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New linguliform microbrachiopods from the Middle Ordovician are described and illustrated. This fauna was recovered from the uppermost beds of the San Juan Formation in two sections of the Central Precordillera (Argentina), which are accurately dated to the Lenodus pseudoplanus Zone (middle Darriwilian). The fauna consists of the obolid Luthieria diminuta n. gen. n. sp., and the acrotretids Eoconulus tucunucoensis n. sp., Conotreta andina Lavié, Serra, and Feltes, Scaphelasma zharykensis Popov, and Numericoma rowelli Holmer et al. This low-diversity lingulate association displays close similarities with coeval faunas that inhabited the Laurentia, Baltica, and Kazakhstanian regions, in agreement with evidence from other linguliform and rhynchonelliform brachiopods.
Les mécanismes pharmacodynamiques à l’origine des diabètes médicamenteux sous neuroleptiques ne sont pas clairement établis . Des données pharmacodynamiques expérimentales nous ont conduits à faire l’hypothèse d’une implication du récepteur sérotoninergique 5HT2 C [2,3].
Évaluer une association entre le niveau d’affinité pour le récepteur 5HT2 C de certains psychotropes et la notification d’un diabète avec ces médicaments.
À partir de la base de données de pharmacovigilance de l’OMS, Vigibase®, nous avons identifié les observations enregistrées durant la période du 01/01/1994 au 29/03/2013, correspondant à une liste de 15 médicaments psychotropes d’affinité 5HT2 C connue. Nous avons recherché une disproportionnalité entre le niveau d’affinité 5HT2 C et la notification de diabète à l’aide de modèles de régression logistique. Le premier modèle ajustait sur les facteurs cliniques de confusion (modèle A) et le deuxième intégrait, en plus, les autres affinités réceptorielles (5HT2A, 5HT1A, D2, D3, Δ1et Δ2).
Parmi les 100 966 notifications, 1 790 (1,77 %) correspondaient à un effet indésirable de type diabète médicamenteux. Nous avons retrouvé une association significative et croissante entre le niveau d’affinité 5HT2 C et les notifications de diabète. Dans le modèle A, par rapport à une affinité 5HT2 C faible (référence), le rapport de cote (RC) pour une affinité 5HT2 C moyenne était de 2,98 (IC 95 % [2,54–3,48]) et celui pour une affinité 5HT2 C importante de 5,85 (IC 95 % [5,03–6,80]). Ces résultats étaient renforcés par le modèle B : RC = 3,15 (IC 95 % [2,54–3,91]) pour une affinité moyenne, RC = 7,07 [5,79–8,64] pour une affinité importante.
Ce travail illustre une méthode d’étude de type pharmacovigilance-pharmacodynamique (étude PV-PD). Il établit une association entre le niveau d‘affinité 5HT2 C et les notifications de diabète dans Vigibase®. Des études intégrant le niveau d’activité pour le récepteur 5HT2 C sont nécessaires pour compléter ces résultats.
Catatonia is a neuropsychiatric syndrome characterized by a variety of motor, behavioral and autonomic abnormalities that occurs in the context of general medical, neurological and psychiatric conditions. The complications of this syndrome have not been sufficiently studied in patients in this clinical setting.
To determine the rate and type of complications of catatonia in patients referred to a liaison psychiatry service.
Prospective descriptive study.
All patients referred to liaison psychiatry were screened for catatonic phenomena with the Bush–Francis Catatonia Screening Instrument (BFCSI) between January and May 2012. Any complications of catatonia were recorded.
236 patients were referred. Thirteen (5,5%) met research diagnostic criteria for catatonia and 10 (4,2%) DSM – IV criteria. Of these, six patients (46%) suffered from complications secondary to the catatonic syndrome. These patients were also those with the longer duration of catatonia (more than10 days). The complications observed were malnutrition, dehydration, hyponatremia, hypoglycaemia, and problems related to immobility such as pressure ulcers (the more frequent complication, present in all six patients), acute coronary syndrome, aspiration pneumonia, urinary retention and urinary infection. Three patients died as a result of these complications and their underlying conditions.
Medical complications of catatonia were frequent (46%) and were more common in those patients with longer duration of catatonia. Death was also frequent (23%).
Catatonia is a neuropsychiatric syndrome described in a variety of medical and psychiatric conditions. The prevalence and clinical features of this syndrome have not been studied sufficiently in patients in this clinical setting.
To determine the prevalence and clinical features of catatonia in patients referred to a liaison psychiatry service at a general hospital.
Prospective, descriptive study.
All patients referred to a liaison psychiatry service were screened for catatonic phenomena using the Bush–Francis Catatonia Screening Instrument (BFCSI), between January and May 2012. The prevalence and clinical features of catatonia were recorded.
236 patients were referred. Thirteen (5,5%) met research diagnostic criteria for catatonia and 10 (4,2%) DSM – IV criteria. Three of these patients suffered simultaneously with delirium. All patients presented with the inhibited variant of catatonia and 5 to 12 catatonic signs. 100% presented with immobility/stupor and staring gaze, 84,6% with mutism, 76,9% with rigidity, and 69% with negativism and withdrawal. Sixty-one percent presented with posturing/catalepsy, 53,8% with echophenomena and automatic obedience and 46,1% with stereotypies and grasp reflex, whilst 38,4% presented with grimacing and waxy flexibility. Mitgehen, Gegenhalten and autonomic abnormalities were found in 23% of cases. In 15,3% there were verbigeration, impulsivity, perseveration and combativeness. Excitement, mannerisms and ambitendency were not observed in any case.
Catatonia is not infrequent in patients referred to a liaison psychiatry service at a general hospital, and it presented with its inhibited variant in all cases. In 23% of patients catatonia occurred simultaneously with delirium.
Catatonia is a neuropsychiatric syndrome described in a variety of general medical, neurological and psychiatric conditions. Response to treatment has not been sufficiently studied in patients in this clinical setting.
To determine the response to treatment of catatonia in patients referred to a liaison psychiatry service.
Prospective, descriptive study.
All patients referred to liaison psychiatry were screened for catatonic phenomena with the Bush–Francis Catatonia Screening Instrument (BFCSI) between January and May 2012. Their response to treatment was recorded.
236 patients were referred. Thirteen (5,5%) met research diagnostic criteria for catatonia and 10 (4,2%) DSM – IV criteria. Nine of the 13 patients received treatment with oral lorazepam. Five underwent total remission with doses between 1.5-3 mg/day within 5-13 days of treatment initiation. Two cases received up to 3 mg/day for more than 5 days resulting in a very mild improvement, one of them did not improve following eight sessions of ECT. One patient who received up to 10mg/day, died of the complications of the background health problem and complications. One patient died after the first day of treatment with lorazepam 1 mg/day. Another patient died the day after the diagnosis of catatonia and prior to starting treatment. Three patients with associated delirium improved completely with treatment for the underlying cause.
Catatonia can be effectively treated. 62% of our patients treated with lorazepam achieved complete resolution of symptoms. 100% of de catatonic patients with delirium also completely improved after treatment of the underlying condition.
Catatonia is a neuropsychiatric syndrome described in a variety of medical and psychiatric conditions. Its association with frontotemporal dementia (FTD) has been sparsely described.
We reported two patients with FTD that present a catatonic state.
Literature review through Pubmed and report of a clinical cases.
Case 1: Frontotemporal dementia, behavioral variant.
65 year old female who was hospitalized after losing weight due to his active refusal to eat and subsequently was undergone a gastrostomy. Once stabilized physically was derived to psychogeriatric ward where the patient was stuporous, mute, with mannerisms and rigidity. Continued with refusal to take food. On examination she had staring, posturing, echophenomena, automatic obedience, Gegenhalten, ambitendency and perseveration. It featured 12 of 23 symptoms of Bush and Francis Catatonia Rating Scale (BFCRS), scoring 32. She improved completely her catatonic state within one week with lorazepam 2.5 mg /day and zolpidem 10mg/day. Perseverative behavior and mannerisms was maintained.
Case 2: Frontotemporal dementia, primary progressive aphasia
67 years old male who was admitted to psychogeriatric ward because had aggressivity and negativism. On examination immobility, mutism, staring, echolalia, rigidity, negativism, withdrawal, perseveration, Gegenhalten, impulsiveness and combativeness were observed. It featured 11 of 23 symptoms of BFCRS, scoring 22. He was treated with lorazepam 10mg/day and valproic acid 900 mg/day. Catatonic symptoms disappeared a month later. Negativism and impulsiveness persisted slightly.
The catatonic syndrome may occur in patients with FTD. In both conditions symptoms overlap. The response to GABAergic drugs was optimal.
Shared decision-making denotes a structured process that encourages full participation by patient and provider in making complex medical decisions. There has been extensive and growing interest in its application to long-term illnesses but surprisingly not in severe psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia. However, the great majority of schizophrenics are capable of understanding treatment choices and making rational decisions. Although the main justification for shared decision-making is ethical, several randomized controlled trials support its effectiveness in improving the quality of decisions, but robust evidence in objective health outcomes is needed.
Aims and objectives
Of the study: to demonstrate the effectiveness, measured as treatment adherence and readmissions at 3, 6 and 12 months, of shared decision making in the choice of antipsychotic treatment at discharge.
Of the oral presentation: to present the study design; to make an interim report of the data obtained at the moment of the congress.
Randomized controlled trial, prospective, two parallel groups, not masked, comparing two interventions (shared decision making and treatment as usual). Study population: Inpatients diagnosed of schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorders (ICD-10/DSM-IV-R: F20 y F25) at Adult Acute Hospitalization Unit at Jerez General Hospital.
Currently in the recruiting phase with 55 patients included in the study. An interim analysis of at least half of the target sample size.
We will show the study design and decision tools employed. Conclusions in relation to the effectiveness (adherence and readmissions) and subjective perception.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Chronic hypertension has been associated with an increased risk of cognitive decline. Although a link between hypertension and cognitive decline has been established, there is less evidence supported by systematic reviews. The main aim was to compare different antihypertensive drug groups in relation to their effect on cognition in older patients without established dementia using a systematic review.
A systematic search in Medline and Embase through to January 2017 was used to identify randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs) studying the impact of different antihypertensives on cognition in older patients without dementia. Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs), angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-Is), beta-blockers (BBs), diuretics, and calcium channel blockers (CCBs) were included in this review.
The systematic search identified 358 studies. The full text of 31 RCTs was reviewed and a total of 15 RCTs were included in the review. Most studies reported an improvement in episodic memory in patients treated with ARBs versus placebo or other types of antihypertensive drugs. No study showed an improvement in cognition in patients who received diuretics, BBs, or CCBs. Heterogeneity was high in most trials (predominantly in the blinding of participants and investigators).
This review suggests that ARBs can improve cognitive functions in the elderly, especially episodic memory. ACE-Is, diuretics, BBs and CCBs did not seem to improve cognitive function in the elderly but were similarly effective in blood pressure lowering as ARBs.
Ordered arrays of crystalline complex oxides nanostructures were synthesized onto single crystal insulating substrates using aqueous polyvinyl alcohol based electron beam resist precursors. The irradiated zones are insoluble in water (negative-tone resist) due to the electron induced cross linking of polyvinyl alcohol. The subsequent high temperature treatment of the developed precursor samples leads to the formation of ordered arrays of nanodots for low irradiation doses. For high irradiation dosages, epitaxially and oriented nanowires are obtained. These same precursors were shown to be nanoimprintable on single crystal substrates. This allows for future dual processing of a single precursor film gaining nano-structuration from both electron beam and nanoimprint lithography methods.
The reconfiguration time of a holographic beam-shaping device using a liquid
crystal spatial light modulator (SLM) has been drastically decreased by five
orders of magnitude to reach the microsecond range (~5 µs). The
method involves an acousto-optic modulator (AOM) placed in front of the SLM
which points the laser beam towards different pre-addressed regions of the
liquid crystal plate. Because the addressing signal is not changed, the
reconfiguration time is mainly governed by the AOM response time. Moreover,
this method allows us to clean up the transient regime by suppressing the bleed
effect usually observed in the standard SLM reconfiguration.
Public concern about animal welfare has increased both legislation and consumer pressure, to introduce new technical developments in sow’s housing. In recent years, there has been increased interest in less intensive production systems for pigs, including outdoor production. The issue of sow’s housing and its relation to welfare has been investigated for sometime now (SVC, 1997; McGlone et al., 2004). Concerns over animal welfare combined with European based scientific data have led to the progressive removal of gestation stalls in several European countries, and from 2013 the use of stalls will be restricted throughout the European Union. Therefore one of the greatest challenges in swine housing management is the development of a viable alternative to stalls. In this way, we carried out a study to (1) compare the agonistic behaviour of two breeds of sows moved from individual stalls to an outdoor park, and to (2) determine the evolution of behaviour throughout four weeks of study for each breed.
We grew high-quality epitaxial YBa2Cu3O7 (YBCO) superconducting thin films by the trifluoroacetate route on top of chemical solution deposited SrTiO3 buffer layers. We show that high lattice mismatches can be accommodated in heterostructures grown by chemical methods. Clean interfaces were observed between the different layers. The influence of the buffer layer growth conditions on the final superconducting properties was studied in depth. We have proved that the main parameter affecting the YBCO critical currents is the SrTiO3 surface roughness, which promotes the nucleation of a/b axis grains and, as a consequence, the porosity of the YBCO film. On the other hand, an improved dependence of the critical current with perpendicular applied magnetic field was observed. This suggests a strengthened vortex pinning due to a higher density of a/b axis oriented grains.
The rolling of a ball on a horizontal deformable surface was investigated under the assumptions that the ball was a rigid sphere and the surface was elastic. Finite strain theory was used to develop theoretical results which were found to match observations well in cases where the ball and surface involved were such as to ensure no slipping at the region of contact, including a lawn bowl rolling on a grass rink and a billiard ball rolling on carpet. The theory did not match well the behaviour of a golf ball on a grass green because the ball was too light to enforce the no-slipping condition.
Ta2Si silicide has been deposited by sputtering and thermally oxidized on 4H-SiC and Si substrates. A mixture of SiO2 and Ta2O5 insulator films has been obtained after oxidation in dry O2. Among the high-k dielectrics, tantalum pentoxide (Ta2O5) could be a valuable alternative due to its high dielectric constant. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), C-V measurements along with x-ray diffraction analysis have been carried out in order to study the feasibility of this material as gate dielectric for 4H-SiC MOS devices. Electrical characteristics of deposited and oxidized Ta2Si on 4H-SiC and Si samples have been obtained and compared. At the range of oxidation temperatures considered (850°C-950°C), the influence of diffusion processes between the Si substrate and Ta2Si layer during oxidation strongly influences the dielectric properties of the resulting insulator layer on Si substrates.
The world high jump record for men is now an amazing 2.45 m (8 ft 0½ in). This requires an athlete to raise his or her the centre of gravity through a vertical distance of about 1.3 metres, something which is quite impossible by leg thrust alone. Through experience, coaches and athletes have developed techniques which maximise performance, and this paper attempts to describe these in mathematical terms. In this article, the various factors contributing to the height of a jump are investigated with the aid of information gained from a film of a Straddle-style jump. The same principles are involved in a jump using the Fosbury Flop.
By analysing the forces acting on an oar during the power stroke it is possible to estimate the mean velocity given to a racing shell. Use is made of oarlock force data, obtained experimentally by the Australian Institute of Sport, to obtain accurate predictions in the case of a racing pair. Similar conclusions would hold for boats with any number of oars. The effect of altering the angle between oar shaft and blade is investigated, leading to a suggestion for a design change to improve oar efficiency. Predictions are made of the resulting improvement in boat position in a 2000-metre race.
We present a comprehensive overview of the large spectroscopic evidence on the influence of ordering on the Raman and infrared spectra of partially ordered GaInP2. Our phonon mode calculation within the adiabatic bond charge model describes the appearance of new phonons and also the optical anisotropy.
In this article we set up a mathematical model to represent the effects of the forces which operate during the rowing of racing shells. The analysis is conducted in terms of eights, but could apply equally well to fours, pairs and double or quad sculls, and even (with obvious verbal changes) to single sculls. McMahon as well as McMahon and Bonner have previously considered various numbers of rowers in racing shells, and reached conclusions suggesting that consideration of an eight is representative of all possible combinations of rowers.