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Yield and landscape are commonly used to guide management zone delineation. However, production system choice and management can interact with landscape attributes and weather. The objective of this study was to evaluate forage yield and soil properties in three landscape defined (elevation based) management zones, and under two different grazing systems. Changes in soil properties (soil strength, bulk density, moisture, bioavailable nutrients) and forage productivity (biomass), as related to grazing management and management zone, were measured. Bulk density, moisture, and forage biomass were greater at higher elevation. Soil strength decreased as elevation increased, and was greater near-surface after winter grazing ended. The response of landscape delineated management zones varied with extreme weather conditions and treatment. Lower zones were more sensitive to weather extremes than higher elevations, directly affecting biomass accumulation. In conclusion, we observed interactions between the grazing treatments and the management zones.
We present Spitzer Space Telescope archival mid-infrared (mid-IR) spectroscopy of a sample of eleven planetary nebulae (PNe). The observations, acquired with the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS), cover the spectral range 5.2-14.5 μm that includes the H2 0-0 S(2) to S(7) rotational emission lines. This wavelength coverage has allowed us to derive the Boltzmann distribution and calculate the H2 rotational excitation temperature (Tex). The derived excitation temperatures have consistent values ≃ 900 ±70 K for different sources despite their different structural components. We also report the detection of mid-IR ionic lines of [Ar iii], [S iv], and [Ne ii] in most objects, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) features in a few cases.
Human toxocarosis is a chronic tissue parasitosis most often caused by Toxocara canis. The seroprevalence can reach up to 50%, especially among children and adolescents. The anthelmintics used in the treatment have moderate efficacy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo anthelmintic activity of quinones and their derivatives against T. canis larvae and the cytotoxicity of the larvicidal compounds. The compounds were evaluated at 1 mg mL−1 concentration in microculture plates containing third stage larvae in an Roswell Park Memorial Institute (RPMI) 1640 environment, incubated at 37 °C in 5% CO2 tension for 48 h. Five naphthoxiranes were selected for the cytotoxicity analysis. The cell viability evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and lactate dehydrogenase assays using murine peritoneal macrophages isolated from C57BL/6 mice revealed that the naphthoxiranes (1 and 3) were less cytotoxic at a concentration of 0·05 mg mL−1. The efficacy of naphthoxiranes (1 and 3) was examined in murine toxocarosis also. The anthelmintic activity was examined by evaluating the number of larvae in the brain, carcass, liver, lungs, heart, kidneys and eyes. Compound (3) demonstrated anthelmintic activity similar to that of albendazole by decreasing the number of larvae in the organs of mice and thus could form the basis of the development of a new anthelmintic drug.
This paper presents a new genetic algorithm methodology to solve the trajectory planning problem. This methodology can obtain smooth trajectories for industrial robots in complex environments using a direct method. The algorithm simultaneously creates a collision-free trajectory between initial and final configurations as the robot moves. The presented method deals with the uncertainties associated with the unknown kinematic properties of intermediate via points since they are generated as the algorithm evolves looking for the solution. Additionally, the objective of this algorithm is to minimize the trajectory time, which guides the robot motion. The method has been applied successfully to the PUMA 560 robotic system. Four operational parameters (execution time, computational time, end-effector distance traveled, and significant points distance traveled) have been computed to study and analyze the algorithm efficiency. The experimental results show that the proposed optimization algorithm for the trajectory planning problem of an industrial robot is feasible.
This article investigates the appearance of instabilities in two planar coflowing fluid sheets with different densities and viscosities via experiments, numerical simulation and linear stability analysis. At low dynamic pressure ratios a convective instability is shown to appear for which the frequency of the waves in the primary atomization region is influenced by both liquid and gas velocities. For large dynamic pressure ratios an asymptotic regime is obtained in which frequency is solely controlled by gas velocity and the instability becomes absolute. The transition from convective to absolute is shown to be influenced by the velocity defect induced by the presence of the separator plate. We show that in this regime the splitter plate thickness can also affect the nature of the instability if it is larger than the gas vorticity thickness. Computational and experimental results are in agreement with the predictions of a spatio-temporal stability analysis.
There is a growing interest in nanoparticles as carriers of chemotherapeutic agents in order to improve their administration and minimize their side effects. Despite the fact that silver nanoparticles can be conjugated to therapeutic agents, offering additionally advantages due their unique and tunable optical properties, few examples have been described yet.
Silver nanoparticles are emerging as a powerful tool in bioimaging applications owing to their unique plasmonic properties i.e., extremely high molar extinction coefficients, resonant Rayleigh scattering and enhanced local electromagnetic fields. Through the optimization of these properties, by controlling composition, size, shape, and interparticle spacing of nanoparticles and their assemblies, highly enhanced local electromagnetic fields in the vicinity of nanoparticles are achievable giving rise to IR, Raman and fluorescence surface enhanced spectroscopies (SEIRS, SERS and MEF, respectively).
The fracture behavior of polypropylene (PP) and its composites was studied as a function of concentration of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) and modified montmorillonite (m-MMT). SAXS and WAXS (Small/Wide Angle X-ray Scattering) techniques were used to monitor the morphological changes (i.e. nanocomposite structure and crystalline morphology) caused by various nanoparticle concentrations and polymer uniaxial stretching deformation. The effect of nanoparticle nature was also investigated. The mechanical analysis shows a great effect of nanoclay concentration on the PP deformation, while uniaxial stretching of the PP/MWCNT nanocomposites was less affected by carbon nanotubes concentration. The SAXS and WAXS analysis of stretched samples indicated that the pure polypropylene and nanocomposites with low nanoparticles concentrations (1 wt/wt%) developed a fracture governed by shear yielding mechanism, while PP nanocomposites with higher concentrations of carbon nanotubes and nanoclay showed a crazing and microcraking fracture mechanism. On the other hand, different chemical nature of MWCNT and m-MMT did not affect the fracture mechanism of polypropylene at low nanoparticles concentrations.
This chapter presents a commentary on the lung-specific complications following transplantation and this should be used to drive the investigation plan and management. Shared care protocols with effective communication should be organized in patients who live at a distance from the transplant center to ensure that local follow-up includes monitoring of the lung function and imaging. Acute rejection can be identified on lung biopsies obtained via transbronchial biopsy (TBBx) at fiberoptic bronchoscopy. Many transplant centers perform regular bronchoscopy and TBBx in addition to spirometry in the first year to enable early diagnosis and treatment of asymptomatic rejection, with the aim of preserving graft function and protecting against bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS). Recently the importance of detecting early, subclinical BOS before irreversible fibroproliferative disease has become established has been recognized, and a new stage of BOS 0-p has been added.
The thickness of the cortical mantle is a sensitive measure for identifying alterations in cortical structure. We aimed to explore whether first episode schizophrenia patients already show a significant cortical thinning and whether cortical thickness anomalies may significantly influence clinical and cognitive features.
We investigated regional changes in cortical thickness in a large and heterogeneous sample of schizophrenia spectrum patients (n=142) at their first break of the illness and healthy controls (n=83). Magnetic resonance imaging brain scans (1.5 T) were obtained and images were analyzed by using brains2. The contribution of sociodemographic, cognitive and clinical characterictics was investigated.
Patients showed a significant total cortical thinning (F=17.55, d=−0.62, p<0.001) and there was a diffuse pattern of reduced thickness (encompassing frontal, temporal and parietal cortices) (all p's<0.001, d's>0.53). No significant group×gender interactions were observed (all p's>0.15). There were no significant associations between the clinical and pre-morbid variables and cortical thickness measurements (all r's<0.12). A weak significant negative correlation between attention and total (r=−0.24, p=0.021) and parietal cortical thickness (r=−0.27, p=0.009) was found in patients (thicker cortex was associated with lower attention). Our data revealed a similar pattern of cortical thickness changes related to age in patients and controls.
Cortical thinning is independent of gender, age, age of onset and duration of the illness and does not seem to significantly influence clinical and functional symptomatology. These findings support a primary neurodevelopment disorder affecting the normal cerebral cortex development in schizophrenia.
We present a new catalog of isolated galaxies (coined as UNAM–KIAS) obtained through an automated systematic search. The 1520 isolated galaxies were found in ~ 1.4 steradians of the sky in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 5 (SDSS DR5) photometry. The selection algorithm was implemented from a variation of the criteria developed by Karachentseva (1973), with full redshift information. This new catalog is aimed to carry out comparative studies of environmental effects and constraining the currently competing scenarios of galaxy formation and evolution.
Deformable models have been studied in image analysis over the last decade and used for recognition of flexible or rigid templates under diverse viewing conditions. This article addresses the question of how to define a deformable model for a real-time color vision system for mobile robot navigation. Instead of receiving the detailed model definition from the user, the algorithm extracts and learns the information from each object automatically. How well a model represents the template that exists in the image is measured by an energy function. Its minimum corresponds to the model that best fits with the image and it is found by a genetic algorithm that handles the model deformation. At a later stage, if there is symbolic information inside the object, it is extracted and interpreted using a neural network. The resulting perception module has been integrated successfully in a complex navigation system. Various experimental results in real environments are presented in this article, showing the effectiveness and capacity of the system.
Cannabis use appears to be a risk factor for schizophrenia. Moreover, cannabis abusers show impaired decision-making capacities, linked to the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). Although there is substantial evidence that first-episode schizophrenia patients show impairments in cognitive tasks associated with the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), it is not clear whether decision making is impaired at schizophrenia onset. In this study, we examined the association between antecedents of cannabis abuse and cognitive impairment in cognitive tasks associated with the DLPFC and the OFC in a sample of first-episode patients with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders.
One hundred and thirty-two patients experiencing their first episode of a schizophrenia-spectrum psychosis were assessed with a cognitive battery including DLPFC-related tasks [backward digits, verbal fluency (FAS) and the Trail Making Test (TMT)] and an OFC-related task [the Iowa Gambling Task (GT)]. Performance on these tasks was compared between patients who had and had not abused cannabis before their psychosis onset.
No differences were observed between the two groups on the performance of any of the DLPFC-related tasks. However, patients who had abused cannabis before their psychosis onset showed a poorer total performance on the gambling task and a lower improvement on the performance of the task compared to no-abusers.
Pre-psychotic cannabis abuse is associated with decision-making impairment, but not working memory and executive function impairment, among first-episode patients with a schizophrenia-spectrum psychosis. Further studies are needed to examine the direction of causality of this impairment; that is, does the impairment make the patients abuse cannabis, or does cannabis abuse cause the impairment?
Effects of Praseodymium doping on the ferroelectric properties of Bi4Ti3O12 were investigated using dense ceramics from room temperature to 730 °C. DRX and XPS studies shows that the structure can accept only 10% of praseodymium without the precipitation of second phases. Thermoelectric analysis and ferroelectric hysteresis measurements were performed and show that the incorporation of praseodymium modified the transition temperature Tc and slightly the polarization values. The incorporation of praseodymium resulted in a variation in the permittivity and in the remanent polarization (2Pr). The polarization characteristics in the samples doping were different to Bi4Ti3O12.
Dielectric and ferroelectric properties were studied in Sr0.85−yPr0.15VyBi2Ti2O9 polycrystalline samples where cation vacancies were induced. DRX characterization shows that the Aurivillius structure can accept 10% of induced vacancies without precipitation of second phases. Thermoelectric analysis and ferroelectric hysteresis measurements show that the vacancies modify the transition temperature Tc and slightly the polarization values. From the ε-T curves it was observed that the polarization magnitude and Tc are affected as a consequence of the induced vacancies. A broad peak at Tc, typical of the diffuse phase transition behavior of this material was also observed. Furthermore, the induced vacancies in praseodymium-modified SBT produce an increased on Tc from ∼180 to ∼240 °C, these facts show that induced vacancies in the structure are a tuning mechanism for the dielectric and ferroelectric properties.
Ferroelectricity was induced in SrTiO3 by the Sr exchange for Pr ion in the A site of the perovskite ABO3-type structure. X-ray diffraction patterns show single phase crystalline structure in the SrxPr1-xTiO3 compound for x=0, 0.025, 0.050, 0.075 and 0.1 compositions. Rietveld refinement shows that the unit cell volume decreases with the increasing of Pr content as a consequence of the difference between Sr/Pr ionic radii. Furthermore, high-temperature differential thermoanalysis (DTA) displays a small anomaly at about 118 °C which is probably due to the Pr ion producing a distortion of the perovskite structure via an off-center site. This deformation in the lattice induces a measurable polar behavior of the solid solution. Dielectric permittivity (ε vs T) measurements display a well defined peak at about 238 °C. Furthermore, a well defined hysteresis loop at 30 °C with a remnant polarization that tends to decrease with increasing Pr concentration is observed. Both experimental results confirm the ferroelectric state induced by the Pr ion.
The Sr1-xPrxBi2Ta2O9 (SBT-Pr) ferroelectric ceramic doped with Praseodymium in the range of concentration between 0 and 0.20 was studied. X-ray diffraction patterns show that the Pr-ion substitutes the Sr-ion in the main structure (A21am space group) and, as a consequence of this substitution the unit cell decreases monotonically. Thermoelectric Analysis (ε vs T) and ferroelectric hysteresis measurements were performed. From the ε-T curves it was observed that the transition temperature depends almost linearly on Pr content. Broad phase transitions were also observed, a typical behavior of ferroelectric materials with diffuse phase transition (DPT). An increase in the diffuseness coefficient is obtained by increasing Pr content according to the Isupov model, due to the higher cationic disorder in the structure, resulting in the loss of the long-range ferroelectric ordering. The hysteresis loop indicates that the substitution of Sr2+ by Pr3+,4+ lowers the polarization due possible to strong pinning domain mechanisms that obstruct long range ferroelectric ordering.
Microfabrication and soft lithographic techniques are combined to develop three-dimensional (3D) polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) scaffolds comprising multiple levels of meandering pore geometry textured with 10 μm posts. Both micro-architecture and surface micro-textures have been shown to selectively stimulate cell and tissue behavior. To achieve a 3D scaffold with precise micro-architecture and surface micro-textures, 100 μm thick PDMS films were manufactured using a stacking technique to realize a 66% porous 3D structure with 200 × 400 μm horizontal through holes, 300 μm diameter vertical through holes and 71% surface coverage with 10 μm diameter and 10 μm high posts. Each PDMS porous film level was manufactured by the dual-sided molding of uncured PDMS between a three level SU-8 photoresist mold (of 200, 10, and 100 μm thick features) and a PDMS mold with 10 μm deep micro-textures. Dual-sided molding was achieved using a custom motion control mechanical jig that allowed relative mold alignment to within ∼ ±10 μm.