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The COllaborative project of Development of Anthropometrical measures in Twins (CODATwins) project is a large international collaborative effort to analyze individual-level phenotype data from twins in multiple cohorts from different environments. The main objective is to study factors that modify genetic and environmental variation of height, body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) and size at birth, and additionally to address other research questions such as long-term consequences of birth size. The project started in 2013 and is open to all twin projects in the world having height and weight measures on twins with information on zygosity. Thus far, 54 twin projects from 24 countries have provided individual-level data. The CODATwins database includes 489,981 twin individuals (228,635 complete twin pairs). Since many twin cohorts have collected longitudinal data, there is a total of 1,049,785 height and weight observations. For many cohorts, we also have information on birth weight and length, own smoking behavior and own or parental education. We found that the heritability estimates of height and BMI systematically changed from infancy to old age. Remarkably, only minor differences in the heritability estimates were found across cultural–geographic regions, measurement time and birth cohort for height and BMI. In addition to genetic epidemiological studies, we looked at associations of height and BMI with education, birth weight and smoking status. Within-family analyses examined differences within same-sex and opposite-sex dizygotic twins in birth size and later development. The CODATwins project demonstrates the feasibility and value of international collaboration to address gene-by-exposure interactions that require large sample sizes and address the effects of different exposures across time, geographical regions and socioeconomic status.
The association between dietary patterns and CVD risk factors among non-Hispanic whites has not been fully studied. Data from 650 non-Hispanic white adults who participated in one of two clinical sub-studies (about 2 years after the baseline) of the Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2) were analysed. Four dietary patters were identified using a validated 204-item semi-quantitative FFQ completed at enrolment into AHS-2: vegans (8·3 %), lacto-ovo-vegetarians (44·3 %), pesco-vegetarians (10·6 %) and non-vegetarians (NV) (37·3 %). Dietary pattern-specific prevalence ratios (PR) of CVD risk factors were assessed adjusting for confounders with or without BMI as an additional covariable. The adjusted PR for hypertension, high total cholesterol and high LDL-cholesterol were lower in all three vegetarian groups. Among the lacto-ovo-vegetarians the PR were 0·57 (95 % CI 0·45, 0·73), 0·72 (95 % CI 0·59, 0·88) and 0·72 (95 % CI 0·58, 0·89), respectively, which remained significant after additionally adjusting for BMI. The vegans and the pesco-vegetarians had similar PR for hypertension at 0·46 (95 % CI 0·25, 0·83) and 0·62 (95 % CI 0·42, 0·91), respectively, but estimates were attenuated and marginally significant after adjustment for BMI. Compared with NV, the PR of obesity and abdominal adiposity, as well as other CVD risk factors, were significantly lower among the vegetarian groups. Similar results were found when limiting analyses to participants not being treated for CVD risk factors, with the vegans having the lowest mean BMI and waist circumference. Thus, compared with the diet of NV, vegetarian diets were associated with significantly lower levels of CVD risk factors among the non-Hispanic whites.
An epitaxial NdFeAs(O,F) thin film of 90 nm thickness grown by molecular beam epitaxy on MgO single crystal with Tc = 44.2 K has been investigated regarding a possible vortex glass–liquid transition. The voltage–current characteristics show excellent scalability according to the vortex-glass model with a static critical exponent ν of around 1.35 and a temperature-dependent dynamic exponent z increasing from 7.8 to 9.0 for the investigated temperature range. The large and non-constant z values are discussed in the frame of 3D vortex glass, thermally activated flux motion, and inhomogeneity broadening.
We investigate the two-photon absorption characteristics of hemicyanine dyes that exhibit a one-photon absorption at around 500 nm. The dyes exhibited two-photon-induced fluorescence upon irradiation with an Yb-doped femtosecond fiber laser operating at 1030 nm. Among the dyes, 4-[4-[4-(dimethylamino)phenyl]-1,3-butadienyl]-1-ethyl-pyridinium perchlorate exhibited the most efficient two-photon-induced fluorescence at 1030 nm. Since these dyes possess cationic moiety, the dyes accumulated in the mitochondria of a living cell. Two-photon images of mitochondria were obtained by staining living HEK293 cells with these dyes. When 4-[4-[4-(dimethylamino)phenyl]-1,3-butadienyl]-1-ethyl-pyridinium perchlorate was employed, a two-photon-induced fluorescence image could be obtained even when a 3 mW fiber laser beam was used as the excitation source.
Blazar OJ287 exhibits large thermal flares at least twice every 12 years. The times of these flares have been predicted successfully using the model of a quasi-Keplerian eccentric black hole binary where the secondary impacts the accretion disk of the primary, creating the thermal flares. New measurements of the historical light curve have been combined with the observations of the 2015 November/December flare to identify the impact record since year 1886, and to constrain the orbit of the binary. The orbital solution shows that the binary period, now 12.062 years, is decreasing at the rate of 36 days per century. This corresponds to an energy loss to gravitational waves that is 6.5 ± 4 % less than the rate predicted by the standard quadrupolar gravitational wave (GW) emission. We show that the difference is due to higher order gravitational radiation reaction terms that include the dominant order tail contributions.
It has been known that non spherical silicate particles of a size comparable to the wavelength of light, and aggregates of such particles, produce negative polarization in the backscattering region (e.g. Xing & Hanner 1997, Yanamandra-Fisher & Hanner, 1999). It has now been shown that large aggregates of small absorbing particles of fractal dimension about 2 produce a slightly negative polarization at small phase angles (Levasseur-Regourd et al., 1997). The phase-curves strongly differ from those of Mie spheroidal particles. They are likely to be due to scattering by irregular dust particles and/or fluffy aggregates of numerous submicronic absorbing particles (Levasseur-Regourd et al., 1997; Lumme et al., 1997).
Although presently classified as a SU UMa-type dwarf nova, WZ Sge is well known as one of the most peculiar objects in that it shows only superoutbursts with exceptional duration and amplitude, and no normal outbursts. Furthermore, on its decline from the 1978 outburst, WZ Sge showed a deep temporal dip. All of these characteristics have puzzled both theoreticians and observers.
The dwarf nova AL Com was photometrically observed during the outburst in 1995 April, which occurred for the first time since 1975. The striking similarity of AL Com to WZ Sge, as demonstrated by the present observation (Fig. 1), provides plenty of material in interpreting the enigmatic nature of WZ Sge-type dwarf novae.
Experimental Echinococcus multilocularis infection and deworming was repeated three or five times in nine dogs at various re-infection schedules. The mean number of worms decreased more than 91% in dogs with repeated infection, compared to first infection controls (n= 6). The copro-antigen assay and the egg count in the faeces suggested that the worm burden gradually decreased each time the dogs were re-infected. To examine whether such worm exclusion was a non-specific response, five dogs were sequentially infected with the parasite four times and subsequently fed freely for 6 months. Even after the 6-month interval, the five dogs that were infected five times with the parasite were still able largely to exclude the adult worms. The results suggested that the ability of worm exclusion in dogs that developed a resistance did not become rapidly extinct. Observation of the condition of faeces and the excretion of hooks in the faeces of repeatedly infected dogs revealed that the exclusion of worms started at the first week after the re-infection, and it continued during the patent period. Serum antibodies specific to the parasite antigen increased gradually until the third infection and significantly decreased during the 6-month interval. There was little enhancement of serum antibodies after the fifth infection in most dogs, although no clear correlation was observed between the antibody response and the worm burden. These findings suggested the possibility of developing a vaccine.
Crosslinked or non-crosslinked ultrathin semipermeable membranes based on the N-butylated and N-butylsulfonated polybenzimidazole (BPBI and BSPBI) were successfully prepared by spin-coating method. Structural characterization by FTIR and WAXD revealed that the N-substitution and the crosslinked structure of PBI suppressed the hydrogen bonding and increased the d-spacing. Furthermore, positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) clearly showed the pore radius change from 0.27-0.29 nm to 0.33 nm by crosslinking. As a result, the enhancement of water flux and NaCl rejection was achieved by the crosslinking of the BPBI and BSPBI. Especially, the crosslinked N-butylsulfonated PBI (CL-BSPBI) membrane significantly improved not only salt rejection but also water flux (NaCl rejection : 46 %, water flux : 22.1 L m-2 h-1) compared to those of non-crosslinked BSPBI one (NaCl rejection : 11 %, water flux : 1.88 L m-2 h-1) due to both the Donnan effect and the formation of larger pores in the membrane, respectively.
Bone contouring is currently the best treatment for fibro-osseous lesions after bone growth arrest. Navigation systems available for this surgery allow intra-operative visualisation with improved cosmetic outcomes. However, conventional navigation systems using superficial skin registration cannot prevent subtle discrepancies.
To address this problem, we used a non-invasive cranial bone registration that uses patient-specific dental templates to maintain exact registration. We created the preset goal using the mirror image of the unaffected side for unilateral lesions, and using images obtained before the onset of symptoms for bilateral lesions. This system achieved precise pre-operative simulation. A sound aid in the navigation system provided information regarding proximity to critical structures and to the preset goal.
We used this system to contour fibro-osseous lesions in three patients. All patients achieved good facial contours and improvement in symptoms.
This method offers a safe, rapid surgical aid in treating orbital fibro-osseous lesions.
Combination of superconducting (SC) and ferromagnetic (FM) sheets into layered SC/FM composites allows to obtain metamaterials with unusual magnetic properties: the effective magnetic permeability along the sheets could be much higher than in the perpendicular direction. One can design the magnetic cloak consisting of a shell from SC/FM composite protecting its inner space against the penetration of a static magnetic field. Difference between such a device and a usual SC or FM shield will be in its un-detectability by magnetic sensors checking the field distribution outside the cloak. Thus it could be considered a magnetic invisibility cloak and one can think about using it e.g. for protecting a sensitive electronic circuitry in an electric machine.
We have prepared a series of SC/FM cloaks using commercial coated conductors as the superconducting elements and various kinds of ferromagnetic sheets as the ferromagnetic elements. Finite element calculation was utilized to optimize the architecture. Experimental testing of the cloaking ability in static magnetic field was performed by scanning the field distribution in vicinity of the cloak. Detectability in low frequency (< 100 Hz) AC magnetic fields was tested in an AC magnetization set-up allowing to see both screening and dissipation signals. Recording of magnetization loops allowed to analyze in detail the dynamics of field interaction with the cloak. Reduction of the detected magnetic signature due to the cloak was confirmed, however it is still not complete. Tests of various arrangements of superconducting and ferromagnetic materials allowed to identify the main problems hindering to achieve a perfect cloaking.
Electric networks will experience deep changes due to the emergence of dispersed generation. Variability in power output is a characteristic of wind energy and increased penetration of wind power will present significant operational challenges in ensuring grid security and power quality. This paper addresses the integration of large wind farms into the grid through the beneficial role of superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) systems. Although originally conceived as a load-leveling device for nuclear power plants, today’s utility-industrial realities emphasize other applications of SMES in the development of wind energy. In the industrial section, concerns about power quality and stability have driven the development of a market for micro-SMES devices for power quality applications. The paper reviews the recent history of SMES, performs analysis in terms of the quantity of superconductor required and cost associated with both toroid and solenoid shaped coil using Bi-2223, YBCO and MgB2. The energy storage is optimized by properly designing the bandwidth of SMES. The ultimate aim of this paper is to influence the optimal design and configuration of SMES for land and offshore wind power generation and to propose a roadmap for the resolution of technical barriers related to the integration of wind energy to the electric grid.
Recently, the detection of non-bulk superconductivity with unexpectedly high onset-Tcs up to 49 K in Pr-doped CaFe2As2 [(Ca,Pr)122] single crystals and the report of a Tc up to 65 K in one-unit-cell (1UC) FeSe epi-films, offer an unusual opportunity to seek an answer to the question posed in the title. Through systematic compositional, structural, resistive, and magnetic investigations on (Ca,Pr)122 single crystals, we have observed a doping-level-independent Tc, the simultaneous appearance of superparamagnetism and superconductivity, large magnetic anisotropy, and the existence of mesoscopic-2D structures in these crystals, thus providing clear evidence consistent with the proposed interface-enhanced Tc in these naturally occurring rareearth-doped Fe-based superconductors, (Ca,R)122. Similar resistive and magnetic measurements were also made on the 3–4UC FeSe ultrathin epi-films. We have detected weak links in the Meissner state below 20 K, weakly coupled small superconducting patches between 20–45 K, and collective excitations of spin and/or superconducting nature between 45–80 K. The unusual frequency dependences of the diamagnetic moment observed in the films in different temperature ranges will be presented and their implications discussed.
Praseodymium doped CaFe2As2 (122 structure) and CaFeAs2 (112 structure) are characterized by modulated Low Magnetic Field Microwave Absorption (LFMA) spectroscopy. In both (Pr,Ca)122 and (Pr,Ca)112 structures, a strong hysteretic LFMA is found, with a TcH of ∼30 K and ∼26 K, respectively. However, in (Pr,Ca)122, measurements also show an unusual Narrow Peak (NP) LFMA signal appearing at higher temperatures, above the lower TcH superconducting state until a TcNP of 49 K. We associate this NP LFMA with interfacial superconductivity, which has been found previously by highly anisotropic magnetization measurements. Furthermore, the absence of NP in (Pr,Ca)112 correlates with the absence of an interfacial phase. These results give useful information about the microwave signature of interfacial superconductivity present in the (Pr,Ca)122 system, and may form a roadmap towards a stabilized high temperature superconducting phase in pnictides.
We review the present state of the understanding and application of high temperature superconductor materials ranging from attempts to clarify pairing mechanisms on the energy scale of a few milli-electron-volts to their use to embody terra-kwh continental wide deployment within the electricity enterprise. Examples include the use of density functional theory to study the relative roles of spin-fluctuation and/or lattice vibration induced Cooper pairing to modelling the incorporation of long distance HTSC transmission cables within the same natural gas pipeline rights-of-way infrastructure now emerging worldwide.
We report the dependences of the degrees of tri- or bi-axial orientation on strength of applied magnetic fields of modulated rotating field (MRF) for twinned ErBa2Cu3Oy (Er123) powder samples oriented in epoxy resin under various MRF conditions. Introduction of a pulverization process in the Er123 powders improved the degrees of inplane orientations, and is effective for enhancing the inplane magnetic anisotropy of Er123 grains with twin microstructure. Formation of inhomogeneous domain structure is a dominant factor of the enhancement, and the present study indicates possibility of tri- or bi-axial orientation of the twinned Er123 grains even under relatively low MRF conditions around 1 T.
We suggest a model explaining nonlinear dependences of critical current Jc in YBCO epitaxial films. Two features of YBCO are taken into account: twin domain structure in orthorhombic phase and the anisotropy of uniaxial strain dependence of Tc. Applied strain changes elementary pinning force of the defects located at low-angle dislocation boundaries between differently oriented twin domains. Account of Tc dependence on strain this leads to approximately parabolic strain behavior of Jc. We have obtained analytical expressions for the “initial strain”, which actually describes a natural misbalance between numbers of grain boundaries separating a and b oriented domains, as well as for “strain sensitivity”, which is determined by Tc dependence on uniaxial a and b strains and by the effective redistribution of vortices. Other experimentally observed effects, such as temperature, magnetic field and two-peak strain dependences of Jc, are shown to be described in the framework of suggested model.
Changes in critical current properties depending on growth temperature (Ts) were clarified for Ba-Nb-O-doped YBa2Cu3Oy (Y123) films deposited by YAG- and excimer-PLD. Due to the introduction of Ba-Nb-O-nanorods, a vortex-Bose-glass-like behavior emerged as irreversibility lines and in-field critical current densities (Jcs) were improved. Crossover magnetic fields (Bcr) and in-field Jcs increased with the increase in Ts for the Y123 films with nanorods. These Ts-dependent critical current properties were attributable to the changes in morphology of the nanorods with Ts and were independent of laser source in PLD apparatuses. For the fabrication of RE123 coated conductors containing nanorods, optimization of Ts with taking both materials of RE123 matrix and nanorod into account is necessary to achieve higher in-field Jc.
To enhance a global critical current in a superconductor, it is indispensable to understand current limiting factors and their influence on such a critical current. From this point of view, we have investigated in-plane distribution of local critical current density and its electric field criterion in a thin-film superconductor by using scanning-Hall probe microscopy. In a remanent state, after the application of sufficiently high magnetic field to a sample, current flows at critical current density according to the critical state model. Such distribution of current density was estimated from that of measured magnetic field using the Biot-Savart law. Furthermore, the corresponding electric field criterion was evaluated from the relaxation of such remanent magnetic field by considering Faraday’s law. This means that we could estimate in-plane distribution of local critical current density as a function of electric field criterion in a nondestructive manner. This characterization method would be very helpful for finding current limiting factors in a thin-film superconductor and their influence on its global current density versus electric field properties which would usually be obtained by four-probe method.