To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Asenapine is indicated in adults for acute treatment of schizophrenia and manic or mixed episodes associated with bipolar I disorder with or without psychotic features. We report the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of asenapine in patients with bipolar I disorder completing up to 52 weeks of treatment.
Patients completing either of two 3-week efficacy trials and a 9-week double-blind extension were eligible for this 40-week double-blind extension. Patients in the 3-week trials were randomized to flexible-dose asenapine (5 or 10 mg BID), placebo, or olanzapine (5-20 mg QD; included for assay sensitivity only). Patients entering the extension continued their preestablished treatment; those originally randomized to placebo received flexible-dose asenapine (placebo/asenapine, 5 or 10 mg BID). Safety and tolerability endpoints included adverse events (AEs), extrapyramidal symptoms, laboratory values, and anthropometric measures. Efficacy was measured as the change in Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) total score from 3-week trial baseline to week 52; the placebo/asenapine group was included in the safety analyses.
Incidence of treatment-emergent AEs was 71.9%, 86.1%, and 79.4% with placebo/asenapine, asenapine, and olanzapine, respectively. The most frequent AEs included headache and somnolence (placebo/asenapine); insomnia, sedation, and depression (asenapine); and weight gain, somnolence, and sedation (olanzapine). Mean ± SD changes in YMRS score at week 52 among observed cases in the intent-to-treat population were -28.6±8.1 for asenapine and -28.2±6.8 for olanzapine.
In this 52-week study, asenapine was well tolerated and long-term maintenance of efficacy was supported in patients initially presenting with bipolar mania.
Investigate effects of adjunct extended release quetiapine fumarate (QTP-XR) on sleep disturbance and quality in patients with MDD and inadequate response to antidepressant (AD) therapy.
Data were pooled from two (D1448C00006/D1448C00007) 6-week, double-blind, randomised, placebo (placebo+AD)-controlled studies of adjunct QTP-XR (15 0 mg/day and 300 mg/day). Primary endpoint: MADRS total score change versus placebo+AD. Secondary endpoints (post hoc): change from randomisation in MADRS item 4 (reduced sleep), HAM-D items 4, 5 and 6 (early-, middle- and late-insomnia), sleep disturbance factor (HAM-D items 4+5+6) and sleep quality (PSQI global score). MADRS total score change in patients with baseline HAM-D sleep disturbance factor score > = 4 or < 4 (high and low sleep disturbance, respectively) was evaluated.
919 patients received adjunct QTP-XR: 150 mg/day (n = 309), 300 mg/day (n = 307), placebo+AD (n = 303). At Week 6, adjunct QTP-XR (both doses) reduced MADRS item 4, HAM-D sleep disturbance factor, HAM-D items 4, 5 and 6 and PSQI global scores from baseline versus placebo+AD (p < 0.001). In patients with baseline HAM-D>=4 (n = 226, 215 and 210, respectively) adjunct QTP-XR (both doses) improved (p< 0.01) MADRS total score versus placebo+AD from Week 1 onward. In patients with baseline HAM-D< 4 (n = 83, 92, 93, respectively) adjunct QTP-XR (both doses) improved (not statistically significantly) MADRS total score versus placebo+AD at Week 6.
Adjunct QTP-XR significantly restored sleep and improved sleep quality in patients with MDD and inadequate response to AD. Significant improvement in depressive symptoms was demonstrated with adjunct QTP-XR in patients with MDD and high baseline sleep disturbance. AstraZeneca funded.
We describe an ultra-wide-bandwidth, low-frequency receiver recently installed on the Parkes radio telescope. The receiver system provides continuous frequency coverage from 704 to 4032 MHz. For much of the band (
), the system temperature is approximately 22 K and the receiver system remains in a linear regime even in the presence of strong mobile phone transmissions. We discuss the scientific and technical aspects of the new receiver, including its astronomical objectives, as well as the feed, receiver, digitiser, and signal processor design. We describe the pipeline routines that form the archive-ready data products and how those data files can be accessed from the archives. The system performance is quantified, including the system noise and linearity, beam shape, antenna efficiency, polarisation calibration, and timing stability.
The use of patient-reported outcome measures in psychiatric practices in the United States is still in its beginning phases. More research is need to determine the usefulness of such measures and the optimal methods to present them to patients and practitioners in routine care settings.
This presentation will describe the research plan for testing a group of patient-reported outcome measures using digital applications. Potential opportunities for use in underserved refugee populations will be presented.
The outcome measures were selected from those recommended in DSM-5 Section III, including cross-cutting symptom and disability measures. A user-friendly digital application was developed for data collection, synthesis, and presentation. The research plan has three phases: focus groups with patients and clinicians, piloting of methods, and the main study, a pragmatic trial comparing treatment outcomes using outcome measurement versus usual care.
Results of the focus group sessions will be presented, along with changes made to the measures and the digital application in response to these results. Current status of the research project will be discussed.
The results of this research project will bring greater clarity to questions on the role of outcome measurements in improving quality of care and patient outcomes. With ever greater use of smart phones, tablets, and personal computers, digital technology has the potential to facilitate psychiatric assessment and treatment for underserved, difficult-to-reach populations such as refugees.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Choosing wisely, a program developed by the American Board of Internal Medicine in 2012, is advancing a national dialogue on avoiding wasteful or unnecessary medical tests, treatments or procedures. Recommendations are chosen that have a strong evidence base. There are now over seventy specialty society partners including the American Psychiatric Association. The program attempts to involve patients in the dialogue and an important partner in the program is consumer reports. In this presentation, information about the origins of the program, its development and the impact it has on the practice of medicine will be reviewed. Also the measures developed and submitted by the American Psychiatric Association will be discussed and potential additional psychiatric measures will be discussed. The strengths and weaknesses of the program will be identified.
Disclosure of interest
The author has not supplied his declaration of competing interest.
Although a number of studies have examined the relationship between depression and obesity, it is still insufficient to establish the specific pattern of relationship between depression and body mass index (BMI) categories. Thus, this study was aimed to investigate the relationship between depression and BMI categories.
A cross-sectional study was conducted for a cohort of 159,390 Korean based on Kangbuk Samsung Health Study (KSHS). Study participants were classified into 5 groups by Asian-specific cut-off of BMI (18.5, 23, 25 and 30 kg/m2). The presence of depression was determined by Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scales (CES-D) = 16 and = 25. The adjusted odd ratios (ORs) for depression were evaluated by multiple logistic regression analysis, in which independent variable was 5 categories of BMI and dependent variable was depression. Subgroup analysis was conducted by gender and age.
When normal group was set as a reference, the adjusted ORs for depression formed U-shaped pattern of relationship with BMI categories [underweight: 1.31 (1.14–1.50), overweight: 0.94 (0.85–1.04), obese group: 1.01 (0.91–1.12), severe obese group: 1.28 (1.05–1.54)]. This pattern of relationship was more prominent in female and young age group than male and elderly subgroup. BMI level with the lowest likelihood of depression was 18.5 kg/m2 to 25 kg/m2 in women and 23 kg/m2 to 25 kg/m2 in men.
There was a U-shaped relationship between depression and BMI categories. This finding suggests that both underweight and severe obesity are associated with the increased risk for depression.
Q fever (caused by Coxiella burnetii) is thought to have an almost world-wide distribution, but few countries have conducted national serosurveys. We measured Q fever seroprevalence using residual sera from diagnostic laboratories across Australia. Individuals aged 1–79 years in 2012–2013 were sampled to be proportional to the population distribution by region, distance from metropolitan areas and gender. A 1/50 serum dilution was tested for the Phase II IgG antibody against C. burnetii by indirect immunofluorescence. We calculated crude seroprevalence estimates by age group and gender, as well as age standardised national and metropolitan/non-metropolitan seroprevalence estimates. Of 2785 sera, 99 tested positive. Age standardised seroprevalence was 5.6% (95% confidence interval (CI 4.5%–6.8%), and similar in metropolitan (5.5%; 95% CI 4.1%–6.9%) and non-metropolitan regions (6.0%; 95%CI 4.0%–8.0%). More males were seropositive (6.9%; 95% CI 5.2%–8.6%) than females (4.2%; 95% CI 2.9%–5.5%) with peak seroprevalence at 50–59 years (9.2%; 95% CI 5.2%–13.3%). Q fever seroprevalence for Australia was higher than expected (especially in metropolitan regions) and higher than estimates from the Netherlands (2.4%; pre-outbreak) and US (3.1%), but lower than for Northern Ireland (12.8%). Robust country-specific seroprevalence estimates, with detailed exposure data, are required to better understand who is at risk and the need for preventive measures.
Nudging in microbiology is an antimicrobial stewardship strategy to influence decision making through the strategic reporting of microbiology results while preserving prescriber autonomy. The purpose of this scoping review was to identify the evidence that demonstrates the effectiveness of nudging strategies in susceptibility result reporting to improve antimicrobial use.
A search for studies in Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, and All EBM Reviews was conducted. All simulated and vignette studies were excluded. Two independent reviewers were used throughout screening and data extraction.
Of a total of 1,346 citations screened, 15 relevant studies were identified. Study types included pre- and postintervention (n = 10), retrospective cohort (n = 4), and a randomized controlled trial (n = 1). Most studies were performed in acute-care settings (n = 13), and the remainder were in primary care (n = 2). Most studies used a strategy to alter the default antibiotic choices on the antibiotic report. All studies reported at least 1 outcome of antimicrobial use: utilization (n = 9), appropriateness (n = 7), de-escalation (n = 2), and cost (n = 1). Moreover, 12 studies reported an overall benefit in antimicrobial use outcomes associated with nudging, and 4 studies evaluated the association of nudging strategy with subsequent antimicrobial resistance, with 2 studies noting overall improvement.
The number of heterogeneous studies evaluating the impact of applying nudging strategies to susceptibility result reports is small; however, most strategies do show promise in altering prescriber’s antibiotic selection. Selective and cascade reporting of targeted agents in a hospital setting represent the majority of current research. Gaps and opportunities for future research identified from our scoping review include performing prospective randomized controlled trials and evaluating other approaches aside from selective reporting.
Apolipoprotein E (APOE) E4 is the main genetic risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Due to the consistent association, there is interest as to whether E4 influences the risk of other neurodegenerative diseases. Further, there is a constant search for other genetic biomarkers contributing to these phenotypes, such as microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT) haplotypes. Here, participants from the Ontario Neurodegenerative Disease Research Initiative were genotyped to investigate whether the APOE E4 allele or MAPT H1 haplotype are associated with five neurodegenerative diseases: (1) AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), (2) amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, (3) frontotemporal dementia (FTD), (4) Parkinson’s disease, and (5) vascular cognitive impairment.
Genotypes were defined for their respective APOE allele and MAPT haplotype calls for each participant, and logistic regression analyses were performed to identify the associations with the presentations of neurodegenerative diseases.
Our work confirmed the association of the E4 allele with a dose-dependent increased presentation of AD, and an association between the E4 allele alone and MCI; however, the other four diseases were not associated with E4. Further, the APOE E2 allele was associated with decreased presentation of both AD and MCI. No associations were identified between MAPT haplotype and the neurodegenerative disease cohorts; but following subtyping of the FTD cohort, the H1 haplotype was significantly associated with progressive supranuclear palsy.
This is the first study to concurrently analyze the association of APOE isoforms and MAPT haplotypes with five neurodegenerative diseases using consistent enrollment criteria and broad phenotypic analysis.
The current study explored the experiences and aspirations of a cohort of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adults with neurocognitive disability residing in a homeless shelter in regional Queensland, Australia. Neurocognitive disability (NCD) refers to any acquired disorder or injury to the brain where the primary clinical deficit is in cognitive function.
The data reported on in this paper emerged from a broader study that aimed to understand the extent and nature of neurocognitive disability amongst homeless Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. The broader study found high levels of NCD which impacted on people’s ability to participate in society. As part of the study, qualitative information was sought regarding participant life experiences. A culturally safe and acceptable structure of “past, present and future” was applied to open-ended questions.
Thematic analysis of the data identified four broad themes of i) normalisation of illness and disability; ii) trauma and loss; iii) socioeconomic disadvantage; and iv) hope and disempowerment. This paper reports on these themes and experiences, which occurred across the life span, intersected with NCD, and contributed to what we have termed ‘complex disablement’ amongst this cohort.
While causal links between life experience, disability and disablement are not always clear, our findings suggest that attempts to address homelessness must engage with this complexity. The application of holistic, intersectoral supports, which encompass culturally informed, community driven approaches are needed. Understanding the impacts of individual and intergenerational trauma is crucial to safe and effective service provision for this cohort.
Environmental rights, also known as the human rights or constitutional rights that are used for the protection of the environment, have proliferated over the last forty-five years. However, the precise levels of protection that they represent has since been a major question associated with this phenomenon. Environmental Rights: The Development of Standards systematically investigates this question by analyzing the emerging standards of environmental protection that are associated with such rights and the way that those associations are becoming formalized. It covers all of the relevant human rights treaties to illustrate how environmental rights standards are emerging in this dynamic area. Bringing together an elite group of scholars, this book discusses significant new insights into the way that environmental rights are developing, the standards of protection that they confer, and the way that standards in the field of environmental rights can potentially be further developed in the future.