To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
After its first implementation in 2003 the Astro-WISE technology has been rolled out in several European countries and is used for the production of the KiDS survey data. In the multi-disciplinary Target initiative this technology, nicknamed WISE technology, has been further applied to a large number of projects. Here, we highlight the data handling of other astronomical applications, such as VLT-MUSE and LOFAR, together with some non-astronomical applications such as the medical projects Lifelines and GLIMPS; the MONK handwritten text recognition system; and business applications, by amongst others, the Target Holding.
We describe some of the most important lessons learned and describe the application of the data-centric WISE type of approach to the Science Ground Segment of the Euclid satellite.
The frequency of full syndromal and subsyndromal delirium is understudied.
We conducted a point prevalence study in a general hospital.
Possible delirium identified by testing for inattention was evaluated regarding delirium status (full/subsyndromal delirium) using categorical (Confusion Assessment Method (CAM), DSM-IV) and dimensional (Delirium Rating Scale-Revised-98 (DRS-R98) scores) methods.
In total 162 of 311 patients (52%) screened positive for inattention. Delirium was diagnosed in 55 patients (17.7%) using DSM-IV, 52 (16.7%) using CAM and 58 (18.6%) using DRS-R98⩾12 with concordance for 38 (12.2%) individuals. Subsyndromal delirium was identified in 24 patients (7.7%) using a DRS-R98 score of 7–11 and 41 (13.2%) using 2/4 CAM criteria. Subsyndromal delirium with inattention (v. without) had greater disturbance of multiple delirium symptoms.
The point prevalence of delirium and subsyndromal delirium was 25%. There was modest concordance between DRS-R98, DSM-IV and CAM delirium diagnoses. Inattention should be central to subsyndromal delirium definitions.
Improved understanding of the pattern of white matter changes in early and prodromal Alzheimer's disease (AD) states such as mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is necessary to support earlier preclinical detection of AD, and debate remains whether white matter changes in MCI are secondary to gray matter changes. We applied neuropsychologically based MCI criteria to a sample of normally aging older adults; 32 participants met criteria for MCI and 81 participants were classified as normal control (NC) subjects. Whole-head high resolution T1 and diffusion tensor imaging scans were completed. Tract-Based Spatial Statistics was applied and a priori selected regions of interest were extracted. Hippocampal volume and cortical thickness averaged across regions with known vulnerability to AD were derived. Controlling for cortical thickness, the MCI group showed decreased average fractional anisotropy (FA) and decreased FA in parietal white matter and in white matter underlying the entorhinal and posterior cingulate cortices relative to the NC group. Statistically controlling for cortical thickness, medial temporal FA was related to memory and parietal FA was related to executive functioning. These results provide further support for the potential role of white matter integrity as an early biomarker for individuals at risk for AD and highlight that changes in white matter may be independent of gray matter changes. (JINS, 2013, 19, 1–13)
The feasibility and advantages of using rapid thermal annealing to achieve a proper n+ polysilicon work function are demonstrated. Our data shows that RTA can be used to activate arsenic in the polysilicon gate after a regular furnace anneal or to diffuse and activate arsenic without any prior furnace anneal. Interface states and fixed charges due to RTA can be annealed out at 500°C for 30 min in forming gas. New insights into the diffusion, segregation, and activation of As in polysilicon during furnace and/or rapid thermal annealing have been obtained.
Disperse Red-1 type chromophores were attached to the backbones of PMMA, polyvinyl-phenol as well as the styrene-Maleimide alternative copolymer and glass transition temperatures of these three polymer derivatives were in the range of 125, 165, and 245°C, respectively. We have also, for the first time, attached EO chromophores to some thermostable cardo-polymers. Fluorene derivatives in which the 2- and 7-positions were substituted with an electron accepting and an electron donating substitutem, respectively, were made polymerizable through their reactive functional groups at the 9,9′-positions. Various condensation polymers were prepared. These polymers are amorphous, film-forming, thermostable, and having Tg ranging from 150 to 300°C. These polymers exhibit strong electro-optic properties after electrode poling. Thermal stabilities of these polymers were compared by following the spectral decay of the chromophore and the decay of the electro-optic coefficient. The loss of EO activity at elevated temperature can be realized as a combination of chromophore reorientation and chemical degradation.
An understanding of bone cell response and extracellular matrix production to a biomaterial is crucial for development of new prosthetic devices. The nature of the cellular-biomaterial surface interface will depend upon a number of factors including substrate properties (surface chemistry, charge, topography) as well as biological cellular concerns (i.e. adsorption of attachment factors to the surface, growth factors). The quality of the matrix and bone-bonding may be influenced by these factors. Recently, a short-term in-vitro cell culture assay has demonstrated the initial attachment and spread of human derived bone cells on metallic (titanium and stainless steel) and polymeric surfaces to be dependent on the adsorption of adhesive attachment factor proteins (fibronectin and vitronectin) to the substratum surface . The morphological appearance of human osteoblasts cultured on titanium and stainless steel with time also demonstrated differences compared to tissue culture plastic . Little data however, is available for the mitogenic and gene expression levels of primary human bone cells cultured on commonly used orthopaedic materials and the response of these cells to growth factors. The present study examined the mitogenic response and steady state mRNA expression levels of primary human bone cells cultured on metallic substrates to provide further insight into the nature of cell-substrate interactions.
Six hundred and forty two randomly selected elderly living in the various communities which make up the Capital Regional District of British Columbia were interviewed during the summer of 1984. This secondary analysis of those data focuses on the respondents' perceptions of problems they were having such as transportation, health, finances and also on their awareness of, or involvement with, a range of community services including recreation, health, social and transportation. Data revealed that the elderly were very aware of most of the services in the community but that involvement with services was related to health status, age, gender, marital status and income.
In the target article, Cramer et al. suggest that diagnostic classification is improved by modeling the relationship between manifest variables (i.e., symptoms) rather than modeling unobservable latent variables (i.e., diagnostic categories such as Generalized Anxiety Disorder). This commentary discusses whether symptoms represent manifest or latent variables and the implications of this distinction for diagnosis and treatment.
Photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting for hydrogen production is a promising technology that uses sunlight and water to produce renewable hydrogen with oxygen as a by-product. In the expanding field of PEC hydrogen production, the use of standardized screening methods and reporting has emerged as a necessity. This article is intended to provide guidance on key practices in characterization of PEC materials and proper reporting of efficiencies. Presented here are the definitions of various efficiency values that pertain to PEC, with an emphasis on the importance of solar-to-hydrogen efficiency, as well as a flow chart with standard procedures for PEC characterization techniques for planar photoelectrode materials (i.e., not suspensions of particles) with a focus on single band gap absorbers. These guidelines serve as a foundation and prelude to a much more complete and in-depth discussion of PEC techniques and procedures presented elsewhere.
Correction of sensory transmission delays is an intractable problem, since there is no absolute reference for calibration. Phase-alignment is a practical alternative solution and can be realized by adaptive filters that operate locally with simple error signals.
Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) excitation in silver and gold nanoparticles produces strong extinction and scattering spectra that in recent years have been used for important sensing and spectroscopy applications. This article describes the fabrication, characterization, and computational electrodynamics of plasmonic materials that take advantage of this concept.Two applications of these plasmonic materials are presented: (1) the development of an ultrasensitive nanoscale optical biosensor based on LSPR wavelength-shift spectroscopy and (2) the use of plasmon-sampled and wavelength-scanned surface-enhanced Raman excitation spectroscopy (SERES) to provide new insight into the electromagnetic-field enhancement mechanism.
Although the n-back task has been widely applied to neuroimagery investigations of working memory (WM), the role of practice effects on behavioural performance of this task has not yet been investigated. The current study aimed to investigate the effects of task complexity and familiarity on the n-back task. Seventy-seven participants (39 male, 38 female) completed a visuospatial n-back task four times, twice in two testing sessions separated by a week. Participants were required to remember either the first, second or third (n-back) most recent letter positions in a continuous sequence and to indicate whether the current item matched or did not match the remembered position. A control task, with no working memory requirements required participants to match to a predetermined stimulus position. In both testing sessions, reaction time (RT) and error rate increased with increasing WM load. An exponential slope for RTs in the first session indicated dual-task interference at the 3-back level. However, a linear slope in the second session indicated a reduction of dual-task interference. Attenuation of interference in the second session suggested a reduction in executive demands of the task with practice. This suggested that practice effects occur within the n-back task and need to be controlled for in future neuroimagery research using the task.
HIV-1 infection leads to profound immune dysfunction, resulting in the clinical manifestations of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The damage that HIV-1 does to the immune system results from the direct, harmful effects that occur when HIV-1 infects a cell, the effects that virions and parts of virions have on cells that do not become infected, and the chronic cell activation that results from infection and the host's response to infection. Abnormal function of HIV-1-affected cells can then lead to dysfunction of other cell types, since the immune system is a highly interconnected system. The main target cells of HIV-1 include cells that are critical in the immune control of the virus, impairing the ability of the host to mount an effective immune response.
The majority of adult and adolescent HIV-1 infections are the result of exposure of HIV-1 to mucosal surfaces. This is likely true also for mother-to-child transmission that occurs peripartum and during breastfeeding. Studies of macaques inoculated intravaginally with simian immunodeficiency virus, an animal model for HIV-1, demonstrate the events of primary infection . Dendritic cells, resident in the mucosa, transport HIV-1 to regional lymph nodes within 48 hours of exposure. Within the lymph node, CD4+ T cells become infected through interactions with dendritic cell-associated HIV-1. Subsequently, large numbers of new virions are produced, and infected T cells and free virus can be found in the peripheral blood and in lymph tissue throughout the body approximately 4–11 days after infection.
Currently there is considerable interest in the notion that dorsal and ventral visual systems might differ in their specializations for thought and action. Behavior invariably involves multiple processes such as perception, judgment, and response execution. It is not clear that characteristics of the dorsal and ventral processing streams, as described by Norman, are entirely of a perceptual nature.
Laboratory-based surveillance of salmonella isolates serotyped at four state health departments
(Illinois, Michigan, Minnesota and Wisconsin) led to the identification of multistate outbreaks
of salmonella infections during 1990 (176 cases of S. javiana) and 1993 (100 cases of S.
montevideo). Community-based case-control studies and product traceback implicated
consumption of tomatoes from a single South Carolina tomato packer (Packer A) MOR 16·0;
95% CI 2·1, 120·6; P<0·0001 in 1990 and
again in 1993 (MOR 5·7; 95% CI 1·5, 21·9;
P=0·01) as the likely vehicle. Contamination likely occurred at the packing shed, where field
grown tomatoes were dumped into a common water bath. These outbreaks represent part of a
growing trend of large geographically dispersed outbreaks caused by sporadic or low-level
contamination of widely distributed food items. Controlling contamination of agricultural
commodities that are also ready-to-eat foods, particularly fruits and vegetables, presents a
major challenge to industry, regulators and public health officials.