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We have observed the G23 field of the Galaxy AndMass Assembly (GAMA) survey using the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP) in its commissioning phase to validate the performance of the telescope and to characterise the detected galaxy populations. This observation covers ~48 deg2 with synthesised beam of 32.7 arcsec by 17.8 arcsec at 936MHz, and ~39 deg2 with synthesised beam of 15.8 arcsec by 12.0 arcsec at 1320MHz. At both frequencies, the root-mean-square (r.m.s.) noise is ~0.1 mJy/beam. We combine these radio observations with the GAMA galaxy data, which includes spectroscopy of galaxies that are i-band selected with a magnitude limit of 19.2. Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) infrared (IR) photometry is used to determine which galaxies host an active galactic nucleus (AGN). In properties including source counts, mass distributions, and IR versus radio luminosity relation, the ASKAP-detected radio sources behave as expected. Radio galaxies have higher stellar mass and luminosity in IR, optical, and UV than other galaxies. We apply optical and IR AGN diagnostics and find that they disagree for ~30% of the galaxies in our sample. We suggest possible causes for the disagreement. Some cases can be explained by optical extinction of the AGN, but for more than half of the cases we do not find a clear explanation. Radio sources aremore likely (~6%) to have an AGN than radio quiet galaxies (~1%), but the majority of AGN are not detected in radio at this sensitivity.
The Commensal Real-time Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder Fast Transients survey is the first extensive astronomical survey using phased array feeds. Since January 2017, it has been searching for fast radio bursts in fly’s eye mode. Here, we present a calculation of the sensitivity and total exposure of the survey that detected the first 20 of these bursts, using the pulsars B1641-45 and B0833-45 as calibrators. The beamshape, antenna-dependent system noise, and the effects of radio-frequency interference and fluctuations during commissioning are quantified. Effective survey exposures and sensitivities are calculated as a function of the source counts distribution. Statistical ‘stat’ and systematics ‘sys’ effects are treated separately. The implied fast radio burst rate is significantly lower than the 37 sky−1 day−1 calculated using nominal exposures and sensitivities for this same sample by Shannon et al. (2018). At the Euclidean (best-fit) power-law index of −1.5 (−2.2), the rate is
(sys) ± 3.6 (stat) sky−1 day−1 (
(sys) ± 2.8 (stat) sky−1 day−1) above a threshold of 56.6 ± 6.6(sys) Jy ms (40.4 ± 1.2(sys) Jy ms). This strongly suggests that these calculations be performed for other FRB-hunting experiments, allowing meaningful comparisons to be made between them.
A thermogravimetric vacuum microbalance has been used to study the reaction between β-soluble anhydrite and water vapour in the temperature range 20–100° C. Equilibrium water-vapour pressures for the hydration reaction in this temperature range were determined directly and have been compared with available data obtained by Kelly, Southard, and Anderson (1941) in the temperature range 80–120° C. The kinetics of the hydration and dehydration reactions have also been studied in a series of isothermal experiments with varying water-vapour pressure. These experiments indicate that in a vapour-pressure range close to the equilibrium value very low rates for both hydration and dehydration are observed. Outside this range of vapour pressures both hydration and dehydration rates increase suddenly and show an approximately linear increase with imposed water-vapour pressure.
At low temperatures (25° C) the dehydration reaction has an associated activation energy of approximately 10 kcal mole−1. In the same temperature range additional, physical adsorption of water vapour by the specimen was noted.
Six snow-pit records recovered from Siple Dome, West Antarctica, during 1994 are used to study seasonal variations in chemical (major ion and H202), isotopic (deuterium) and physical stratigraphic properties during the 1988-94 period. Comparison of δD measurements and satellite-derived brightness temperature for the Siple Dome area suggests that most seasonal SD maxima occur within ±4 weeks of each 1 January. Several other chemical species (H2O2, non-sea-salt (nss) SO42-, methanesulfonic acid and NO3-) show coeval peaks with SD, together providing an accurate method for identifying summer accumulation. Sea-salt-derived species generally peak during winter/spring, but episodic input is noted throughout some years. No reliable seasonal signal is identified in species with continental sources (nssCa2+ nss Mg2+), NH4+ or nssCl-. Visible strata such as large depth-hoar layers (>5 cm) are associated with summer accumulation and its metamorphosis, but smaller hoar layers and crusts are more difficult to interpret. A multi-parameter approach is found to provide the most accurate dating of these snow-pit records, and is used to determine annual layer thicknesses at each site Significant spatial accumulation variability exists on an annual basis, but mean accumulation in the sampled 10 km2 grid for the 1988-94 period is fairly uniform.
A 141m ice core was recovered from Combatant Col (51.385° N, 125.258° W; 3000ma.s.l.), Mount Waddington, Coast Mountains, British Columbia, Canada. Records of black carbon, dust, lead and water stable isotopes demonstrate that unambiguous seasonality is preserved throughout the core, despite summer surface snowmelt and temperate ice. High accumulation rates at the site (>4 m ice eq. a-1) limit modification of annual stratigraphy by percolation of surface meltwater. The ice-core record spans the period 1973–2010. An annually averaged time series of lead concentrations from the core correlates well with historical records of lead emission from North America, and with ice-core records of lead from the Greenland ice sheet. The depth-age scale for the ice core provides sufficient constraint on the vertical strain to allow estimation of the age of the ice at bedrock. Total ice thickness at Combatant Col is ~250 m; an ice core to bedrock would likely contain ice in excess of 200 years in age. Accumulation at Combatant Col is significantly correlated with both regional precipitation and large-scale geopotential height anomalies.
The WAIS (West Antarctic Ice Sheet) Divide deep ice core was recently completed to a total depth of 3405 m, ending 50 m above the bed. Investigation of the visual stratigraphy and grain characteristics indicates that the ice column at the drilling location is undisturbed by any large-scale overturning or discontinuity. The climate record developed from this core is therefore likely to be continuous and robust. Measured grain-growth rates, recrystallization characteristics, and grain-size response at climate transitions fit within current understanding. Significant impurity control on grain size is indicated from correlation analysis between impurity loading and grain size. Bubble-number densities and bubble sizes and shapes are presented through the full extent of the bubbly ice. Where bubble elongation is observed, the direction of elongation is preferentially parallel to the trace of the basal (0001) plane. Preferred crystallographic orientation of grains is present in the shallowest samples measured, and increases with depth, progressing to a vertical-girdle pattern that tightens to a vertical single-maximum fabric. This single-maximum fabric switches into multiple maxima as the grain size increases rapidly in the deepest, warmest ice. A strong dependence of the fabric on the impurity-mediated grain size is apparent in the deepest samples.
We describe the performance of the Boolardy Engineering Test Array, the prototype for the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder telescope. Boolardy Engineering Test Array is the first aperture synthesis radio telescope to use phased array feed technology, giving it the ability to electronically form up to nine dual-polarisation beams. We report the methods developed for forming and measuring the beams, and the adaptations that have been made to the traditional calibration and imaging procedures in order to allow BETA to function as a multi-beam aperture synthesis telescope. We describe the commissioning of the instrument and present details of Boolardy Engineering Test Array’s performance: sensitivity, beam characteristics, polarimetric properties, and image quality. We summarise the astronomical science that it has produced and draw lessons from operating Boolardy Engineering Test Array that will be relevant to the commissioning and operation of the final Australian Square Kilometre Array Path telescope.
We demonstrate that the second-Stokes output from a diamond Raman laser, pumped by a femtosecond Ti:Sapphire laser, can be used to efficiently excite red-emitting dyes by two-photon excitation at 1,080 nm and beyond. We image HeLa cells expressing red fluorescent protein, as well as dyes such as Texas Red and Mitotracker Red. We demonstrate the potential for simultaneous two-color, two-photon imaging with this laser by using the residual pump beam for excitation of a green-emitting dye. We demonstrate this for the combination of Alexa Fluor 488 and Alexa Fluor 568. Because the Raman laser extends the wavelength range of the Ti:Sapphire laser, resulting in a laser system tunable to 680–1,200 nm, it can be used for two-photon excitation of a large variety and combination of dyes.
This study aimed to describe the diurnal shedding dynamics of Escherichia coli O157 in cattle managed on pasture. The purpose was to identify the value of a single measurement for predicting the shedding status on subsequent days. Over a 14-day period, 24 beef cows with known E. coli O157 shedding status were sampled twice daily or daily (21 sampling points) and E. coli O157 was enumerated from faeces. No association between shedding status of individual animals within a 7-h period was identified (odds ratio 1·5, P = 0·08). Short-interval sampling demonstrated substantial diurnal volatility in shedding of E. coli O157 that is not evident in studies based on long-interval (>7 days) sampling. The findings contribute to and support previous findings on the question why it has been difficult to achieve progress in understanding the epidemiology of E. coli O157 infection in cattle.
From June 15 to 28, 1991 the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (CGRO) observed the radio-loud quasar 3C 273. All four CGRO instruments detected radiation from this quasar in their relevant energy range (from 20 keV to 5 GeV). Simultaneous and quasi-simultaneous observations (spanning the time period May 27 – July 25, 1991) by instruments sensitive at other wavelengths have also been obtained. The data from all these observations spanning the frequency range from ∼ 109 Hz to ∼ 1026 Hz were collected and analysed. The resulting energy-density spectrum is shown in the figure below. It shows two maxima, one in the UV, another one at low-energy γ-rays which have nearly the same strength (the corresponding luminosities per decade of frequency for H0 = 60(km/s)/Mpc are 3.2·1046 erg/s and 2.7·1046 erg/s, respectively). A break of the spectrum at low-energy γ-rays is evident. From a detailed analysis a break energy of (2±1.5) MeV could be derived corresponding to a frequency of (4.8±3.6)·1020 Hz. The observed spectral break between X- and γ-rays is ∼ 0.8, much higher than the value of 0.5 predicted by some models. A more detailed paper on this topic is in preparation (Lichti et al.).
We present the results of an HI aperture synthesis mosaic of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), made by combining data from 1344 separate pointing centers using the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA). The resolution of the mosaiced image is 1′ (15 pc, using a distance to the LMC of 50 kpc).
The recently completed HI mosaic survey of the Large Magellanic Cloud (Kim et al. 1997) reveals complex structure in the interstellar medium, including filaments, arcs, holes and shells. We have catalogued giant and supergiant HI shells and searched for correlations with Hα emission, using a new image taken with a camera lens mounted on the 16-inch telescope at Siding Spring Observatory.
Direct solar flare neutrons are a valuable diagnostic of high-energy ion acceleration in these events, and COMPTEL improves over all previous cosmic neutron detectors in its capacity for neutron energy measurement. Previous studies of COMPTEL neutron data have worked with an incomplete model of the instrumental response, applying energy-by-energy detection efficiencies. Here we employ statistical regularisation techniques with the full (Monte Carlo simulation derived) response matrix to produce improved estimates of neutron numbers and energy distribution. These techniques are applied to data from the well-observed 15 June 1991 flare. Our improved treatment of the instrumental response results in a reduction of 73% in total neutron numbers, compared with previously deduced values. Implications for the picture of primary ion acceleration in this flare are briefly discussed.
The Parkes radio telescope was commissioned in 1961, with an anticipated operational life of 15 years. Twentyfive years later the telescope has been refurbished with the aim of extending its life yet another decade or two. A major undertaking has been the complete replacement of the drive and control System. This presentation outlines the main features of the new System and its effect on the observing facilities offered at the observatory.
This paper describes the first results from a 20 deg2 mosaic of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) in the λ21-cm line of neutral hydrogen. The mosaic consists of 320 separate pointings with the 375-m array of the Australia Telescope Compact Array. The angular resolution is 1′· 5 (26 pc, for a distance of 60 kpc) and the velocity resolution is l·6kms−1. The images reveal a structure of remarkable complexity, with much of the spatial power contained in high-brightness temperature compact knots and filaments. Numerous wind-blown ‘bubbles’ and ‘supershells’ are evident in the data, both inside and outside the stellar confines of the SMC. Some high-density H I regions are seen to correlate with Hα regions, indicating sites of current star formation. However, many high-column-density H I regions are devoid of optical emission and may represent regions of future star formation. These regions may be under-abundant in diffuse molecular gas due to the high radiation field and low metallicity of the SMC.
The 1665 and 1667 MHz OH intensity towards Halley’s comet has been monitored during the period October 1985 to April 1986. The flux density variation during the course of the apparition roughly follows the predictions of Schloerb and Gerard (1985), although we find a systematically lower flux than they predicted. The relative intensities of these lines are approximately in the ratio expected for thermodynamic equilibrium.
During 1990 we surveyed the southern sky using a multi-beam receiver at frequencies of 4850 and 843 MHz. The half-power beamwidths were 4 and 25 arcmin respectively. The finished surveys cover the declination range between +10 and −90 degrees declination, essentially complete in right ascension, an area of 7.30 steradians. Preliminary analysis of the 4850 MHz data indicates that we will achieve a five sigma flux density limit of about 30 mJy. We estimate that we will find between 80 000 and 90 000 new sources above this limit. This is a revised version of the paper presented at the Regional Meeting by the first four authors; the surveys now have been completed.
The Parkes-MIT-NRAO (PMN) 4.85 GHz continuum radio survey of the southern sky was undertaken in 1990 June and November. This survey was performed on the Parkes 64 m telescope using the NRAO seven-beam receiver. A point-source catalogue of 36,640 radio sources has been produced for the Southern Survey zone −87.5° ≤δ ≤ −37° and for the Tropical Survey zone −29° ≤δ ≤ −9.5°. The flux limit of this survey varies with declination and is typically about 30 mJy.
We have begun to cross-correlate the PMN data with sources contained in catalogues compiled at radio, and other, wavelengths. We have found associations for 96% of the PKSCAT90 2700 MHz database sources, and 95% of the Molonglo 408 MHz Catalogue sources within in the PMN Southern and Tropical Survey zones.
A program to identify the optical counterparts of PMN Southern Survey point sources, S4.85 GHz ≥ 70 mJy, using the COSMOS database, is under way. To facilitate this programme we are improving the positional accuracy of PMN sources with observations made at the Australia Telescope National Facility compact array. We have developed a new “snapshot” mode of observing to process the large number of sources (~ 8000) in our sample. It is possible to obtain accurate positions from three snapshots efficiently with a total integration of < 3 minutes.
We present data which indicates that micropulses from the bright millisecond pulsar PSR J0437–4715 are observed at equally-spaced preferred phases within the pulse window. We find the pattern similar to that expected if each micropulse is radiated from a source with a coherence scale of ~ 100 m.
We discuss the stellar halos of massive elliptical galaxies, as revealed by our ambitious integral-field spectroscopic survey MASSIVE. We show that metallicity drops smoothly as a function of radius out to ~ 2.5 Re, while the [α/Fe] abundance ratios stay flat. The stars in the outskirts likely formed rapidly (to explain the high ratio of alpha to Fe) but in a relatively shallow potential (to explain the low metallicities). This is consistent with expectations for a two-phase growth of massive galaxies, in which the second phase involves accretion of small satellites. We also show some preliminary study of the gas content of these most MASSIVE galaxies.