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Maltreatment adversely impacts the development of children across a host of domains. One way in which maltreatment may exert its deleterious effects is by becoming embedded in the activity of neurophysiological systems that regulate metabolic function. This paper reviews the literature regarding the association between childhood maltreatment and the activity of three systems: the parasympathetic nervous system, the sympathetic nervous system, and the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis. A particular emphasis is placed on the extent to which the literature supports a common account of activity across these systems under conditions of homeostasis and stress. The paper concludes with an outline of directions for future research and the implications of the literature for policy and practice.
Bulachite specimens from Cap Garonne, France, comprise two intimately mixed hydrated aluminium arsenate minerals with the same Al:As ratio of 2:1 and with different water contents. The crystal structures of both minerals have been solved using data from low-dose electron diffraction tomography combined with synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction. One of the minerals has the same powder X-ray diffraction pattern (PXRD) as for published bulachite. It has orthorhombic symmetry, space group Pnma with unit-cell parameters a = 15.3994(3), b = 17.6598(3), c = 7.8083(1) Å and Z = 4, with the formula [Al6(AsO4)3(OH)9(H2O)4]⋅2H2O. The second mineral is a higher hydrate with composition [Al6(AsO4)3(OH)9(H2O)4]⋅8H2O. It has the same Pnma space group and unit-cell parameters a = 19.855(4), b = 17.6933(11) and c = 7.7799(5) Å i.e. almost the same b and c parameters but a much larger a parameter. The structures are based on polyhedral layers, parallel to (100), of composition [Al6(AsO4)3(OH)9(H2O)4] and with H-bonded H2O between the layers. The layers contain  spiral chains of edge-shared octahedra, decorated with corner connected AsO4 tetrahedra that are the same as in the mineral liskeardite. The spiral chains are joined together by octahedral edge-sharing to form layers parallel to (100). Synchrotron PXRD patterns collected at different temperatures during heating of the specimen show that the higher-hydrate mineral starts transforming to bulachite when heated to 50°C, and the transformation is complete between 75 and 100°C.
In recent years, concern about research reproducibility has increased dramatically for scientists, funders of research, and the general public. With a view to explicitly address what is often called a reproducibility crisis and putting the focus on research being done by individual trainees, a two-hour workshop was developed and introduced into six courses at UC San Diego. Participation in the workshop resulted in a statistically significant increase in the number of different types of strategies identified by the trainees for fostering reproducibility. The findings are consistent with having increased awareness of strategies to promote reproducibility.
Hagstromite, Pb8Cu2+(Te6+O6)2(CO3)Cl4, (IMA2019-093) is a new tellurate mineral from Otto Mountain near Baker, California, USA. It occurs on quartz in association with cerussite, fuettererite and thorneite. It is a secondary oxidation zone mineral and is presumed to have formed by oxidation of earlier formed tellurides, chalcopyrite and galena. Hagstromite occurs as light yellow–green blades, up to ~100 μm long. Crystals are transparent with adamantine to silky lustre. The mineral is brittle with two cleavages providing splintery fracture; the Mohs hardness is probably between 2 and 3. The calculated density is 7.062 g cm–3. Hagstromite is optically biaxial (+), with calculated indices of refraction for α = 2.045, β = 2.066 and γ = 2.102; 2Vmeas = 76(1)°; and optical orientation X = b, Y = a and Z = c. The Raman spectrum of hagstromite exhibits similarities with those of agaite and thorneite and confirms the presence of CO32–. The electron microprobe analyses provided the empirical formula Pb8.07Cu2+0.98Te6+1.96C1.17Cl3.83O15.34. Hagstromite is orthorhombic, space group Ibam, with a = 23.688(17), b = 9.026(8), c = 10.461(8) Å, V = 2237(3) Å3 and Z = 4. The crystal structure of hagstromite (R1 = 0.0659 for 284 I > 2σI reflections) contains a novel Cu2+Te6+2O12 chain assembled of corner-sharing Cu2+O4 squares and Te6+O6 octahedra. The O atoms in the chains form bonds with Pb2+ cations, which in turn bond to Cl– and CO32– anions, thereby creating a framework structure.
Cuyaite (IMA2019-126), Ca2Mn3+As3+14O24Cl, is a new arsenite mineral from near Cuya in the Camarones Valley, Arica Province, Chile. It is associated with anhydrite, native arsenic, arsenolite, calcite, claudetite, ferrinatrite, gajardoite-3R, leiteite, magnesiocopiapite, phosphosiderite, pyrite, realgar and talmessite and formed from the oxidation of As-bearing primary phases and alteration by saline fluids derived from evaporating meteoric water under hyperarid conditions. Cuyaite occurs as pale brown thin needles (elongated on ), typically in divergent sprays and subparallel intergrowths. The streak is white. Crystals are transparent with adamantine lustre; subparallel intergrowths exhibit silky lustre. The mineral has Mohs hardness of 2½, is brittle, exhibits no cleavage and has irregular fracture. The calculated density is 4.140 g cm–3. Cuyaite is optically biaxial (–), with α = 1.87(1), β = 1.956(calc) and γ = 1.98(1), determined in white light; 2Vmeas = 60(1)°; and orientation: X = b and Y ^ a = 53° in obtuse β. Electron microprobe analyses provided the empirical formula Ca2.03Mn3+0.95(As3+13.66Sb3+0.65)Σ14.31O24Cl0.88. The six strongest powder X-ray diffraction lines are [dobs Å(I)(hkl)]: 4.73(45)(111,
14), 3.035(28)(213), 3.004(37)(204), 2.931(90)(
15, 312) and 2.779(28)(020). Cuyaite is monoclinic, Pn, a = 14.7231(6), b = 5.58709(19), c = 17.4185(12) Å, β = 112.451(8)°, V = 1324.23(14) Å3 and Z = 2. In the crystal structure of cuyaite (R1 = 0.0369 for 2095 I > 2σI reflections), AsO3 pyramids share O corners to form a ‘loose’ 3D framework; Jahn–Teller distorted Mn3+O6 octahedra and CaO8 polyhedra link by edges and corners to form columns; the columns also link by edge- and corner-sharing to the AsO3 pyramids in the framework; Cl occupies channels along  in the framework. The Raman spectrum is consistent with the presence of multiple As3+O3 groups.
Generating feelings of satiety may be important in maintaining weight control. It has been hypothesised that the circulating concentration of glucose is a major determinant of satiety, yet the relationship between postprandial glycaemia and satiety is inconclusive. Our aim was to assess satiety following ingestion of beverages differing in glycaemic index (GI) containing either 50 g of sucrose (GI 65) or isomaltulose (PalatinoseTM) (GI 32). The beverages were matched for sweetness using a triangle sensory test. Seventy-seven participants were randomised to the order in which they received each beverage, 2 weeks apart. A standard lunch was given at 12.00 hours. Satiety was measured using 100-mm visual analogue scales (VAS) administered at 14.00 hours (baseline) and at 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 min after ingesting the beverage. Weighed diet records were kept from 17.00 to 24.00 hours. Mean differences for isomaltulose compared with sucrose AUC VAS were ‘How hungry do you feel?’ 109 (95 % CI –443, 661) mm × min; ‘How satisfied do you feel?’ 29 (95 % CI –569, 627) mm × min; ‘How full do you feel?’ −91 (95 % CI –725, 544) mm × min and ‘How much do you think you can eat?’ 300 (95 % CI –318, 919) mm × min. There was no between-treatment difference in satiety question responses or in dietary energy intake −291 (95 % CI −845, 267) kJ over the remainder of the day. In this experiment, feelings of satiety were independent of the GI of the test beverages. Any differences in satiety found between foods chosen on the basis of GI could be attributable to food properties other than the glycaemic-inducing potential of the food.
Treatment resistant schizophrenia (TRS) is one of the most disabling of psychiatric disorders, affecting about 1/3 of patients. First-line treatments include both atypical and typical antipsychotics. The original atypical, clozapine, is a final option, and although it has been shown to be the only effective treatment for TRS, many patients do not respond well to clozapine. Clozapine use is related to adverse events, most notably agranulocytosis, a potentially fatal blood disorder which affects about 1% of those prescribed clozapine and requires regular blood monitoring. This as a barrier to prescription and there is a long delay in access for TRS patients, of five or more years, from first antipsychotic prescription. Better tools to predict treatment resistance and to identify risk of adverse events would allow faster and safer access to clozapine for patients who are likely to benefit from it. The CRESTAR project (www.crestar-project.eu) is a European Framework 7 collaborative project that aims to develop tools to predict i) treatment response, particularly patients who are less likely to respond to usual antipsychotics, indicating treatment with clozapine as early as possible, ii) patients who are at high or low risk of adverse events and side effects, iii) extreme TRS patients so that they can be stratified in clinical trials for novel treatments. CRESTAR has addressed these questions by examining genome-wide association data, genome sequence, epigenetic biomarkers and epidemiological data in European patient cohorts characterized for treatment response, and adverse drug reaction using data from clozapine therapeutic drug monitoring and linked National population medical and pharmacy databases, to identify predictive factors. In parallel CRESTAR will perform health economic research on potential benefits, and ethics and patient-centred research with stakeholders.
The provision of support for people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) within the community is improving as a consequence of policy and legislative changes. However, specialist services are not currently provided in prisons.
This aim of the study was to determine the extent of ASD and co-occurring mental health problems among prisoners. We tested the hypothesis that ASD traits would be unrecognised by prison staff and would be significantly associated with increased rates of anxiety, depression and suicidality.
ASD traits were measured among 240 prisoners in a resettlement prison in London, UK using the 20-item Autism Quotient (AQ-20). Anxiety, depression and suicidality were assessed using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI).
There were 39 participants (16%) with an AQ-20 score ≥10; indicating significant autistic traits. Mental health data were available for 37 ‘high autistic trait’ participants and another 101 prisoners with no/low ASD traits. There was a significant positive association between AQ-20 and suicidality scores (r=.29, p=0.001). Participants with ASD traits had significantly higher suicidality scores (means=15.1 vs. 5, p= 0.001) and chi-square analysis showed that they were more likely to have a high suicidality rating (27% vs. 8%, p=0.003) than those without ASD traits. Moreover, those with ASD were significantly more likely to be experiencing a current episode of depression (30% vs. 6%, p<0.001) or Generalised Anxiety Disorder (GAD) (27% vs. 11% p=0.019).
Our initial data suggests that severity of ASD traits is a risk factor for suicidality and common mental health problems among prisoners.
Acifluorfen is a nonsystemic PPO-inhibiting herbicide commonly used for POST Palmer amaranth control in soybean, peanut, and rice across the southern United States. Concerns have been raised regarding herbicide selection pressure and particle drift, increasing the need for application practices that optimize herbicide efficacy while mitigating spray drift. Field research was conducted in 2016, 2017, and 2018 in Mississippi and Nebraska to evaluate the influence of a range of spray droplet sizes [150 μm (Fine) to 900 μm (Ultra Coarse)], using acifluorfen to create a novel Palmer amaranth management recommendation using pulse width modulation (PWM) technology. A pooled site-year generalized additive model (GAM) analysis suggested that 150-μm (Fine) droplets should be used to obtain the greatest Palmer amaranth control and dry biomass reduction. Nevertheless, GAM models indicated that only 7.2% of the variability observed in Palmer amaranth control was due to differences in spray droplet size. Therefore, location-specific GAM analyses were performed to account for geographical differences to increase the accuracy of prediction models. GAM models suggested that 250-μm (Medium) droplets optimize acifluorfen efficacy on Palmer amaranth in Dundee, MS, and 310-μm (Medium) droplets could sustain 90% of maximum weed control. Specific models for Beaver City, NE, indicated that 150-μm (Fine) droplets provide maximum Palmer amaranth control, and 340-μm (Medium) droplets could maintain 90% of greatest weed control. For Robinsonville, MS, optimal Palmer amaranth control could be obtained with 370-μm (Coarse) droplets, and 90% maximum control could be sustained with 680 μm (Ultra Coarse) droplets. Differences in optimal droplet size across location could be a result of convoluted interactions between droplet size, weather conditions, population density, plant morphology, and soil fertility levels. Future research should adopt a holistic approach to identify and investigate the influence of environmental and application parameters to optimize droplet size recommendations.
Cancer is the second leading cause of death worldwide. Lifestyle choices play an important role in the aetiology of cancer with up to 4 in 10 cases potentially preventable. Interventions delivered by healthcare professionals (HCPs) that incorporate risk information have the potential to promote behaviour change. Our aim was to develop a very brief intervention incorporating cancer risk, which could be implemented within primary care.
Guided by normalisation process theory (NPT), we developed a prototype intervention using literature reviews, consultation with patient and public representatives and pilot work with patients and HCPs. We conducted focus groups and interviews with 65 HCPs involved in delivering prevention activities. Findings were used to refine the intervention before 22 HCPs completed an online usability test and provided further feedback via a questionnaire incorporating a modified version of the NoMAD checklist.
The intervention included a website where individuals could provide information on lifestyle risk factors view their estimated 10-year risk of developing one or more of the five most common preventable cancers and access lifestyle advice incorporating behaviour change techniques. Changes incorporated from feedback from the focus groups and interviews included signposting to local services and websites, simplified wording and labelling of risk information. In the usability testing, all participants felt it would be easy to collect the risk information. Ninety-one percent felt the intervention would enable discussion about cancer risk and believed it had potential to be easily integrated into National Health Service (NHS) Health Checks. However, only 36% agreed it could be delivered within 5 min.
With the use of NPT, we developed a very brief intervention that is acceptable to HCPs in primary care and could be potentially integrated into NHS Health Checks. However, further work is needed to assess its feasibility and potential effectiveness.
Herbicide applications performed with pulse width modulation (PWM) sprayers to deliver specific spray droplet sizes could maintain product efficacy, minimize potential off-target movement, and increase flexibility in field operations. Given the continuous expansion of herbicide-resistant Palmer amaranth populations across the southern and midwestern United States, efficacious and cost-effective means of application are needed to maximize Palmer amaranth control. Experiments were conducted in two locations in Mississippi (2016, 2017, and 2018) and one location in Nebraska (2016 and 2017) for a total of 7 site-years. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of a range of spray droplet sizes [150 (Fine) to 900 μm (Ultra Coarse)] on lactofen and acifluorfen efficacy for Palmer amaranth control. The results of this research indicated that spray droplet size did not influence lactofen efficacy on Palmer amaranth. Palmer amaranth control and percent dry-biomass reduction remained consistent with lactofen applied within the aforementioned droplet size range. Therefore, larger spray droplets should be used as part of a drift mitigation approach. In contrast, acifluorfen application with 300-μm (Medium) spray droplets provided the greatest Palmer amaranth control. Although percent biomass reduction was numerically greater with 300-μm (Medium) droplets, results did not differ with respect to spray droplet size, possibly as a result of initial plant injury, causing weight loss, followed by regrowth. Overall, 900-μm (Ultra Coarse) droplets could be used effectively without compromising lactofen efficacy on Palmer amaranth, and 300-μm (Medium) droplets should be used to achieve maximum Palmer amaranth control with acifluorfen.