Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is an important crop for developed as well as underdeveloped countries, especially those in the Indian sub-continent that contribute more than 60% to both the global area and global production. The harsh environmental conditions under which chickpeas are generally grown impose restrictions on the expression of genetic yield potential. In the present study, a number of different breeding approaches for the development of genotypes possessing multiple resistances to different biotic and abiotic stresses, coupled with enhanced productivity are reported. In one study, 90 genetically diverse genotypes (35 medium-sized desi types, 35 bold-seeded desi types, 10 medium-sized kabuli types and 10 bold-seeded kabuli types) were tested in several locations in the 2000–2002 seasons, under rainfed (dryland) conditions and with supplemental irrigation. The bold-seeded desi genotypes gave superior performance in the rainfed environment, while the bold-seeded kabuli genotypes outyielded the other cultivars under supplemental irrigation. From crosses between accessions from geographically diverse sources, crosses between lines carrying multiple disease resistances, and crosses between the cultivated chickpea and the wild species, C. reticulatum, 23 selections were tested for yield and resistance to multiple stresses at various locations in northern and central India. From the crosses between geographically diverse parents, six high-yielding kabuli genotypes with wide adaptation and drought tolerance were identified. Pyramiding genes for multiple resistances proved useful in identifying eight lines possessing multiple disease resistance. Introgressing wild genes generated nine genotypes with high yield potential, resistance to soil-borne diseases and adaptation to water-limited environments. We conclude that high productivity, multiple resistance and wide adaptability can be achieved simultaneously by using potentially complementary approaches.