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Clinical Enterobacteriacae isolates with a colistin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ≥4 mg/L from a United States hospital were screened for the mcr-1 gene using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and confirmed by whole-genome sequencing. Four colistin-resistant Escherichia coli isolates contained mcr-1. Two isolates belonged to the same sequence type (ST-632). All subjects had prior international travel and antimicrobial exposure.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: The objective of this project is to determine whether HRV, collected peri-operatively, is predictive of cognitive decline among older adults who undergo elective surgery/anesthesia. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: This project is a part of the ongoing INTUIT/PRIME study, which is collecting pre- and post-operative cognitive testing, fMRI imaging, CSF samples, and EEG recordings from 200 older adults (age ≥ 60) undergoing elective non-cardiac/non-neurologic surgery scheduled to last > 2 hours at Duke University Medical Center and Duke Regional Hospital. This project utilizes data from the first 60 INTUIT participants who contributed continuous heart rate data before and during surgery. Participants undergo cognitive testing prior to surgery (baseline) and at 6 weeks after surgery. Our primary dependent variable is the change in the composite score from baseline to 6-weeks. Delirium is assessed in the hospital with the twice daily 3D-CAM tool, so we will report the proportion of individuals with 6-week cognitive decline who exhibited delirium in the days following surgery. Participants’ echocardiogram (ECG) recordings are extracted pre- and intraoperatively from B650/B850 patient monitors with VSCapture software. HRV is defined as the variability between successive R-spikes or inter-beat-intervals on ECG. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: We anticipate that lower intraoperative HRV is associated with worse cognitive decline at 6 weeks after surgery. As secondary objectives, we will determine whether pre-operative HRV or change in HRV (from pre-operative to intra-operative measures) are predictive of cognitive decline after surgery. We expect that in-hospital delirium will be detected in a higher proportion of those with 6-week cognitive decline, compared to those with stable or improved cognition at 6 weeks. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: HRV may address the present need for pre- and intra-operative cognitive risk stratification in the elderly. Physiological indices like HRV have the potential to dramatically change our understanding of CI in older adults undergoing surgery, as they offer an accessible, cost-effective, and non-invasive means whereby clinicians, particularly those unfamiliar with the nuances of geriatric and CI/dementia-related care, can monitor patients and refer those at high-risk of CI after surgery for early intervention.
The crystal structure of tlapallite has been determined using single-crystal X-ray diffraction and supported by electron probe micro-analysis, powder diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. Tlapallite is trigonal, space group P321, with a = 9.1219(17) Å, c = 11.9320(9) Å and V = 859.8(3) Å3, and was refined to R1 = 0.0296 for 786 reflections with I > 2σ(I). This study resulted from the discovery of well-crystallised tlapallite at the Wildcat prospect, Utah, USA. The chemical formula of tlapallite has been revised to (Ca,Pb)3CaCu6[Te4+3Te6+O12]2(Te4+O3)2(SO4)2·3H2O, or more simply (Ca,Pb)3CaCu6Te4+8Te6+2O30(SO4)2·3H2O, from H6(Ca,Pb)2(Cu,Zn)3(TeO3)4(TeO6)(SO4). The tlapallite structure consists of layers containing distorted Cu2+O6 octahedra, Te6+O6 octahedra and Te4+O4 disphenoids (which together form the new mixed-valence phyllotellurate anion [Te4+3Te6+O12]12−), Te4+O3 trigonal pyramids and CaO8 polyhedra. SO4 tetrahedra, Ca(H2O)3O6 polyhedra and H2O groups fill the space between the layers. Tlapallite is only the second naturally occurring compound containing tellurium in both the 4+ and 6+ oxidation states with a known crystal structure, the other being carlfriesite, CaTe4+2Te6+O8. Carlfriesite is the predominant secondary tellurium mineral at the Wildcat prospect. We also present an updated structure for carlfriesite, which has been refined to R1 = 0.0230 for 874 reflections with I > 2σ(I). This updated structural refinement improves upon the one reported previously by refining all atoms anisotropically and presenting models of bond valence and Te4+ secondary bonding.
We present here the results of a search for new microquasars at low galactic latitudes, based on a cross-identification between the ROSAT all sky Bright Source Catalog (RBSC) and the NRAO VLA Sky Survey (NVSS) and follow-up observations. The results obtained up to now suggest that persistent/silent microquasars such as LS 5039 are rare objects in our Galaxy, and indicate that future deeper surveys, and harder than the RBSC in X-rays, will play a fundamental role in order to discover them.
To summarize and discuss logistic and administrative challenges we encountered during the Benefits of Enhanced Terminal Room (BETR) Disinfection Study and lessons learned that are pertinent to future utilization of ultraviolet (UV) disinfection devices in other hospitals
Multicenter cluster randomized trial
SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS
Nine hospitals in the southeastern United States
All participating hospitals developed systems to implement 4 different strategies for terminal room disinfection. We measured compliance with disinfection strategy, barriers to implementation, and perceptions from nurse managers and environmental services (EVS) supervisors throughout the 28-month trial.
Implementation of enhanced terminal disinfection with UV disinfection devices provides unique challenges, including time pressures from bed control personnel, efficient room identification, negative perceptions from nurse managers, and discharge volume. In the course of the BETR Disinfection Study, we utilized several strategies to overcome these barriers: (1) establishing safety as the priority; (2) improving communication between EVS, bed control, and hospital administration; (3) ensuring availability of necessary resources; and (4) tracking and providing feedback on compliance. Using these strategies, we deployed ultraviolet (UV) disinfection devices in 16,220 (88%) of 18,411 eligible rooms during our trial (median per hospital, 89%; IQR, 86%–92%).
Implementation of enhanced terminal room disinfection strategies using UV devices requires recognition and mitigation of 2 key barriers: (1) timely and accurate identification of rooms that would benefit from enhanced terminal disinfection and (2) overcoming time constraints to allow EVS cleaning staff sufficient time to properly employ enhanced terminal disinfection methods.
Animal proteins are naturally 15N enriched relative to the diet and the extent of this difference (Δ15Nanimal-diet or N isotopic fractionation) has been correlated to N use efficiency (NUE; N gain or milk N yield/N intake) in some recent ruminant studies. The present study used meta-analysis to investigate whether Δ15Nanimal-diet can be used as a predictor of NUE across a range of dietary conditions, particularly at the level of between-animal variation. An additional objective was to identify variables related to N partitioning explaining the link between NUE and Δ15Nanimal-diet. Individual values from eight publications reporting both NUE and Δ15Nanimal-diet for domestic ruminants were used to create a database comprising 11 experimental studies, 41 treatments and individual animal values for NUE (n=226) and Δ15Nanimal-diet (n=291). Data were analyzed by mixed-effect regression analysis taking into account experimental factors as random effects on both the intercept and slope of the model. Diets were characterized according to the INRA feeding system in terms of N utilization at the rumen, digestive and metabolic levels. These variables were used in a partial least squares regression analysis to predict separately NUE and Δ15Nanimal-diet variation, with the objective of identifying common variables linking NUE and Δ15Nanimal-diet. For individuals reared under similar conditions (within-study) and at the same time (within-period), the variance of NUE and Δ15Nanimal-diet not explained by dietary treatments (i.e. between-animal variation plus experimental error) was 35% and 55%, respectively. Mixed-effect regression analysis conducted with treatment means showed that Δ15Nanimal-diet was significantly and negatively correlated to NUE variation across diets (NUE=0.415 −0.055×Δ15Nanimal-diet). When using individual values and taking into account the random effects of study, period and diet, the relationship was also significant (NUE=0.358 −0.035×Δ15Nanimal-diet). However, there may be a biased prediction for animals close to zero, or in negative, N balance. When using a novel statistical approach, attempting to regress between-animal variation in NUE on between-animal variation in Δ15Nanimal-diet (without the influence of experimental factors), the negative relationship was still significant, highlighting the ability of Δ15Nanimal-diet to capture individual variability. Among the studied variables related to N utilization, those concerning N efficiency use at the metabolic level contributed most to predict both Δ15Nanimal-diet and NUE variation, with rumen fermentation and digestion contributing to a lesser extent. This study confirmed that on average Δ15Nanimal-diet can predict NUE variation across diets and across individuals reared under similar conditions.
In cattle, the chemical composition of the carcass is usually evaluated from one of three reference methods (rib dissection, specific gravity or a combination of easily obtained measures) or is estimated from proxy traits (USDA yield grade (YG), subcutaneous fat thickness (SFT)). Objectives were to evaluate if the relationships between the chemical composition of the carcass and each of the proxy traits (YG, SFT) differed depending on the reference method. The study was conducted by meta-analysis from published results using 25 publications that reported carcass composition and proxy traits (53%, 31% and 16% of the data were based on rib dissection, specific gravity and combination of easily obtained measures, respectively). Results showed that the amounts of carcass fat or protein that can be predicted from a given proxy trait (YG or SFT) differ significantly with the reference method used to determine carcass fat or protein.
Hα observations with high temporal resolution allow a detailed analysis of the chromospheric response to thre primary energy release. The timing; relationship between Hα and hard X-rays gives information about the energy transport mechanism. Sites of massive injection of nonthermal electrons are identified by characteristic features in the the line profile (Canfield et al. 1984;. Canfield and Gayley 1987).
Ablation climate studies were made at two locations in northern Greenland in the summers of 1993 and 1994, respectively. Daily ablation was measured at ten stakes within a small area, and the data were compared with each other to detect gross errors. For example, high standard deviations for data taken on the same day, or low correlations between data series at different stakes, indicate erroneous data. After discarding data for one stake in 1993 and two stakes in 1994, random errors in daily ablation data for individual stakes are ± 5 kg m 2 d−1, which is further reduced to only about db 2 kg m−2d−1 by averaging over eight or nine stakes. Random errors in calculated energy balances using the present ablation data are much lower than found in earlier stuthes in West Greenland where ablation was only measured on three stakes without any attempt to detect gross errors. Aside from day-to-day errors, there are ±10% differences in mean ablation at different stakes, which are probably caused by small-scale variations in surface albedo. Such interstate differences give a ± 10% uncertainty in positive degree-day factors, which are 9.8 ± 0.9 and 5.9 ± 0.6 kg m 2 d −1 deg −1 for the two sites.
Reconnaissance energy-balance studies were made for the first time at two sites in North Greenland to compare with conditions in West Greenland. The field experiments were planned to save weight because it is expensive to operate in North Greenland. The larger energy components (incoming radiation and ablation) were measured for 55 days altogether, and the smaller components were evaluated by indirect methods, e.g. turbulent fluxes are calculated from air temperature, humidity and wind speed, to save the weight of instruments. The energy-balance model is “tuned" by choosing surface roughness and albedo to reduce the mean error between measured ablation and modelled daily melting. The error standard deviation for ablation is only ± 5 kg m −2 d−1’, which is much lower than found in West Greenland, due to better instruments and modelling in the present study. Net radiation is the main energy source for melting in North Greenland but ablation is relatively low because sublimation and conductive-heat fluxes use energy that would otherwise be available for melting. There is a strong diurnal variation in ablation, mainly forced by variations in shortwave radiation and reinforced by nocturnal cooling of the ice surface by outgoing longwave radiation and sublimation. The model frequently predicts a frozen glacier surface at night even when air temperatures are positive.
While vitrification has become the method of choice for preservation of human oocytes and embryos, cryopreservation of complex tissues and of large yolk-containing cells, remains largely unsuccessful. One critical step in such instances is appropriate permeation while avoiding potentially toxic concentrations of cryoprotectants. Permeation of water and small non-charged solutes, such as those used as cryoprotectants, occurs largely through membrane channel proteins termed aquaporins (AQPs). Substitution of a Thr by an Ala residue in the pore-forming motif of the zebrafish (Dario rerio) Aqp3b paralog resulted in a mutant (DrAqp3b-T85A) that when expressed in Xenopus or porcine oocytes increased their permeability to ethylene glycol at pH 7.5 and 8.5. The main objective of this study was to test whether ectopic expression of DrAqp3b-T85A also conferred higher resistance to cryoinjury. For this, DrAqp3b-T85A + eGFP (reporter) cRNA, or eGFP cRNA alone, was microinjected into in vivo fertilized 1-cell mouse zygotes. Following culture to the 2-cell stage, appropriate membrane expression of DrAqp3b-T85A was confirmed by immunofluorescence microscopy using a primary specific antibody directed against the C-terminus of DrAqp3b. Microinjected 2-cell embryos were then cryopreserved using a fast-freezing rate and low concentration (1.5 M) of ethylene glycol in order to highlight any benefits from DrAqp3b-T85A expression. Notably, post-thaw survival rates were higher (P<0.05) for T85A–eGFP-injected than for -uninjected or eGFP-injected embryos (73±7.3 vs. 28±7.3 or 14±6.7, respectively). We propose that ectopic expression of mutant AQPs may provide an avenue to improve cryopreservation results of large cells and tissues in which current vitrification protocols yield low survival.
The Be massive X-ray binary LSI+61°303 is a 26.5 days periodic radiosource (Taylor & Gregory, 1984), exhibiting radio outbursts maxima between phases 0.6–0.8. Evidence of a photometric period of similar value has also been reported (Paredes & Figueras, 1986; Mendelson & Mazeh, 1989). The previous spectroscopic radial velocity observations of Hutchings & Crampton (1981) are in agreement with the radio period, and give support to the presence of a companion. We present new optical and infrared photometric observations and high resolution Hα spectra of LSI+61°303.
We report observations of the radio periodic Be X-ray binary LSI+61°303, obtained with the VLA at 3.6 and 2.0 cm during a full 26.5 d cycle. These observations were carried out in coordination with CGRO monitoring of its possible γ-ray counterpart 2CG 135+1.
An unusually diverse array of 25 secondary Te oxysalt minerals has been documented from Otto Mountain, California, and 18 of these from the Bird Nest drift sublocality. A paragenetic sequence for these minerals is proposed, using observed overgrowth relationships plus spatial association data and data from other localities. Apart from Te and O, the components Pb, Cu and H are essential in the majority of the minerals. The atomic Cu/Te ratio decreases through the paragenetic sequence. This, and the occurrence of minerals with additional components such as Cl–, CO32–, SO42– and Fe3+ at an intermediate stage, suggests nonmonotonic evolution of the parent fluids, reflecting differing access to or spatial distribution of various components. For the minerals with known crystal structures, two alternative 'structural units' were identified, one consisting only of the Te4+ or Te6+ oxyanion, while the other also included small, strongly-bound cations such as Cu2+. The degree of polymerization for the Te oxyanion correlated with the paragenetic sequence: the monomeric tellurate anions of early minerals were replaced progressively by dimers, chains and sheet structures, which may relate to a decreasing abundance of the 'network modifying' Cu2+ cation, analogous to Bowen's discontinuous reaction series in igneous rock-forming silicates. No relationship was seen between paragenetic order and the larger type of structural unit, or structural complexity as defined by information content. This contrasts with results in the literature for evaporite sulfates and pegmatite phosphates. While structure–paragenesis relationships may be widespread, the exact nature of such relationships may be different for different chemical systems and different paragenetic environments.
Gametocytes are the specialized form of Plasmodium parasites that are responsible for human-to-mosquito transmission of malaria. Transmission of gametocytes is highly effective, but represents a biomass bottleneck for the parasite that has stimulated interest in strategies targeting the transmission stages separately from those responsible for clinical disease. Studying targets of naturally acquired immunity against transmission-stage parasites may reveal opportunities for novel transmission reducing interventions, particularly the development of a transmission blocking vaccine (TBV). In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on immunity against the transmission stages of Plasmodium. This includes immune responses against epitopes on the gametocyte-infected erythrocyte surface during gametocyte development, as well as epitopes present upon gametocyte activation in the mosquito midgut. We present an analysis of historical data on transmission reducing immunity (TRI), as analysed in mosquito feeding assays, and its correlation with natural recognition of sexual stage specific proteins Pfs48/45 and Pfs230. Although high antibody titres towards either one of these proteins is associated with TRI, the presence of additional, novel targets is anticipated. In conclusion, the identification of novel gametocyte-specific targets of naturally acquired immunity against different gametocyte stages could aid in the development of potential TBV targets and ultimately an effective transmission blocking approach.
Precise determination of dynamical masses of pre-main-sequence stars is essential for calibrating stellar evolution models, that are widely used to derive theoretical masses of young low-mass objects. We have determined the individual masses of the pair AB Dor Ba/Bb using Australian Long Baseline Array observations and archive infrared data, as part of a larger program directed to monitor binary systems in the AB Doradus moving group. We have detected, for the first time, compact radio emission from both stars. This has allowed us to determine the orbital parameters of both the relative and absolute orbits and, consequently, their individual dynamical masses: 0.28±0.05 M⊙ and 0.25±0.05 M⊙. Comparisons of the dynamical masses with the prediction of pre-main-sequence (PMS) evolutionary models show that the models underpredict the dynamical masses of the binary components Ba and Bb by 10–30% and 10–40%, respectively.
Animal tissues are naturally 15N enriched relative to their diet and the extent of this difference (Δ15Nanimal-diet) has been correlated to the efficiency of N assimilation in different species. The rationale is that transamination and deamination enzymes, involved in amino acid metabolism are likely to preferentially convert amino groups containing 14N over 15N. However, in ruminants the contribution of rumen bacterial metabolism relative to animal tissues metabolism to naturally enrich animal proteins in terms of 15N has been not assessed yet. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of rumen and digestion processes on the relationship between Δ15Nanimal-diet and efficiency of N utilization for milk protein yield (milk N efficiency (MNE); milk N yield/N intake) as well as the relationship between the 15N natural abundance of rumen bacteria and the efficiency of N use at the rumen level. Solid- and liquid-associated rumen bacteria, duodenal digesta, feces and plasma proteins were obtained (n=16) from four lactating Holstein cows fed four different diets formulated at two metabolizable protein supplies (80% v. 110% of protein requirements) crossed by two different dietary energy source (diets rich in starch v. fiber). We measured the isotopic N fractionation between animal and diet (Δ15Nanimal-diet) in these different body pools. The Δ15Nanimal-diet was negatively correlated with MNE when measured in solid-associated rumen bacteria, duodenal digesta, feces and plasma proteins, with the strongest correlation found for the latter. However, our results showed a very weak 15N enrichment of duodenal digesta (Δ15Nduodenal digesta-diet mean value=0.42) compared with that observed in plasma proteins (Δ15Nplasma protein-diet mean value=2.41). These data support the idea that most of the isotopic N fractionation observed in ruminant proteins (Δ15Nplasma protein-diet) has a metabolic origin with very little direct impact of the overall digestion process on the existing relationship between Δ15Nplasma protein-diet and MNE. The 15N natural abundance of rumen bacteria was not related to either rumen N efficiency (microbial N/available N) or digestive N efficiency (metabolizable protein supply/CP intake), but showing a modest positive correlation with rumen ammonia concentration. When using diets not exceeding recommended protein levels, the contribution of rumen bacteria and digestion to the isotopic N fractionation between animal proteins and diet is low. In our conditions, most of the isotopic N fractionation (Δ15Nplasma protein-diet) could have a metabolic origin, but more studies are warranted to confirm this point with different diets and approaches.
Barb goatgrass is an invasive annual grass from the Mediterranean region that negatively affects both native plant biodiversity and the forage quality of grasslands. Prescribed burning may be the best landscape-level tool available to manage invasive species like barb goatgrass while also enhancing biodiversity, but few studies have quantified the long-term effects of fire on goatgrass and the rest of the plant community. We assessed the effects of fire on an invading front of barb goatgrass on a private ranch in Sacramento County, CA. We established burned and unburned treatment plots within the goatgrass-infested area and used prescribed fire to burn the treatment plots in June 2005. We monitored plant-community composition before burning and for 7 consecutive yr following the burn. Additionally, we tested the viability of goatgrass seeds in both burned and unburned plots. One year after the burn, goatgrass cover in burned plots was 3% compared with 21% in unburned plots. This reduction in goatgrass cover was still strong 2 yr after the burn (burned, 6%; unburned, 27%) and weaker but still statistically significant for 4 of the next 5 yr. The burn also reduced germination of goatgrass seed by 99% as indicated by seed-viability tests conducted in the laboratory. The native plant community responded positively to the burn treatment in the first year following the burn with an increase in native diversity in burned plots vs. unburned plots, but the effect was not detectable in subsequent years. Nonnative annual forb species cover also increased in the first year following the burn. Our study shows that a single springtime burn can result in a short-term boost in native species diversity, reduced seed germination of barb goatgrass to near zero, and reduced cover of barb goatgrass for at least 7 yr after the burn.
Forecasting potential outcomes of volcanic unrest and activity is usually associated with high levels of scientific uncertainty. Knowing whether particular volcanic unrest will end with an eruption or not implies reliance on scientific knowledge on how the volcano has behaved in the past and on how monitoring signals can be interpreted in terms of magma movement. This may be relatively straightforward in volcanoes that erupt frequently, but may be much more challenging in volcanoes with long eruptive recurrence intervals or even more in those without historical records. The dramatic consequences that wrong interpretation of volcanic unrest signals may have should persuade volcanologists to understand that communication among them during an emergency is crucial. Consensus to quantify scientific uncertainty must be reached, in order to provide the decision maker with a simple and clear forecast of the possible outcome of the volcano reactivation. Unfortunately scientific communication during volcanic emergencies is not an easy task and there is not a general agreement on how such communication should be conducted, not only among scientists, but also between scientists and other stakeholders (e.g. decision makers, media, local population). The critical questions here, as occurs with other natural hazards, are how to quantify the uncertainty that accompanies any scientific forecast and how to communicate this understanding to policy-makers, the media and the public. In addition to scientific advance in eruption forecasting, future actions in volcanology should also address improving management of uncertainty and communication of this uncertainty.
One of the most challenging aspects in the management of volcanic emergencies is scientific communication. Volcanology is by its nature an inexact science, such that appropriate scientific communication should convey information not only on the volcanic activity itself, but also on the uncertainties that always accompany any estimate or forecast. Deciphering the nature of unrest signals (volcanic reactivation) and determining whether or not an unrest episode may be precursory to a new eruption requires knowledge of the volcano's past and current behaviour to help establish future behaviour.