 68 loci with a 67.7% polymorphism rate and average polymorphic information content of 0.36. The results of Bayesian assignation and the UPGMA analysis suggest the formation of two main groups defined by their genetic origin in southeast Mexico. High levels of genetic structure were found with a moderate level of genetic diversity distributed mainly between landraces. Low levels of intra-landrace variability were observed. Two landraces (P5 and P12) from Calakmul resulted in the high levels of genetic diversity. The selected markers were efficient at assessing genetic variability among Mexican cowpea landraces, providing valuable information that can be used in local conservation and participatory breeding programmes.
The electronic Schizophrenia Treatment Adherence Registry (e-STAR) is a prospective, observational study of patients with schizophrenia designed to evaluate long-term treatment outcomes in routine clinical practice.
Parameters were assessed at baseline and at 3 month intervals for 2 years in patients initiated on risperidone long-acting injection (RLAI) (n = 1345) or a new oral antipsychotic (AP) (n = 277; 35.7% and 36.5% on risperidone and olanzapine, respectively) in Spain. Hospitalization prior to therapy was assessed by a retrospective chart review.
At 24 months, treatment retention (81.8% for RLAI versus 63.4% for oral APs, p < 0.0001) and reduction in Clinical Global Impression Severity scores (−1.14 for RLAI versus −0.94 for APs, p = 0.0165) were significantly higher with RLAI. Compared to the pre-switch period, RLAI patients had greater reductions in the number (reduction of 0.37 stays per patient versus 0.2, p < 0.05) and days (18.74 versus 13.02, p < 0.01) of hospitalizations at 24 months than oral AP patients.
This 2 year, prospective, observational study showed that, compared to oral antipsychotics, RLAI was associated with better treatment retention, greater improvement in clinical symptoms and functioning, and greater reduction in hospital stays and days in hospital in patients with schizophrenia. Improved treatment adherence, increased efficacy and reduced hospitalization with RLAI offer the opportunity of substantial therapeutic improvement in schizophrenia.
The aim is to investigate the association between apolipoprotein E (ApoE) and panic disorder (PD). Genotyping 92 PD patients [Diagnostic Statistic Manual IV (DSM IV) criteria] and 174 controls no differences were found between both groups. Variation in the ApoE-gene was not associated with the development of PD.
Assess clinical and functioning treatment outcomes of risperidone long-acting injection (RLAI) versus oral antipsychotics for patients participating in the electronic Schizophrenia Treatment Adherence Registry (e-STAR) in Spain.
e-STAR is a 2-year, multi-national, prospective, observational study of patients with schizophrenia who were initiated on RLAI or an oral antipsychotic. Data were collected retrospectively (1-year) and prospectively every three months (2 years). Outcomes included clinical effectiveness measured by Clinical Global Impression of Illness Severity (CGI-S) and patient functioning assessed by Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) scale. Clinical and functional outcomes are analyzed using a linear mixed model controlling for age, gender, disease duration, baseline hospitalization status and antipsychotic treatment patterns. Results presented are based on the complete e-STAR data from Spain.
1,622 patients (63.6% male, mean age 38.4±11.2 years) participated in e-STAR from Spain, 1,345 were initiated on RLAI and 277 on oral antipsychotics. RLAI treated patients had significantly longer disease duration (12.6±9.5 years vs. 10.9±9.7, p<0.01) than those treated with oral antipsychotics. During the 2-year study, clinical symptoms and functioning improved in both groups. As revealed by the mixed-model regression, RLAI patients, compared to oral patients, had significantly greater improvement on CGI-S scores (-1.10 vs. -0.88, p<0.02) and GAF scores (16.4 vs. 14.6, p<0.03). Baseline hospitalization status and disease duration were significant explanatory variables in the mixed model regression.
This 2-year, prospective, observational study showed that compared to oral antipsychotics, RLAI treatment was associated with greater improvement in clinical symptoms and functioning in patients with schizophrenia.
Clozapine is an atypical dibenzodiazepine antipsychotic used for resistant schizophrenia. Myocarditis and cardiomyopathy are rarely reported complications of clozapine treatment. The incidence of clozapine-related myocarditis has been variably reported at between 0.03% and 0.19% Myocarditis is a potentially life-threatening complication of clozapine.
We reported a case of a 30-year-old female patient who developed reversible myocarditis a few weeks after we began the treatment with clozapine for chronic resistant schizophrenia (as specified in DSM-IVTR), characterized by severe left ventricular systolic dysfunction that resulted in congestive heart failure.
After the immediate discontinuation of the clozapine, along with aggressive supportive care, resulted in almost complete recovery to baseline.
Patients taking clozapine who develop dyspnoea, fatigue, chest pain or collapse should be screened for myocarditis, especially during the first weeks of treatment. Health professionals should be aware of this uncommon but serious side effect of clozapine since failure to recognize the association may result in adverse clinical outcome. Myocarditis should be suspected when cardiac dysfunction appears suddenly, and appropriate diagnostic and therapeutic strategies must be undertaken promptly.
Antipsychotic therapy is the cornerstone of the treatment of schizophrenia and other psychoses. Although clinical guidelines tend to recommend the use of antipsychotics in monotherapy, combination of two or more antipsychotics (that is, polytherapy) is a common habit in clinical practice.
To assess differences in antipsychotic combination profile between patients with schizophrenia and patients with other psychoses.
A total of 241 patients (40.2% females, mean age 39.7+/−13.0 years) consecutively admitted during 2009 to a psychiatric inpatient ward with diagnosis of schizophrenia and other psychoses were assessed.
145 (60.2%) patients were diagnosed with schizophrenia while 96 patients (39.8%) were diagnosed with other psychoses (schizoaffective disorder n = 35, delusional disorder n = 8, schizophreniform disorder n = 8, brief psychotic disorder n = 13, psychotic disorder not otherwise specified n = 27, and other psychoses n = 5). Out of the total sample, polytherapy was used in 150 (62.2%) patients. A total of 100 (69.0%) patients with schizophrenia were on polytherapy, compared to 52.1% of those with other psychoses (p = 0.008). After controlling for age and gender, the association between a diagnosis of schizophrenia and being in polytherapy remained significant (p = 0.046).
Patients diagnosed with schizophrenia are more prone to be in polytherapy than those with other psychoses.
Self-perceived health is a well-recognised predictor of later health outcomes and mortality, but its relationship to incident dementia has been scarcely explored.
To analyze self- perceived health as a risk factor for dementia and Alzheimer disease (AD) in a population- based survey of the elderly (NEDICES) Study.
Participants were evaluated at baseline (1994-1995) with a standardized questionnaire that included subjective and objective (chronic disorders) health status and screening questions for depression and neurologic disorders. At follow-up (a median of 3.2 years later in 1997-1998) an analogous protocol and neurological assessment were performed.
Of 5,278 participants evaluated at baseline there were 306 prevalent dementia cases, and 161 incident dementia cases were identified among 3,891 individuals assessed at follow-up (D: 115).
Cox hazard ratio analyses showed that age, stroke and illiteracy were independent risk factors for dementia and AD. Aggregation of vascular risk factors was related to a higher risk of both dementia and AD. Good (and very good) versus less than good (fair, bad and very bad) self-perceived health was an independent risk factor for dementia (CI 95% 1.13- 2.16; p= .006) and AD (CI 95% 1.02- 2.18; p= .038) after adjusting by age, sex education and vascular risk factors.
Self-perceived health increased the risk for incident dementia and AD in the NEDICES cohort as it was previously described in the United Kindom MRC- CFA Study of dementia incidence. Global health measurements (self-perceived health, quality of life) needs farther studies as risk for dementia and AD.
During gestation and maternal behavior, some physiological events can protect the dam and offspring, but explanations for such phenomena are partially unknown. The effects of stress during prenatal development and infancy can be studied in controlled laboratory conditions.
To determine the pre- and postnatal effects of stress on coping strategies in weanling rats subjected to the open field and forced swim tests after their dams are subjected to stress during gestation.
Rats aged 21 postnatal days (PND) were assigned to either a Control group (n = 36; offspring from intact dams during gestation) or a Prenatal stress group (n = 36; offspring from dams forced to swim during 5 min sessions on gestational days 1, 7, 14, and 19). Both groups were tested in the open field to evaluate locomotor activity and rearing. In another experiment, PND21 intact rats assigned to a Control group (n = 26) or Postnatal stress group (n = 35) were subjected to restraint stress for 6 min prior to the tests and were later evaluated in the forced swim test.
Locomotor activity (p < 0.026) and rearing (p < 0.001) were lower in the Prenatal stress group compared with the Control group. The latency to first immobility was shorter (p < 0.008), and the total immobility time was longer (p < 0.005) in the Postnatal stress group than Control group.
Stress exposure during gestation produces detectable changes during weanling, consisting of reduced exploratory activity and susceptibility to despair.
Clinical trials (CT) are the main scientific support of the recommendations of pharmacological treatment of patients with schizophrenia. However, CT tend to strengthen the internal validity at the expense of external validity and the ability to generalize the results to the clinical population. For this reason, in recent years have developed large practical clinical trials that expand the inclusion criteria to incorporate as many real patients as possible. The first and most significant of these trials was the CATIE study (Lieberman et al, 2005).
To analyze eligibility for participation in CATIE of patients admitted during 2009 in a psychiatric inpatient unit with a diagnosis of schizophrenia.
A total of 145 patients (27.6% females, mean age 39.6+/−12.8 years), consecutively admitted to an inpatient psychiatric ward with a clinical diagnosis of schizophrenia were assessed to test if they would fulfill criteria for participation in CATIE.
60 (41.4%) patients did not fulfill CATIE inclusion criteria. Mental retardation (n = 22, p < 0.001), absence of informed consent (n = 15, p < 0.001) and refusal to take oral medication (n = 12, p < 0.001) were the main factors responsible for not meeting inclusion criteria.
Meeting the criteria was not significantly related to gender or specific diagnosis.
41.4% of patients admitted to a psychiatric inpatient unit with a diagnosis of schizophrenia did not meet criteria for participation in the CATIE study.
Researching from a symptom approach avoids possible spurious associations, given the co-occurrence of symptoms in a disorder (Costello, 1992). Here, we deepen the evidenced relationships among anxiety, delusions and hallucinations.
We intended to assess differences in Anxiety Sensitivity dimensions between patients with psychosis depending on presence/absence of hallucinations and/or delusions.
49 patients with DSM psychosis diagnosis (42 men and 7 women; mean age: 40), who attended a Mental Health Rehabilitation Service in 2008, of whom 7 only deluded, 6 only hallucinated, 11 deluded-hallucinated and the remaining 25 neither hallucinated nor deluded.
Design, materials and procedure
A Cross-sectional design (one measurement) for a co-relational method of comparison between groups.
We used the Spanish validated Anxiety Sensitivity lndex-3 -ASI 3- (Sandín et al., 2007), a 18-item Likert self-report that assesses fears of anxious symptoms. It presents a hierarchical structure (a general factor and three subscales -Physical, Cognitive and Social Concerns-). It's also used the first and third items (delusions and hallucinatory behaviour) of The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale -PANSS- (Kay, Opler and Lindenmayer, 1988) to detect positive symptoms.
All analysis were accepted at p < .05. Patients only hallucinators showed a higher anxiety sensitivity in Social Subscale than non-hallucinative/non-delusional patients; the former presented lower punctuations in ASI-total and ASI-cognitive than patients with hallucinations and delusions. The latter showed a higher anxiety sensitivity in Cognitive Subscale than patients who only deluded.
It's hypothetized that both delusional and hallucinative activity is necessary for emergence of cognitive anxiety sensitivity.
An important corpus of scientist evidence is linking psychotic activity and anxiety-related processes (Freeman and Garety, 2003).
We intended to assess differences in Anxiety Sensitivity dimensions between patients diagnosed by psychosis with and without positive symptoms.
Participants: 49 patients with DSM psychosis diagnosis (42 men and 7 women; mean age: 40), who attended a Mental Health Rehabilitation Service in 2008, of whom 24 patients had positive symptomatology.
Design, materials and procedure: A Cross-sectional design (one measurement) for a co-relational method of comparison between groups.
We used the Spanish validated Anxiety Sensitivity lndex-3 -ASI 3- (Sandîn et al, 2007), a 18-item Likert self-report that assesses fears of anxious symptoms. It presents a hierarchical structure (a general factor and three subscales -Physical, Cognitive and Social Concerns-). It's also used the first and third items (delusions and hallucinatory behaviour) of The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale -PANSS- (Kay, Opler and Lindenmayer, 1988) to detect positive symptoms.
Patients with positive symptoms showed a higher sensitivity to cognitive (z = -3.22, p < 0.01) and social anxiety (z = -2.66, p < 0.01), as well as higher punctuations in ASI-total (z = -2.91, p < 0.01), than patients without positive symptoms.
Patients with positive symptoms show significant fears of symptoms of different anxious domains (ASI-total) with regard to patients without this kind of symptomatology. Specially, they are worried about the possibility that concentration difficulties and restlessness lead to mental incapacitation (ASI-cognitive) and about social reactions before their own publicly observable anxiety manifestations (ASI-social).
To compare 12 month outcomes in schizophrenia patients enrolled in e-STAR in Spain who received RLAI or oral antipsychotics.
e-STAR is a secure, web-based, international, long-term observational study of schizophrenia patients who commence a new antipsychotic drug. PS was applied to adjust for baseline differences in patients who received RLAI or oral (atypical or conventional) antipsychotics to compare all-cause discontinuation rates, hospitalisation parameters, and Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF).
Data from 1,332 (83%) patients who initiated RLAI and 268 (17%) who initiated a new oral antipsychotic are available. Significant raw baseline differences existed for hospitalisation parameters, unemployment and time since diagnosis, each being more prevalent in the RLAI group. Nevertheless, a significantly greater proportion of patients remained on RLAI at 12 months (84%) than on oral antipsychotics (60.4%) (p<0.0001); this benefit persisted after application of PS. The mean number of days hospitalised at 12 months was 14.3 days lower in the RLAI group (12.9 days, n=433) than in the oral antipsychotic group (27.2 days, n=62) increasing to 19.1 days, significantly in favour of RLAI, when PS was applied (p<0.01 vs oral). The probability of being in hospital was lower in RLAI patients (OR 0.69) and decreased further after PS (OR 0.57)(p=0.075). GAF scores improved more in the RLAI group than the oral group at 12 months, with and without PS, but not significantly.
Although patients initiating RLAI were more severely ill, they had fewer hospitalisations and were less likely than oral antipsychotic patients to discontinue treatment.
In order to better understand individual vulnerabilities to bipolar I disorder, our study evaluates individual differences in Behavioral Activation and Inhibition Systems as possible markers of bipolar I disorder. We evaluated BAS and BIS functioning in 39 bipolar I euthymic patients and in 38 controls. Patients showed higher scores on the BAS scale while differences weren't detected on the BIS scale. Eighteen months after the initial assessment, patients were re-grouped according to the presence and type of new affective episodes. Those relapsing with a depressive episode showed lower scores on the BAS scale than patients suffering from a manic/hypomanic episode, and a tendency to score lower than patients still asymptomatic. The reported higher BAS functioning would reinforce the hypothesis of a trait vulnerability to present approach behaviors during euthymia associated with bipolar I disorder, not necessarily related to the proximity of a manic/hypomanic episode, and interestingly not detected when approaching a depressive episode, circumstance in which BAS functioning would be similar to controls. Results didn't reveal a weaker BIS in patients, hypothesized to account for BAS instability in bipolar I disorder.
There is increasing empirical evidence that links the classical separated psychopathological spectrums neurosis and psychosis. In this sense, anxiety is a factor for delusional/hallucinative development and maintenance (Freeman and Garety, 2003).
We intended to assess differences in Anxiety Sensitivity dimensions between patients with psychosis and a non-clinical sample.
Participants: 49 patients with DSM psychosis diagnosis (42 men and 7 women; mean age: 40), who attended a Mental Health Rehabilitation Service in 2008, were compared with a non-clinical sample (n = 582) from another study (Sandín, Valiente, Chorot and Santed, 2007).
Design, materials and procedure
A Cross-sectional design (one measurement) for a co-relational method of comparison between groups.
We used the Spanish validated Anxiety Sensitivity Index-3 -ASI 3- (Sandín et al., 2007), a 18-item Likert self-report that assesses fears of anxious symptoms. It presents a hierarchical structure (a general factor and three subscales -Physical, Cognitive and Social Concerns-). It's also used the first and third items (delusions and hallucinatory behaviour) of The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale -PANSS- (Kay, Opler and Lindenmayer, 1988) to detect positive symptoms.
Patients present a higher anxiety sensitivity in the General Factor (t = 2.06, p < 0.05) and Cognitive Subscale (t = 3.91, p < 0.001) than nonpatient sample.
Patients with psychosis show significant fears of symptoms of different anxious domains (ASI-total) regarding a non-clinical sample. Particularly, they are worried about the possibility that concentration difficulties and restlessness lead to mental incapacitation (ASI-cognitive).
Evaluate impact of risperidone long-acting injection (RLAI) versus oral antipsychotics on hospitalization outcomes for patients in the electronic Schizophrenia Treatment Adherence Registry (e-STAR) in Spain.
e-STAR is a 2-year, multi-national, prospective, observational study of patients with schizophrenia who initiated on RLAI or an oral antipsychotic. Hospitalization outcomes including number of hospitalizations and number of days in hospital were collected retrospectively (1-year) and prospectively (2 years). Changes in hospital stays and days in hospital were compared between RLAI and oral patients using linear mixed model controlling for age, gender, disease duration, and baseline antipsychotic use patterns.
1,622 patients (63.6% male, mean age 38.4±11.2 years) participated in e-STAR from Spain, 1,345 initiated on RLAI and 277 on oral antipsychotics. RLAI patients had significantly longer disease duration (12.6±9.5 years vs. 10.9±9.7 in oral patients, p<0.01). Average hospital stay at baseline was 5 days longer for RLAI than oral patients. During the study, both treatments showed reductions in mean number of hospitalizations and mean number of days in hospital. Based on the mixed-model regression, RLAI patients, compared to oral patients, had a significantly greater reduction in mean number of hospitalizations (-0.28 vs. -0.18 in followup-year1 and -0.37 vs. -0.20 in followup-year2, p<0.05) and mean number of days in hospital (-17.23 vs. -12.96 in followup-year1 and -18.75 vs. -12.99 in followup-year2, p<0.01).
This 2-year, prospective, observational study showed that compared to oral antipsychotics, RLAI treatment was associated with greater reduction in hospital stays and days in hospital in patients with schizophrenia.
Albert Ellis’ Rational Therapy, founded in 1955, evolved into Rational-Emotive Therapy (RET) in 1959; and finally as Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) in 1992. This evolution has showed, much more, its resemblance to Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) (Ellis, 2005). REBT highlights treatment of secondary disturbances (berating oneself for having symptoms), beyond primary ones (nosographical symptoms), because these are ways of control and experiential avoidance which foster suffering.
To treat primary anxiety in a patient reducing his secondary disturbance through TREC.
Participants: A 40-year-old man diagnosed with Panic Disorder who attended a Public Mental Health Service. He was being treated with Alprazolam y Lorazepam, which he has taken before psychotherapy.
Design, materials and procedure: It's implemented a single-subject AB design during 4 months (7 therapeutic sessions). It's applied a weekly self-report to record panic attack frequency and variations in anxiolytics-taken. C Young (p < 0.01) was used for statistical analysis of data and the method of least squares to obtain trend line. 16 measures were registered at a weekly interval.
Significant declining trends are observed in panic attack frequency (C = .750, Zo = 3.201, Zt = 2.240), and collaterally in anxiolytics-taking (Alprazolam: C = .811, Zo = 3.462, Zt = 2.240; Lorazepam: C = .801, Zo = 3.420, Zt = 2.240) from beginning of therapy.
Techniques targeting symptoms-extirpation induced intolerance and self condemnation feelings when patient didn’t achieve the wanted control (as way of destructive experiential avoidance -Luciano and Hayes, 2001). Treating these feelings (secondary disturbance), based on symptomatology acceptance (Ellis, 2005), decreased distress related to panic attacks and paroxysmal crisis frequency itself.
CYP2D6 metabolizes risperidone into 9-hydroxi-risperidone, as well as other drugs. CYP2D6 shows genetic polymorphism, and 6-8% of Caucasians are “slow metabolizers”. “Fast metabolizers” show lower plasma levels of risperidone and higher levels of 9-hydroxi-risperidone than “slow metabolizers”. The aim of this study is to collect information about the hypothetical relationship between metabolism phenotype and parameters related to sanitary resources utilization in patients treated with risperidone.
Plasma levels of risperidone and 9-hydroxi-risperidone were determined in 52 patients treated at the Acute Unit setting, to establish their metabolism phenotype. Patients were grouped as fast (n=11), slow (n=13) or intermediate metabolizers (n=28), according to risperidone/9-hydroxi-risperidone ratio logarithm and using eighty and twenty percentiles as cut-points. Hospitalizations, emergency services utilization and visits to community mental health center during two years were recorded in the three groups.
Fast metabolizers showed a higher mean number of visits to community mental health centers (35.7 vs 24.8, fast and slow metabolizers respectively, p=0.667), a higher mean number of hospitalizations (2.45 vs 1.3, fast and slow metabolizers respectively; p=0.091), a longer mean length of hospitalizations (57.3 vs 47.6 days, fast and slow metabolizers respectively; p=0.581) and a higher number of visits to emergency services (2.45 vs 1, fast and slow metabolizers respectively; p=0.01), although differences only reached statistical significance in this last parameter.
In spite of methodological limitations (mainly the small sample size), the present study shows some preliminary evidence about the influence of pharmacogenetic factors on the evolution of psychotic patients treated with risperidone.