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Workshop 11 covered the substantial recent progress in studies of supernovæ (SNe), tidal disruption events (TDEs), and other types of luminous transients occurring within the nuclear regions of galaxies. In the past, such transients have largely been missed owing to the substantial extinction of those regions, and to the problems of contrast against the bright (and often complex) nuclear background – or mistaken for normal active galactic nucleus (AGN) variability.
The higher spatial resolution and sensitivity of ISO allowed several extragalactic surveys to be extended to greater depth than obtained with IRAS. With the extended wavelength range deep surveys were performed for the first time at wavelengths up to ~ 200 μm. They favour galaxy models with strong evolution. With ISO's new capabilities the spectral energy distributions of larger samples of ULIRGs in the local universe and those of quasars and radio galaxies were determined. These data are applicable as templates to the more distant universe. Foreground components from zodiacal light and cirrus to the intracluster dust emission were studied in connection with their separation from the extragalactic background radiation.
The light of the night sky consists of atmospheric components (airglow, light scattered in the atmosphere) and – even in the case of spaceborne observations – of zodiacal, galactic and extragalactic light. Although all components are of similar importance, investigations on zodiacal light have profitted most by the space age since their object of research, the interplanetary dust cloud, became accessible to direct in-situ measurements. Lunar samples and measurements by micrometeoroid detectors provide individual and eventually detailed information on impact events, which however are limited in number and therefore restricted in statistical significance. Zodiacal light investigations involve scattered light of many particles in large volume elements and therefore provide global information about physical properties and spatial distribution of interplanetary dust grains, however just in terms of average values. Therefore both sources of information are complementary and a synthesis can only be achieved by synoptic interpretation of zodiacal light, micrometeoroid, and meteoroid investigations also including dynamical aspects. Measurements of zodiacal light (and emission) from rockets, manned or non manned spacecraft, and deep space probes gained drastically in importance compared to ground based observations. On the other hand investigations on airglow have become more and more a topic of geophysics Caeronomy). They remain relevant however to astronomy as far as photometric features are concerned. These general trends continued in the last triennium and have influenced the activities of our commission.
The different components of the light of the night sky have their origin in different formations of matter in the universe - encompassing a huge scale of distances ranging from a few kilometers in the earth’s atmosphere to the most distant known galaxies and beyond. Correspondingly, the borderlines to other Commissions are not very well defined and thus material relevant to Commission 21 can also be found in the reports of other Commissions on the following topics: zodiacal light and zodiacal IR emission (Comm. 22, 44), integrated starlight (33, 25), diffuse galactic light (34), extragalactic background light (47), airglow and atmospheric scattered light (50), and space-borne observations of the LONS (44). From the Commission 21 point of view the connecting link between these various fields is the special techniques utilized in the surface photometric measurements and reductions of background radiations which extend over the entire sky. One crucial problem is the separation of the LONS into its several components. The approach for solving this task is to utilize the different spatial distributions and different broad and narrow band spectral properties of each of the LONS component. Thus the successful measurement and separation of one of the LONS components requires a knowledge of the properties of all the other components. This situation has become apparent in recent years as the infrared background radiation database, provided by the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS), has been analyzed: both the zodiacal and galactic dust emissions have to be analyzed hand in hand, and both these components must be very accurately mastered before any conclusions are possible on the extragalactic component. It is also obvious that very similar problems are encountered in the ultraviolet and infrared wavelength regions as in the more traditional optical domain. Thus the techniques developed in one of these wavelength domains are directly applicable in the others.
The cold, dry, and stable air above the summits of the Antarctic plateau provides the best ground-based observing conditions from optical to sub-millimetre wavelengths to be found on the Earth. Pathfinder for an International Large Optical Telescope (PILOT) is a proposed 2 m telescope, to be built at Dome C in Antarctica, able to exploit these conditions for conducting astronomy at optical and infrared wavelengths. While PILOT is intended as a pathfinder towards the construction of future grand-design facilities, it will also be able to undertake a range of fundamental science investigations in its own right. This paper provides the performance specifications for PILOT, including its instrumentation. It then describes the kinds of projects that it could best conduct. These range from planetary science to the search for other solar systems, from star formation within the Galaxy to the star formation history of the Universe, and from gravitational lensing caused by exo-planets to that produced by the cosmic web of dark matter. PILOT would be particularly powerful for wide-field imaging at infrared wavelengths, achieving near diffraction-limited performance with simple tip–tilt wavefront correction. PILOT would also be capable of near diffraction-limited performance in the optical wavebands, as well be able to open new wavebands for regular ground-based observation, in the mid-IR from 17 to 40 μm and in the sub-millimetre at 200 μm.
A method for rapid electrical sintering (RES) of nanoparticle structures on temperature-sensitive substrates is presented. For an inkjetted silver nanoparticle conductor, a conductance increase of five orders of magnitude is demonstrated to occur in a timescale that typically varies between a few and one hundred milliseconds depending on process parameters. Furthermore, most of the conductance change takes only a few microseconds. The achievable final conductivities are within a factor of two from the bulk silver conductivity, as calculated using the external geometric dimensions of the structure ignoring porosity. The method is also applicable to other inorganic conductors such as indium-tin-oxide (ITO). More generally, the method offers a versatile tool in nanotechnology for electrical functionalization of nanoparticle structures. The method is also potentially suited for mass production.
The thermal fracturing of rock has been the object of several research projects, notably for initial rock breakage in mining  as well as crushing  In addition, the process has been studied carefully in regards to the storage of radioactive waste underground where rock fracturing could lead to a loss of radioactivity confinement. The Stripa Project, a project concerning large scale testing of procedures for underground storage of nuclear waste, probably has dealt most thoroughly with this subject by theoretical studies and in-situ heater testing in an attempt to describe the thermal failure process in rock 
This project was designed to test the agreement between theoretical and actual rock fracture times of a rock block, loaded with a physical as well as a thermal load. Laboratory testing consisted of physically loading center-drilled cubes of rock, 0.3 m on a side, uniaxially from 0 to 25 MPa. These were then thermally loaded with a nominal 3.7 kW (factory rating) cylindrical heater until failure occurred. This time to failure was recorded for comparison with a direct mathematical and a finite element solution. For both cases, calculations were performed at specific time-steps and an estimated failure time calculated from the compiled results.
Earlier experimental findings concluded that electromigration voids in these meandering stripe test structures were not randomly distributed and that void nucleation frequently occurred sub-surface at the metal/thermal oxide interface. The data showed a strong correlation between void area, void growth rate and stripe segment length . The influence of mechanical stress on electromigration damage in these test structures has been examined by applying tensile stresses to both passivated and unpassivated samples. The stress distributions are calculated using finite element analysis for each of the test conditions. The resulting impact on electrornigration voiding, as well as mechanical stress voiding, and lateral hillock formation is discussed.
Earlier experimental findings concluded that electromigration voids in these meandering stripe test structures were not randomly distributed and that void nucleation frequently occurred sub-surface at the metal/thermal oxide interface. The data showed a strong correlation between void area, void growth rate and stripe segment length . The influence of mechanical stress on electromigration damage in these test structures has been examined by applying tensile stresses to both passivated and unpassivated samples. The stress distributions are calculated using finite element analysis for each of the test conditions. The resulting impact on electromigration voiding, as well as mechanical stress voiding, and lateral hillock formation is discussed.
This study aimed to investigate the occurrence of complications, especially musculoskeletal symptoms, after sporadic Campylobacter jejuni enteritis of domestic origin in Finland. This multi-centre cross-sectional study was conducted during a seasonal peak in 2002. Questionnaires were sent to Campylobacter-positive patients, representing different geographical areas, 2 months after collection of positive stool samples. Medical records were viewed in several cases. Besides antimicrobial susceptibility testing C. jejuni isolates were serotyped. A total of 235 patients (58%) returned the questionnaire and 201 C. jejuni-positive patients were finally included in the study. Musculoskeletal symptoms associated with C. jejuni enteritis were frequent (39%); joint pain was most commonly reported (81%). The incidence of reactive arthritis was 4% and that of Achilles enthesopathy and/or heel pain was 9%. Stomach ache during enteritis was associated with the later development of joint pain. Antimicrobial treatment was common but did not prevent complications.
The pH of the rument contents of cattle was recorded at slaughter; pH ranged from 5.5 to 7–8 and was not correlated with the period from saleyard to slaughter. Volatile fatty acids (VFA) were measured in 43 rumen samples; acetic, propionic and butyric were the major acids present, and the total VFA ranged from 75·9 mM/1 for samples between pH 6–7, to 7·1 mM/1 for samples of pH 8–9. Ten Salmonella strains belonging to 8 serotypes were grown in these 43 rumen samples. Where acid levels of these samples were high and pH low, most Salmonella sp. were inhibited: as the pH rose (pH 7–8) all Salmonella serotypes grew, some vigorously; as the total acid declined and pH continued to rise, growth of salmonella ceased. Serotypes and strains of the same serotype differed in their ability to grow in rumen contents, particularly when the pH was low.
Cometary globule CG 12 lies at the distance of 630 pc more than 200 pc above the Galactic plane. The cloud's structure could be due to the passage of a supernova blast wave. Curiously, the cometary tail points at the galactic plane which would put the putative supernova even farther above the Galactic plane than the globule. The globule contains a low/intermediate mass stellar cluster with at least 9 members (Williams et al. 1977). The head of CG 12 has been observed using NIR imaging (NTT SOFI), mm continuum (SEST SIMBA) and sub mm (APEX) and mm (SEST) spectroscopy (Haikala & Olberg 2006, Haikala et al.). The molecular material is distributed in a North-South 10' long elongated lane with two compact maxima separated by 3'. Strong C18O (3-2), (2-1) and (1-0) emission is detected in both maxima and both have an associated compact 1.2 mm continuum source. The Northern core, CG 12 N, is cold and is possibly still pre-stellar. A dense and compact core is observed in DCO+ and CS emission in the direction of the Southern core, CG 12 S. A remarkable C18O hot spot was detected in CG 12 S. This is the first detection of such a compact, warm object in a low mass star forming region. The hot spot can be modelled with a 60″ to 80″ diameter (~0.2 pc) hot (80 K ≲ Tex≲ 100 K) 1.6 solar mass clump (Haikala et al. 2006). The hot spot lies at the edge of a dense cloud core and on the axis of a highly collimated bipolar molecular outflow (White 1993). The driving source of the outflow is most probably embedded in the dense core. NIR imaging reveals a bright cone like feature with a faint counter cone in the centre of CG 12 S. The size of the CG 12 compact head, 1.1 pc by 1.8 pc, and the C18O mass larger than 100 solar masses are comparable to those of other nearby low/intermediate mass star formation regions.
Results from a large-scale, capture—recapture study of humpback whales Megaptera novaeangliae in the North Atlantic show that migration timing is influenced by feeding ground origin. No significant differences were observed in the number of individuals from any feeding area that were re-sighted in the common breeding area in the West Indies. However, there was a relationship between the proportion (logit transformed) of West Indies sightings and longitude (r2=0.97, F1,3=98.27, P=0.0022) suggesting that individuals feeding farther to the east are less likely to winter in the West Indies. A relationship was also detected between sighting date in the West Indies and feeding area. Mean sighting dates in the West Indies for individuals identified in the Gulf of Maine and eastern Canada were significantly earlier than those for animals identified in Greenland, Iceland and Norway (9.97 days, t179=3.53, P=0.00054). There was also evidence for sexual segregation in migration; males were seen earlier on the breeding ground than were females (6.63 days, t105=1.98, P=0.050). This pattern was consistently observed for animals from all feeding areas; a combined model showed a significant effect for both sex (F1=5.942, P=0.017) and feeding area (F3=4.756, P=0.0038). The temporal difference in occupancy of the West Indies between individuals from different feeding areas, coupled with sexual differences in migratory patterns, presents the possibility that there are reduced mating opportunities between individuals from different high latitude areas.
Twenty-seven Fusarium oxysporum isolates were studied by RAPD-PCR and isozyme analyses. Thirteen isolates were from barley
and the rest from different hosts, most of which were dicotyledonous plants. All isolates could be distinguished from each other by
RAPD-PCR analysis, and clustered into seven groups in NJ and parsimony consensus trees. Isozyme analysis detected polymorphism
in five of the six enzymes and the isolates could be divided into 26 different electrophoretic groups. Five groups were supported by
high branch support and bootstrap values in the approximate support tree of combined RAPD-PCR and isozyme data. These five
groups were found also in NJ and parsimony consensus trees. The matrices from RAPD-PCR and isozyme data proved to be
incongruent, but they did not totally disprove each other. Some correlation was found between geographical origin and
phylogenetic relationships of isolates collected from barley. Representatives of the main clades of phylogenetic trees, were further
studied by rDNA RFLP and rDNA sequence analyses, together with isolates of other Fusarium species. Isolates of F. oxysporum and
F. avenaceum formed distinct groups in the phylogenetic analyses, except for two isolates of F. oxysporum which were grouped with
isolates of F. redolens.
The paper deals with the kinematic redundancy control of a 3DOF linear hydraulic manipulator moving in the vertical plane. The analysis is carried out in actuator
coordinates so as to make the results usable in control schemes with actuator position feedback. The idea is to use the initial manipulator configuration as an optimization parameter in order to: (I) further minimize the actuator velocities obtained by a
pseudoinverse solution, (II) simultaneously avoid actuator limits without recourse to
a gradient projection approach. An improved pseudoinverse redundancy solution is thus obtained and implemented in a simple, non-iterative algorithm suitable for real-time applications. Simulations of a typical task with the proposed method show that minimizing the actuator velocity norm yields better results than minimizing the manipulator kinetic energy.
Background. Personality traits have shown considerable
heritable components. Association between
alleles of a polymorphism in the third exon of the dopamine D4 receptor
gene (DRD4) and the
personality trait Novelty Seeking has been reported. Recently, in a sample
non-psychiatric subjects we could not detect any significant relationships
between the same
polymorphism and Novelty Seeking related scales in the Karolinska Scales
of Personality (KSP).
However, there was a tendency in the direction of the proposed association.
There were also
tentative associations between an exon I 13 bp deletion polymorphism and
the personality traits
Socialization and Guilt.
Methods. We investigated a new Swedish population-based sample
(N=167) investigated with the
KSP for three DRD4 polymorphisms.
Results. Neither of the previous results were replicated.
Combining the previous and the present
samples did not give rise to any significant association between DRD4 polymorphisms
Conclusions. The dopamine D4 receptor gene is probably not
of importance to the different
personality dimensions as measured by the Karolinska Scales of Personality.
for almost all m–dimensional subspaces V, provided dimH μ≤m. Here projv denotes orthogonal projection onto V, and dimH and dimp denote the Hausdorff and packing dimension of a measure. In the case dimH μ > m we show that at μ-almost all points x the slices of μ by almost all (n − m)-planes Vx through x satisfy
We give examples to show that these inequalities are sharp.
Cerebrospinal fluid somatostatin-like immunoreactivity (CSF SLI) was determined for 67 elderly patients who met the DSM-III criteria for delirium and for 19 age-matched controls. As a group, and also when subdivided according to the type of delirium, severity of cognitive decline or the type of central nervous system disease, the delirious patients showed significant reductions of SLI compared with the controls, together with a declining trend associated with increasing cognitive dysfunction. These findings are in accordance with previous observations that reduced CSF SLI is associated with diseases in which cognitive function is disturbed and they extend this finding to delirium.