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Elliptical red cells may be found in man, camels, llamas, birds and reptiles. In man, these cells can occur as an autosomal dominant disease. Using a shadow-casting technic, Rebuck and Van Slyck found a constant bipolar massing of hemoglobin in the elliptical cells of man. This polar massing of hemoglobin was not observed in the red cells of the llama. From these observations they deduced that the elliptical cells in man were biconcave whereas the cells from the llama were uniformly elliptical without a zone of central thinning.
The scanning electron microscope was used to confirm these observations by comparing the red cells from a patient with hereditary elliptocytosis with red cells from a llama. As shown in Fig. 1, the elliptical cells of man are canoe-shaped. Bipolar massing of hemoglobin in these cells is seen in the red cell in Fig. 3. These observations are contrasted with red cells from the llama which are also elliptical, but they lack a central zone of thinning as shown in Fig. 2.
Hyperprolactinaemia is a common side effect of some APS, associated to important clinical manifestations (sexual dysfunction, breast disturbances and even increase of certain types of cancer risk).
To evaluate the levels of prolactinemia associated to different APS, including the newest ones, and its association with sexual dysfunction (SD).
Observational cross-sectional study. Adult patients treated with one APS for at least 4 weeks and with no other PRL-rising treatment were included. Hyperprolactinaemia was defined as 20 microgr/L in women, 18 microgr/L in men. SD was evaluated with the specific SD questionnaire PR-Sex-DQ-SALSEX (Montejo et al, 2001).
288 patients were evaluated, with the following APS treatment distribution: aripiprazol (22.2%), risperidone (17.01%), olanzapine (16.67%), quetiapine (7.99%), long-acting paliperidone (6.25%), long-acting risperidone (4.51%), oral paloperidone (4.17%), oral risperidone (4.17%) and others (21.18%; APS with N<10 were not evaluated). Paliperidone was associated with the higher mean PRL levels (98.28 and 71.48 microgr/L for LAP and OP respectively), followed by oral risperidone (71.36 microgr/L). Aripiprazol, oral olanzapine and quetiapine showed the lowest PRL levels (13.25, 27.10 and 28.55 microgr/L respectively). More than 70% of the sexually active patients treated with paliperidone or risperidone presented SD, less frequent in non PRL-raising APS.
In our sample paliperidone and risperidone were associated to higher mean PRL levels and sexual disfunction, while quetiapine, olanzapine and aripiprazol were the less PRL-raising APS. This might be taken in consideration when electing a long-term antipsychotic treatment for patients, given the important clinical consequences associated to sustained hyperprolactinaemia.
We present preliminary results of the wide-field photometric study of the isolated elliptical galaxy NGC 1172, and its globular cluster system. Our data was obtained with the GMOS camera mounted on the Gemini South telescope, in the g′, r′, i′ and z′ bands. The aim of this work is to further our understanding of the evolution of NGC 1172, and to look for possible explanations for its unusual high specific frequency.
A pragmatist philosophy of psychological science offers to the direct replication debate concrete recommendations and novel benefits that are not discussed in Zwaan et al. This philosophy guides our work as field experimentalists interested in behavioral measurement. Furthermore, all psychologists can relate to its ultimate aim set out by William James: to study mental processes that provide explanations for why people behave as they do in the world.
Potassium titanyl phosphate crystals in both x-cut and z-cut were irradiated with 185 MeV Au ions. The morphology of the resulting ion tracks was investigated using small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). SAXS measurements indicate the presence of cylindrical ion tracks with abrupt boundaries and a density contrast of 1 ± 0.5% compared to the surrounding matrix, consistent with amorphous tracks. The track radius depends on the crystalline orientation, with 6.0 ± 0.1 nm measured for ion tracks along the x-axis and 6.3 ± 0.1 nm for those along the z-axis. TEM images in both cross-section and plan-view show amorphous ion tracks with radii comparable to those determined from SAXS analysis. The protruding hillocks covering the sample surface detected by AFM are consistent with a lower density of the amorphous material within the ion tracks compared to the surrounding matrix. Simulations using an inelastic thermal-spike model indicate that differences in the thermal conductivity along the z- and x-axis can partially explain the different track radii along these directions.
Influenza is rarely laboratory-confirmed and the outpatient influenza burden is rarely studied due to a lack of suitable data. We used the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) and surveillance data from Public Health England in a linear regression model to assess the number of persons consulting UK general practitioners (GP episodes) for respiratory illness, otitis media and antibiotic prescriptions attributable to influenza during 14 seasons, 1995–2009. In CPRD we ascertained influenza vaccination status in each season and risk status (conditions associated with severe influenza outcomes). Seasonal mean estimates of influenza-attributable GP episodes in the UK were 857 996 for respiratory disease including 68 777 for otitis media, with wide inter-seasonal variability. In an average season, 2·4%/0·5% of children aged <5 years and 1·3%/0·1% of seniors aged ⩾75 years had a GP episode for respiratory illness attributed to influenza A/B. Two-thirds of influenza-attributable GP episodes were estimated to result in prescription of antibiotics. These estimates are substantially greater than those derived from clinically reported influenza-like illness in surveillance programmes. Because health service costs of influenza are largely borne in general practice, these are important findings for cost-benefit assessment of influenza vaccination programmes.
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a risk factor for the development of colon cancer. Environmental factors including diet and the microflora influence disease outcome. Folate and homocysteine have been associated with IBD-mediated colon cancer but their roles remain unclear. We used a model of chemically induced ulcerative colitis (dextran sodium sulphate (DSS)) with or without the colon carcinogen azoxymethane (AOM) to determine the impact of dietary folic acid (FA) on colonic microflora and the development of colon tumours. Male mice (n 15 per group) were fed a FA-deficient (0 mg/kg), control (2 mg/kg) or FA-supplemented (8 mg/kg) diet for 12 weeks. Folate status was dependent on the diet (P< 0·001) and colitis-induced treatment (P= 0·04) such that mice with colitis had lower circulating folate. FA had a minimal effect on tumour initiation, growth and progression, although FA-containing diets tended to be associated with a higher tumour prevalence in DSS-treated mice (7–20 v. 0 %, P= 0·08) and the development of more tumours in the distal colon of AOM-treated mice (13–83 % increase, P= 0·09). Folate deficiency was associated with hyperhomocysteinaemia (P< 0·001) but homocysteine negatively correlated with tumour number (r − 0·58, P= 0·02) and load (r − 0·57, P= 0·02). FA had no effect on the intestinal microflora. The present data indicate that FA intake has no or little effect on IBD or IBD-mediated colon cancer in this model and that hyperhomocysteinaemia is a biomarker of dietary status and malabsorption rather than a cause of IBD-mediated colon cancer.
This work includes the creation of a computer model of the superconducting radio frequency cryostat located at the Canadian Light Source (CLS) in Saskatoon, Canada. This cryostat requires careful pressure and level modulation to ensure proper radio frequency control. A detailed mathematical model of the cryostat is generated based on gas and liquid mass balances for a boiling vessel, along with pressure–volume–temperature relations. Model results are compared with experimental data taken from the actual cryostat at the CLS to determine the accuracy of the simulation. Finally, cryostat performance is explored using the model, and it is demonstrated that there are no significant advantages in pressure modulation when reducing the level operating point, and in fact a reduction in operating level slightly increases the maximum value of pressure spikes due to heat loading.
Of 929 piked spurdogs, Squalus megalops, collected in south-eastern Australia, one individual was hermaphrodite. This individual presents a rare case of abnormal hermaphroditism in sharks where the female reproductive tract (left side) possessed a mature yolky ovarian follicle but completely undeveloped uterus and oviducal gland, and the male reproductive tract (right side) was fully developed. The hermaphrodite was found schooling with mature males. The morphological and behavioural characteristics suggest that this individual would function as a normal male.
Coated conductor samples, prepared by reactive co-evaporation, are investigated with respect to the hole-doping dependence of the critical current density. The samples are annealed in an atmosphere of variable oxygen content after which critical currents, critical temperature and the c-axis lattice spacing are measured. The lattice spacing increases with decreasing oxygen content, consistent with literature data. These co-evaporated samples show hole overdoped behavior with respect to the maximum Tc. The achievable range of hole doping in these samples seems to depend on surface coverage. Both self-field and in-field Jc at 75.5 K have a maximum in the overdoped region but at less than maximum oxygen content. The reason for the overdoping of these samples is discussed briefly in terms of Y-Ba disorder.
We present a new reel-to-reel method for growth of high temperature super-conducting (HTS) films by reactive co-evaporation on flexible metal tapes. We have demonstrated proof of principle for this method with a small laboratory-scale setup using 8 cm long tape pieces. YBa2Cu3O7-δ is deposited on ion-beam assisted deposition textured MgO layers on top of flexible polycrystalline metal tapes. Critical current densities at 75.5 K of over 2 MA/cm2 have been achieved in HTS films with over 2 μm in thickness, yielding a self field critical current of 450 A/cm-width. A 4.5 μm thick film had a self field critical current of 590 A/cm. We discuss some practical possibilities for manufacturing of superconducting wire using this process and present new areas of research that are still needed.
We present an ion-beam based fabrication method for growth of single-crystal-like films that does not utilize epitaxy on single crystal substrates. We use ion-beam assisted texturing to obtain biaxial crystalline alignment in a film. This ion-beam assisted deposition (IBAD) texturing can be done on arbitrary, but smooth substrates, including flexible polycrystalline metal tapes. With IBAD texturing of MgO and subsequent homoepitaxial growth we have demonstrated an in-plane mosaic spread FWHM as low as 2° and out-of-plane alignment of 1°. The deposition system we use includes reel-to-reel tape transport for a linear transport of substrate materials through the deposition zones. This allows for high-throughput experimentation via a linear combinatorial experimental design.
We examine the influence of various substrate preparation procedures for ion-beam assist deposition (IBAD) texturing of MgO. IBAD-MgO nano-texturing is very sensitive to the nucleation surface, and surface roughness has an important influence on the texture of the MgO layer. We studied Hastelloy C-276 metal alloy as the substrate. The untreated substrate is leveled by either electropolishing, mechanical polishing or solution deposition. All three methods are applied to continuously moving tapes in long lengths. The RMS surface roughness decreases from 20-50 nm for the untreated substrate to 0.5 nm, 0.3 nm and 1 nm respectively. The in-plane and out-of plane crystalline alignment of the MgO layer improves as the roughness is decreased below 2 nm.
The 1755 Lisbon earthquake and tsunami had one of the highest magnitudes in the history of Europe. The source mechanism requires generation at a subduction zone. Intensity distribution and tsunami modelling excludes the Gorringe Bank as a source area and suggests generation by the incipient convergence of the Atlantic with the Southwest Iberia and Morocco margin rather than at the less active Gulf of Cadiz Accretionary Prism. The comparison with the 2004 Sumatra earthquake and tsunami supports this interpretation. A tsunami warning alert system is urgent for the Atlantic.
This is a copy of the slides presented at the meeting but not formally written up for the volume.
Mass Spectrometery of Recoiled Ions (MSRI) in combination with time of flight ion and neutral scattering spectrometery (INSS) have been used in a number of laboratories for monitoring and controlling surface elemental composition during thin film growth processing. Pulsed keV ion beams impinge a growing surface at grazing incidence and the recoiled elements and ions which are either scattered (INNS) or recoiled (MSRI) into a forward direction are measured by their time of flight between the surface and an ion detector positioned some tens of cm away. Surface compositions can be inferred by INSS from energy losses of the scattered neutrals or ions. MSRI enables qualitative mass spectrometry from the surface by time of flight reflectron mass spectrometry of the ionized directly recoiled elements.The limitations of these two techniques becomes apparent when trying to devise instrumentation which can provide even semi-quantitative surface analysis at time scales of a few seconds and precisions of a few ppm. The possibilities of alternative but related approaches to rapid surface analysis which may now be possible (given advances in laser and detection technology) will be suggested and discussed.
This is a copy of the slides presented at the meeting but not formally written up for the volume.
Film growth in pulsed laser deposition (PLD) occurs from the energetic plume of material ejected from a solid target by pulsed laser ablation. The plume consists of a complex mixture of neutral and ionized atoms, molecules, and even small clusters with kinetic energies ranging from thermal to a few hundred eV. The extra kinetic energy provides a transient (nonequilibrium) enhancement of surface mobility and is believed to alter the nucleation and growth of thin films. However, the mechanisms by which the transient mobility enhancement affect the growth kinetics are not well understood. We use time-resolved surface x-ray diffraction (SXRD) measurements with microsecond range resolution to study the role of nonequilibrium processes in PLD of SrTiO3. The use of x-ray diffraction greatly simplifies growth kinetics studies because in the kinematic limit the x-ray intensity changes correspond directly to coverage changes. Rather than using a transport model to fit the data, we instead analyze the intensity transients using an approach that allows direct determination of the transient surface coverages from the diffraction intensities . The initial change in the coverage shows the fraction of the pulse instantaneously forming on each layer, and the time evolution of the coverages shows the amount of material transferred from the top of the islands into the growing layer. This analysis reveals that the energy-enhanced interlayer transport occurs on a time scale of microseconds or less and it dominates layer filling in PLD growth. A much smaller fraction of material, which is governed by the dwell time between successive laser shots is transferred by slow, thermally driven interlayer transport processes.  J.Z. Tischler, Gyula Eres, B.C. Larson, C.M. Rouleau, P. Zschack, and D.H. Lowndes, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 226104 (2006).
V. R. Phoenix, Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, College of Biological Science, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada N1G 2W1,
A. A. Korenevsky, Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, College of Biological Science, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada N1G 2W1,
V. R. F. Matias, Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, College of Biological Science, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada N1G 2W1,
T. J. Beveridge, Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, College of Biological Science, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada N1G 2W1
Prokaryotes are the Earth's smallest life form and, yet, have the largest surface area : volume ratio of all cells (Beveridge, 1988, 1989a). They are also the most ancient form of life and have persisted on Earth for at least 3.6 × 109 years, even in some of the most extreme environments imaginable, such as the deep subsurface. Most of these early primitive (and today's modern) natural environments possess reasonably high amounts of metal ions that are capable of precipitation under suitable pH or redox conditions. Deep-seated in such geochemical situations is the likelihood of suitable interfaces that lower the local free energy, so that interfacial metal precipitation is promoted. Bacteria, being minute and having highly reactive surfaces (interfaces), are exquisitely efficient environmental particles for metal-ion adsorption and mineral nucleation. Metal ions interact with available reactive groups (or ligands) on the bacterial surface and precipitates grow as environmental counter-ions interact with more and more metal at the site (Beveridge & Murray, 1976, 1980; Beveridge et al., 1982; Ferris & Beveridge, 1986; Fortin et al., 1998). Once formed, these precipitates are under the influence of natural geochemical and additional microbially mediated conditions (Lee & Beveridge, 2001) that instigate the development of fine-grain minerals, usually via dehydration, so that crystalline phases are eventually developed (Beveridge et al., 1983). These minerals commence as so-called ‘nano-mineral phases’ and grow with time to become larger and larger.
Active matrix organic light emitting diode displays based on thin, flexible metal foil substrates offer a novel approach to fabricate light, flexible and rugged displays. Metal foils allows devices to be fabricated at higher process temperatures yielding better device characteristics than plastic substrates. Furthermore, the conductive nature of such substrates enables more efficient use of pixel area through the use of a global power electrode. We are implementing Active Matrix Organic Light Emitting Diode (AMOLED) displays on flexible stainless steel substrate using 2 TFT and 4 TFT pixel circuit topologies with two different layout realizations that exploit the conductive properties of the substrate.
Textures of calcite crystals from ostrich (Struthio camelus) eggshells were examined with X ray diffractometry (XRD), transmission and scanning electron microscopy (TEM, SEM), and the thermal stability by thermal expansion analysis (TEA). Results showed that textures vary through the thickness of the eggshell and that expansion properties and thermal behaviour are unusual. Crystals from ostrich eggshell are arranged in two main configurations or layers; the outer layer with the c-axis of crystals oriented perpendicular to the eggshell surface and the inner layer with the c-axes of the crystals arranged almost parallel to eggshell surface; thermal expansion analysis show high stability through a wide range of temperatures until a steep growth near 450-460°C. These results show that the manipulation of crystal texture and properties is under biological control and a better understanding of this biological phenomenon will provide more and better data for improving new synthetic composite materials.
We present a thermodynamic study of the critical magnetic properties of La1.2Sr1.8Mn2O7, including the determination of the fundamental characteristics of a magnetic system: anisotropy, critical exponents and crossovers in the vicinity of the Curie temperature, TC∼108K. It appears that two-dimensional correlations above TC do not spread very fast, and that thus the critical fluctuations regime occurs in a moderately narrow temperature range, assessing the three- dimensional nature of the ferromagnetic ordering.