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Radiocarbon (14C) ages cannot provide absolutely dated chronologies for archaeological or paleoenvironmental studies directly but must be converted to calendar age equivalents using a calibration curve compensating for fluctuations in atmospheric 14C concentration. Although calibration curves are constructed from independently dated archives, they invariably require revision as new data become available and our understanding of the Earth system improves. In this volume the international 14C calibration curves for both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, as well as for the ocean surface layer, have been updated to include a wealth of new data and extended to 55,000 cal BP. Based on tree rings, IntCal20 now extends as a fully atmospheric record to ca. 13,900 cal BP. For the older part of the timescale, IntCal20 comprises statistically integrated evidence from floating tree-ring chronologies, lacustrine and marine sediments, speleothems, and corals. We utilized improved evaluation of the timescales and location variable 14C offsets from the atmosphere (reservoir age, dead carbon fraction) for each dataset. New statistical methods have refined the structure of the calibration curves while maintaining a robust treatment of uncertainties in the 14C ages, the calendar ages and other corrections. The inclusion of modeled marine reservoir ages derived from a three-dimensional ocean circulation model has allowed us to apply more appropriate reservoir corrections to the marine 14C data rather than the previous use of constant regional offsets from the atmosphere. Here we provide an overview of the new and revised datasets and the associated methods used for the construction of the IntCal20 curve and explore potential regional offsets for tree-ring data. We discuss the main differences with respect to the previous calibration curve, IntCal13, and some of the implications for archaeology and geosciences ranging from the recent past to the time of the extinction of the Neanderthals.
Prestigious journals are widely admired for publishing quality scholarship, yet the primary indicators of journal prestige (i.e., impact factors) do not directly assess audience admiration. Moreover, the publication landscape has changed substantially in the last 20 years, with electronic publishing changing the way we consume scientific research. Given that it has been 18 years since the publication of the last journal prestige survey of SIOP members, the authors conducted a new survey and used these results to reflect on changing practices within industrial and organizational (I-O) psychology. SIOP members (n = 557) rated the prestige and relevance of I-O and management journals. Responses were analyzed according to job setting, and were compared to a survey conducted by Zickar and Highhouse (2001) in 2000. There was considerable consistency in prestige ratings across settings (i.e., management department vs. psychology department; academic vs. applied), especially among the top journals. There was considerable variance, however, in the perceived usefulness of different journals. Results also suggested considerable consistency across the two time periods, but with some increases in prestige among OB-oriented journals. Changes in the journal landscape are discussed, including the rise of OHP as a topic of concentration in I-O. We suggest that I-O programs will continue to attract the top researchers in talent management and OHP, which should result in the use of a broader set of journals for judging I-O program impact.
Competition in the US Congress has been characterised along a single, left-right ideological dimension. We challenge this characterisation by showing that the content of legislation has far more predictive power than alternative measures, most notably legislators’ ideological positions derived from scaling roll call votes. Using a machine learning approach, we identify a topic model for final passage votes in the 111th through the 113th House of Representatives and conduct out-of-sample tests to evaluate the predictive power of bill topics relative to other measures. We find that bill topics and congressional committees are important for predicting roll call votes but that other variables, including member ideology, lack predictive power. These findings raise serious doubts about the claim that congressional politics can be boiled down to competition along a single left-right continuum and shed new light on the debate about levels of polarisation in Congress.
Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales (CRE) are common causes of healthcare-associated infections and are often multidrug resistant with limited therapeutic options. Additionally, CRE can spread within and between healthcare facilities, amplifying potential harms.
To better understand the burden, risk factors, and source of acquisition of carbapenemase genes in clinical Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp isolates from patients in Washington to guide prevention efforts.
Multicenter prospective surveillance study.
Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp isolates meeting the Washington state CRE surveillance case definition were solicited from clinical laboratories and tested at Washington Public Health Laboratories using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the 5 most common carbapenemase genes: blaKPC, blaNDM, blaIMP, blaVIM, and blaOXA-48. Case patients positive by PCR were investigated by the public health department.
From October 2012 through December 2017, 363 carbapenem-resistant E. coli and Klebsiella spp isolates were tested. Overall, 45 of 115 carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae (39%), 1 of 8 K. oxytoca (12.5%), and 28 of 239 carbapenem-resistant E. coli (11.7%) were carbapenemase positive. Of 74 carbapenemase-positive isolates, blaKPC was most common (47%), followed by blaNDM (30%), blaOXA-48 (22%), and blaIMP (1%). Although all cases had healthcare exposure, blaKPC acquisition was associated with US health care, whereas non-blaKPC acquisition was associated with international health care or travel.
We report that blaKPC, the most prevalent carbapenemase in the United States, accounts for nearly half of carbapenemase cases in Washington state and that most KPC-cases are likely acquired through in-state health care.
Successful conservation depends on human attitudes, values, and support. Increasingly scientists and managers analyse not only species status and needs, but also the long-term cost, risk, and effectiveness of activities. Socioeconomic costs and benefits are integral to these analyses. Gorongosa National Park in Mozambique provides a case study of conservation integrated with local community needs. Endangered Delta smelt in California exemplify conflicts around water apportionment. Case studies demonstrating the importance of socioeconomic considerations are provided by management of gray wolves and grizzly bears in the United States. The story of sage grouse illustrates how a regional agreement that resulted from many years of collaboration among stakeholders can be nullified by political changes at the national level. The cultural and socioeconomic values and rights of indigenous people play a prominent role in salmon management that can run counter to the interests of hydroelectric companies and other water users. Case studies illustrate how habitat management can be facilitated by participation by non-governmental organizations. Socioeconomic and political consideration also underlie the question of who can take responsibility for managing conservation-reliant species.
A conservation-reliant species is vulnerable to threats that persist; it requires continued management intervention to prevent a decline toward extinction or to maintain a population. The degree of conservation reliance varies over time and among species. Globally, the extent of conservation reliance is accelerating faster than we can provide resources to combat extinctions and promote recovery. A species is recognized as being conservation reliant or emerging from that status based on a general assessment that includes status and threats, the potential for managing the threats, actions taken to manage the threats and the species itself, population monitoring, and monitoring of threats. Species differ in their susceptibility to threats and their potential to respond to management actions, and threats differ in manageability. We use California condor management as a case study for these features of conservation reliance.
Understanding threats and our ability to manage them is the first step in shepherding conservation-reliant species toward sustainability or recovery. This chapter contrasts situations in which a single threat dominates with more complex situations in which multiple threats interact. Interactions among threats raise the likelihood of conservation reliance, as this chapter illustrates in a case study of vultures. Several other case studies illustrate the effectiveness of different legal and management approaches to imperilment and the importance of identifying its root causes. Case studies, including some revolving around dams, also illustrate the complexities that attend socioeconomic drivers of imperilment and differences in the scale and manageability of threats. The chapter also describes several threats such as storms, tsunamis, or volcanic eruptions that are not manageable.
The array of tools for addressing the needs of imperiled and conservation-reliant species is increasing. This chapter provides case studies and examples of the use of translocation and captive breeding for addressing threats, and discuss attributes of receiving sites. Tools for tracking species movements and for remote sensing can efficiently provide large amounts of habitat and species data. Sometimes tools can be used to address common threats such as those created by habitat change or pesticide use, benefitting multiple species. We provide Old World vultures offer a case study. Managing for surrogate, umbrella, indicator, focal, keystone, or pollinator species may assist other species as well. Such roles should be acknowledged in prioritizing conservation activities. Emerging technologies, including genetic tools and artificial intelligence, can help to address imperilment and conservation reliance if ethical issues can be navigated.
Many nations have developed policies and enforced legal approaches for addressing the needs of species at risk of extinction. Generally, however, conservation reliance is not acknowledged legally and is therefore ignored. Increasingly, legal approaches reflect the importance of (1) values in addition to hunting and fishing, (2) wildlife as a shared resource, (3) intrinsic rather than instrumental value, (4) helping species to become self-sustaining, and (5) long-term support for imperiled species. The International Union for the Conservation of Naturehas provided an international standard for recognizing species status. In the United States, the Endangered Species Act and National Environmental Policy Act provide a legal framework for species conservation that has been effective (although these acts have also spawned many legal challenges that have consumed the time and resources of stakeholders). The effectiveness of imperiled species laws depends on funding that can vary, leading to varying implementation and enforcement. Conservation reliance is seldom addressed explicitly. Responsibility for implementation may be spread across national, state or province, and more local entities.
Current methods for making decisions about what to fund and at what level are not sufficiently transparent or objective. Acknowledging conservation reliance fosters a realistic approach and outcomes. Prioritization requires an agreed-upon pool of species to consider within a defined area. Defining and ranking prioritization criteria presents a variety of challenges, including accounting for the manageability of threats, species vulnerability, and species genetic and phenotypic traits. Including social and economic factors increases the probability that plans will be implemented. This chapter also considers how factor weightings are derived and means of dealing with uncertainty. Four examples of prioritization processes illustrate the variety of current approaches. Few approaches explicitly consider the long-term demands of conservation reliance. The ethics that underlie conservation triage affect how people undertake prioritization. This book advocates the use of explicit prioritization criteria that include uncertainties and derive from values and interests of diverse stakeholders. Models should acknowledge a wide array of ecological and socioeconomic costs and benefits, probabilities of success, and projected conservation reliance.
Conservation reliance exists along a spectrum from species extinction to species recovery; from requiring intensive to minimal management. This chapter provides case studies of full or partial recovery and explores what made this possible using the Oregon chub, Aleutian cackling goose, southern white rhinoceros, black-capped vireo, and Robbins’ cinquefoil. Toward the other end of the spectrum, continued translocations or releases are required to maintain Oregon silverspot butterflies and Chatham Island black robins. Management is not always successful, however, as seen for Australian woylies. Some species, such as the Guam kingfisher, are extinct in the wild but maintained in zoos. Finally, there are lessons to be learned from species such as the po’ouli, dusky seaside sparrow, and Christmas Island pipistrelle, for which investments were too little or too late. Management of imperiled species is a societal investment and people’s attitudes play an important role in successful recovery. Participation by citizens and non-governmental organizations is particularly important when species are conservation reliant, as the long-term investment required can rarely be sustained otherwise.
People differ in how and how much they value nature, and in their attitudes toward conservation. This affects the implementation of laws and regulations and the criteria used in prioritization of conservation actions. Yet collaboration is essential, especially when conservation reliance requires long-term commitments. Individuals, communities, government agencies, and non-governmental organizations must all be involved. Shepherding nature is about taking responsibility for watching over and caring for species and Earth’s biodiversity. Countering the rising rate of extinctions will require a transformative change in how people relate to the environment, nature, and one another.
Expanding the scope of conservation beyond species and taking a broader, more holistic approach can provide greater and more lasting benefits to a wider ecological community. However, doing so can reduce our capacity to understand and ameliorate threats to individual species. Factors that favor a broader approach can be used to prioritize areas for protection. Protected areas can benefit from appropriate management of surrounding areas and from connectivity to other protected or partially protected habitat. Eradicating invasive species can benefit multiple imperiled species—although fencing and monitoring entail long-term costs, contributing to conservation reliance. This chapter provides examples, especially from oceanic islands. Managing fire regimes, either by controlling or setting fires, is another way to improve habitat and benefit multiple species. There are trade-offs in both cost and effectiveness between single- and multi-species management.
Recognition of the existence and extent of conservation reliance in laws, regulations, and prioritization schemes has been slow to emerge. Mike Scott and Dale Goble put forth the concept based on their experiences with management and legal approaches, respectively. Recognizing conservation reliance will improve trust and support for conservation projects across a broad segment of society.