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Classrooms are dynamic spaces of teaching and learning, where language and culture are intertwined in remarkable ways. The theory of language socialization explores how sociocultural practices in classrooms help to shape language learning and development. This collection is the first of its kind to bring together research on this fascinating concept. It presents ten case studies, based on linguistic and ethnographic research conducted in classrooms located within communities in North America, Europe and India, spanning learners from preschool, to primary and secondary school, to university. Following an introduction that discusses the theory and core concepts of language socialization, the volume is divided into three central themes: socializing values, dispositions, and stances; socializing identities; and language socialization and ideology. Both new and more experienced researchers will appreciate its new insights into how language socialization is carried out across the globe.
The majority of traumatic hemothoraces can be managed successfully with a chest tube placement.
Retained hemothorax is defined as residual pleural blood >300–500 mL after initial thoracostomy tube evacuation.
The gold standard for diagnosing retained hemothorax is a noncontrast CT scan of the chest. A chest X-ray is not reliable in the accurate diagnosis of retained hemothorax.
VATS is usually contraindicated in patients with previous thoracic operations and in patients with respiratory failure or significant contralateral lung injury, such as contusion, atelectasis, or pneumonia, because single-lung ventilation may not be tolerated.
Ideally, VATS should be done within the first 3–5 days. Early VATS (within 72 hours of admission) for evacuation of retained hemothorax reduces hospital length of stay, number of procedures, and cost. VATS is more difficult and less effective if performed more than 7–10 days after the injury, due to clot organization and dense adhesions.
The common femoral artery is a continuation of the external iliac artery and is approximately 4 cm long. It begins directly behind the inguinal ligament, midway between the anterior superior iliac spine and the symphysis pubis.
The profunda femoris artery arises from the lateral aspect of the common femoral artery, towards the femur, approximately 3–4 cm below the inguinal ligament. The common femoral artery continues obliquely down the anteromedial aspect of the thigh as the superficial femoral artery.
The superficial femoral artery exits the femoral triangle to enter the subsartorial canal and ends by passing through an opening in the adductor magnus to become the popliteal artery.
In the upper third of the thigh, the femoral vessels are contained within the femoral triangle (Scarpa’s triangle).
The femoral triangle is formed laterally by the medial border of the sartorius muscle, medially by the adductor longus, and superiorly by the inguinal ligament.
In the femoral triangle, the femoral vein lies medial to the femoral artery. The greater saphenous vein drains into the femoral vein about 3–4 cm below the inguinal ligament; further distally, the femoral vein lies posterior to the artery and maintains this relationship in the popliteal fossa. The femoral nerve and its branches are found lateral to the common femoral artery.
In the middle third of the thigh, the femoral artery lies within the adductor canal (Hunter’s canal), an aponeurotic tunnel in the middle third of the thigh that extends from the apex of the femoral triangle to the opening in the adductor magnus.
The adductor canal is bounded by the sartorius muscle anteriorly, the vastus medialis laterally, and the adductor longus and magnus posteromedially. A fascial plane between the vastus medialis and adductor longus and magnus covers the canal.
The canal contains the femoral artery and vein, the saphenous nerve which crosses from lateral to medial, and branches of the femoral nerve.
The femoral vein courses from a medial position in the groin to a posterior and then lateral position with respect to the artery as it moves distally towards the knee.
The greater saphenous vein courses medially to lie on the anterior surface of the thigh, before entering the fascia lata and joining the common femoral vein at the sapheno-femoral junction near the femoral triangle.
The following are the major muscles that will be encountered and may be divided during thoracic operations for trauma.
Anterior Chest Wall: Pectoralis major and pectoralis minor muscles
Pectoralis major muscle: It originates from the anterior surface of the medial half of the clavicle, the anterior surface of the sternum, and the cartilages of all the true ribs (1–7 ribs). The 5-cm wide tendon inserts into the upper humerus.
Pectoralis minor muscle: It arises from the third, fourth, and fifth ribs, near their cartilages, and from the aponeuroses over the intercostal muscles. It inserts into the coracoid process of the scapula.
Lateral Chest Wall: Serratus anterior muscle
Serratus anterior muscle: It originates from the lateral part of the first eight to nine ribs and inserts into the medial aspect of the scapula.
Posterior Chest Wall: Latissimus Dorsi
Latissimus Dorsi muscle: It originates from the spinal processes of the lower thoracic spine and the posterior iliac crest and inserts into the upper portion of the humerus.
Given the rapid rate of technological innovation and a desire to be proactive in addressing potential ethical challenges that arise in contexts of innovation, engineers must learn to engage in value-sensitive design – design that is responsive to a broad range of values that are implicated in the research, development, and application of technologies. One widely-used tool is Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). Physical products, as with organisms, have a life cycle, starting with extraction of raw materials, and including refining, transport, manufacturing, use, and finally end-of-life treatment and disposal. LCA is a quantitative modeling framework that can estimate emissions that occur throughout a product’s life cycle, as well as any harmful effects that these emissions have on the environment and/or public health. Importantly, LCA tools allow engineers to evaluate multiple types of environmental and health impacts simultaneously and are not limited to a single endpoint or score. However, LCA is only useful to the extent that its models accurately include the full range of values implicated in the use of a technology, and to the extent that stakeholders, from designers to decisionmakers, understand and are able to communicate these values and how they are assigned. Effective LCA requires good ethical training to understand these values.
On May 14, 1860, New York’s Harper’s Weekly published a double-page lithograph, depicting eleven “Prominent Candidates for the Republican Nomination at Chicago” just a few days before the party convention. The artist arranged the portraits in two groups of five on the right and left, with New York’s William H. Seward occupying the central place. A past senator and governor, Seward was a strong-minded abolitionist and one of the early architects of the Republican party. Many felt that the nomination was his to lose. To Seward’s left were five men in three rows: Missouri’s Edward Bates, New Jersey’s Alexander Pennington, Ohio’s Salmon P. Chase, transplanted Californian John C. Frémont, and Abraham Lincoln, of Illinois. Frémont had been the Republican standard-bearer four years before, but this time around he was not seen as a likely choice. Chase, on the other hand, had a substantial reputation as an ardent Radical and a leading Republican. The fairly moderate Lincoln was also a serious possibility, although he lacked the national stature of Seward or Chase.
We undertook a quality improvement project to address challenges with pulmonary artery catheter (PAC) line maintenance in a setting of low-baseline central-line infection rates. We observed a subsequent reduction in Staphylococcal PAC line infections and a trend toward a reduction in overall PAC infection rates over 1 year.
An analytical model is developed for the lift force produced by unsteady rotating wings; this configuration is a simple representation of a flapping wing. Modelling this is important for the aerodynamic and control-system design for bio-inspired drones. Such efforts have often been limited to being two-dimensional, semi-empirical, sometimes computationally expensive, or quasi-steady. The current model is unsteady and three-dimensional, yet simple to implement, requiring knowledge of only the wing kinematics and geometry. Rotating wings produce a vortex loop consisting of the root vortex, leading-edge vortex, tip vortex and trailing-edge vortex, which grows with time. This is modelled as a tilted planar loop, geometrically specified by the wing size, orientation and motion. By equating the angular impulse of the vortex loop to that of the fluid volume driven by the wing, the circulatory lift force is derived. Potential flow theory gives the fluid-inertial lift. Adding these two contributions yields the total lift formula. The model shows good agreement with a range of experimental and computational cases. Also, a steady-state lift model is developed that compares well with previous work for various angles of attack.
Evidence suggests that sub-optimal maternal nutrition has implications for the developing offspring. We have previously shown that exposure to a low-protein diet during gestation was associated with upregulation of genes associated with cholesterol transport and packaging within the placenta. This study aimed to elucidate the effect of altering maternal dietary linoleic acid (LA; omega-6) to alpha-linolenic acid (ALA; omega-6) ratios as well as total fat content on placental expression of genes associated with cholesterol transport. The potential for maternal body mass index (BMI) to be associated with expression of these genes in human placental samples was also evaluated. Placentas were collected from 24 Wistar rats at 20-day gestation (term = 21–22-day gestation) that had been fed one of four diets containing varying fatty acid compositions during pregnancy, and from 62 women at the time of delivery. Expression of 14 placental genes associated with cholesterol packaging and transfer was assessed in rodent and human samples by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction. In rats, placental mRNA expression of ApoA2, ApoC2, Cubn, Fgg, Mttp and Ttr was significantly elevated (3–30 fold) in animals fed a high LA (36% fat) diet, suggesting increased cholesterol transport across the placenta in this group. In women, maternal BMI was associated with fewer inconsistent alterations in gene expression. In summary, sub-optimal maternal nutrition is associated with alterations in the expression of genes associated with cholesterol transport in a rat model. This may contribute to altered fetal development and potentially programme disease risk in later life. Further investigation of human placenta in response to specific dietary interventions is required.
The 'Austrian' tradition is well-known for its definitive contributions to economics in the twentieth century. However, Austrian economics also offers an exciting research agenda outside the traditional boundaries of economics, especially in the management disciplines. This Element examines how Austrian ideas play a key role in expanding the understanding of fields like entrepreneurship, strategy, and organization. It focuses especially on the vital role that entrepreneurs play in guiding economic progress by shaping firms and their strategic behavior. In doing so, it explains a wide range of contributions that Austrian economics makes to the understanding of key problems in management, while also highlighting many directions for future work in this inspiring tradition.
The diet of most adults is low in fish and, therefore, provides limited quantities of the long-chain, omega-3 fatty acids (LCn-3FAs), eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids (EPA, DHA). Since these compounds serve important roles in the brain, we sought to determine if healthy adults with low-LCn-3FA consumption would exhibit improvements in neuropsychological performance and parallel changes in brain morphology following repletion through fish oil supplementation.
In a randomized, controlled trial, 271 mid-life adults (30–54 years of age, 118 men, 153 women) consuming ⩽300 mg/day of LCn-3FAs received 18 weeks of supplementation with fish oil capsules (1400 mg/day of EPA and DHA) or matching placebo. All participants completed a neuropsychological test battery examining four cognitive domains: psychomotor speed, executive function, learning/episodic memory, and fluid intelligence. A subset of 122 underwent neuroimaging before and after supplementation to measure whole-brain and subcortical tissue volumes.
Capsule adherence was over 95%, participant blinding was verified, and red blood cell EPA and DHA levels increased as expected. Supplementation did not affect performance in any of the four cognitive domains. Exploratory analyses revealed that, compared to placebo, fish oil supplementation improved executive function in participants with low-baseline DHA levels. No changes were observed in any indicator of brain morphology.
In healthy mid-life adults reporting low-dietary intake, supplementation with LCn-3FAs in moderate dose for moderate duration did not affect neuropsychological performance or brain morphology. Whether salutary effects occur in individuals with particularly low-DHA exposure requires further study.
This work established the feasibility of flexible solution-processed radiation sensors prepared from an organic scintillator (1-phenyl-3-mesityl-2-pyrazoline) and a biocompatible semiconducting polymer (violanthrone-79). Absorbance, steady-state, and time-resolved photoluminescence measurements demonstrated a high efficiency for the transfer of absorbed energy from the scintillator to the semiconductor. Blended nanoparticles containing both materials were fabricated in order to reduce the intermolecular distance between molecules, creating a highly efficient energy transfer pathway. Radiation-sensing devices were then constructed from the materials. These exhibited successful sensitivity for gamma radiation from a 137Cs source that was not present for the control semiconducting polymer alone.
Most research on the causes of women's underrepresentation examines one of two stages of the political pipeline: the development of nascent political ambition or specific aspects of the campaign and election process. In this article, we make a different kind of contribution. We build on the growing literature on gender, psychology, and representation to provide an analysis of what kinds of men and women make it through the political pipeline at each stage. This allows us to draw some conclusions about the ways in which the overall process is similar and different for women and men. Using surveys of the general U.S. population (N = 1,939) and elected municipal officials such as mayors and city councilors (N = 2,354) that measure the distribution of Big Five personality traits, we find that roughly the same types of men and women have nascent political ambition; there is just an intercept shift for sex. In contrast, male and female elected officials have different personality profiles. These differences do not reflect underlying distributions in the general population or the population of political aspirants. In short, our data suggest that socialization into political ambition is similar for men and women, but campaign and election processes are not.
Sleep disturbances are prevalent in cancer patients, especially those with advanced disease. There are few published intervention studies that address sleep issues in advanced cancer patients during the course of treatment. This study assesses the impact of a multidisciplinary quality of life (QOL) intervention on subjective sleep difficulties in patients with advanced cancer.
This randomized trial investigated the comparative effects of a multidisciplinary QOL intervention (n = 54) vs. standard care (n = 63) on sleep quality in patients with advanced cancer receiving radiation therapy as a secondary endpoint. The intervention group attended six intervention sessions, while the standard care group received informational material only. Sleep quality was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), administered at baseline and weeks 4 (post-intervention), 27, and 52.
The intervention group had a statistically significant improvement in the PSQI total score and two components of sleep quality and daytime dysfunction than the control group at week 4. At week 27, although both groups showed improvements in sleep measures from baseline, there were no statistically significant differences between groups in any of the PSQI total and component scores, or ESS. At week 52, the intervention group used less sleep medication than control patients compared to baseline (p = 0.04) and had a lower ESS score (7.6 vs. 9.3, p = 0.03).
Significance of results
A multidisciplinary intervention to improve QOL can also improve sleep quality of advanced cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy. Those patients who completed the intervention also reported the use of less sleep medication.
Nicotine replacement therapy sampling (NRTS) refers to providing all smokers, regardless of interest in quitting, with free samples of over-the-counter NRT. NRTS has been shown to increase quit attempts and abstinence.
We conducted a pilot trial with a goal to establish the feasibility and acceptability of NRTS in a dental clinic, where providing free samples is routine and universal.
Participants (N = 30) completed a baseline survey and were randomized to receive or not receive a 2-week supply of NRT samples (14 mg patches and 4 mg lozenges) in a 3:1 ratio.
We enrolled 30 of 50 potentially eligible patients, of whom 26 completed a 4-week follow-up survey. At follow-up, 61% of the NRT group reported use of the samples and 26% said they used more NRT obtained on their own. In the No NRT group, only one patient reported using NRT. No patients reported past week abstinence, but 43% of the NRT group vs. 29% of the No NRT group reported making a quit attempt lasting longer than 24 h.
The pattern of results suggests that conducting a larger trial would be feasible and that the NRTS intervention was acceptable to dental patients.
A 10-year-old female with heterotaxy-asplenia and complex CHD developed pulmonary arteriovenous malformations with associated cyanosis after Fontan completion. She underwent orthotopic heart transplantation, but her pulmonary arteriovenous malformations persisted with progressive worsening cyanosis. Elective transcatheter left pulmonary artery embolisation was performed 2 years post-transplant, which successfully normalised her oxygen saturation without a significant increase in pulmonary artery pressure.
The purpose of this paper is to describe the process of developing and implementing a transdisciplinary community-based research center, the Center for Health Equity Research (CHER) Chicago, to offer a model for designing and implementing research centers that aim to address structural causes of health inequality.
Scholars from diverse backgrounds and disciplines formed a multidisciplinary team for the Center, and adopted the structural violence framework as the organizing conceptual model. All Center activities were based on community partnership. The Center activities were organized within three cores: administrative, investigator development, and community engagement and dissemination cores. The key activities during the first year were to develop a pilot grant program for early stage investigators (ESIs) and to establish community partnership mechanisms.
CHER provided more than 60 consultations for ESIs, which resulted in 31 pilot applications over the three application cycles. Over 200 academic and community partners attended the community symposium and discussed community priority. Some challenges encountered were: to improve communication among investigators, to clarify roles and responsibilities of the three cores, and to build consensus on the definition and operationalization of the concept of structural violence.
There is an increasing need for local hubs to facilitate transdisciplinary collaboration and community engagement to effectively address health inequity. Building consensus around a shared vision among partners is a difficult and yet important step toward achieving equity.
It is a common notion among modern biblical scholars that Origen doubted Paul's authorship of the Epistle to the Hebrews. This article offers an examination of Origen's writings on this question, and shows that the evidence is wildly misrepresented in contemporary discussions. It does this by beginning with Origen's Letter to Africanus, continuing with an overview of his Hebrews citations across his writing career, and concluding with an analysis of his oft-cited comments in Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History. This examination shows that while Origen suspects Hebrews’ composition to involve more than Paul alone, his surprisingly consistent testimony is that the epistle is indeed Paul's.
Analysis of human remains and a copper band found in the center of a Late Archaic (ca. 5000–3000 cal BP) shell ring demonstrate an exchange network between the Great Lakes and the coastal southeast United States. Similarities in mortuary practices suggest that the movement of objects between these two regions was more direct and unmediated than archaeologists previously assumed based on “down-the-line” models of exchange. These findings challenge prevalent notions that view preagricultural Native American communities as relatively isolated from one another and suggest instead that wide social networks spanned much of North America thousands of years before the advent of domestication.
We implemented a guideline for appropriate acid suppressant use in hematology-oncology patients. This intervention resulted in a sustained reduction in proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use without an increase in rates of gastrointestinal bleeding. Practice guidelines are effective in reducing PPI use, which is associated with risk of Clostridioides difficile infection.