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Algorithmic graph theory has been expanding at an extremely rapid rate since the middle of the twentieth century, in parallel with the growth of computer science and the accompanying utilization of computers, where efficient algorithms have been a prime goal. This book presents material on developments on graph algorithms and related concepts that will be of value to both mathematicians and computer scientists, at a level suitable for graduate students, researchers and instructors. The fifteen expository chapters, written by acknowledged international experts on their subjects, focus on the application of algorithms to solve particular problems. All chapters were carefully edited to enhance readability and standardize the chapter structure as well as the terminology and notation. The editors provide basic background material in graph theory, and a chapter written by the book's Academic Consultant, Martin Charles Golumbic (University of Haifa, Israel), provides background material on algorithms as connected with graph theory.
This pioneering volume lays out a set of methodological principles to guide the description of interpersonal grammar in different languages. It compares interpersonal systems and structures across a range of world languages, showing how register and discourse, interpersonal relationships between the speakers, and the purpose of their communication all play a role in shaping the grammatical structures used in interaction. Following an introduction setting out these principles, each chapter focuses on a particular language - Mongolian, Mandarin, Tagalog, Pitjantjatjara, Spanish, Brazilian Portuguese, British Sign Language and Scottish Gaelic – and explores mood, polarity, tagging, vocation and comment systems. The book provides a model for functional grammatical description that can be used to inform work on system and structure across languages as a foundation for functional language typology.
This groundbreaking work offers a first-of-its-kind overview of legal informatics, the academic discipline underlying the technological transformation and economics of the legal industry. Edited by Daniel Martin Katz, Ron Dolin, and Michael J. Bommarito, and featuring contributions from more than two dozen academic and industry experts, chapters cover the history and principles of legal informatics and background technical concepts – including natural language processing and distributed ledger technology. The volume also presents real-world case studies that offer important insights into document review, due diligence, compliance, case prediction, billing, negotiation and settlement, contracting, patent management, legal research, and online dispute resolution. Written for both technical and non-technical readers, Legal Informatics is the ideal resource for anyone interested in identifying, understanding, and executing opportunities in this exciting field.
← He wanted a proper exchange rather than an endless PowerPoint presentation, some real engagement with the content – and he got it. We are talking about the Chairman of a Frankfurt-based bank, who came up with a new way to entice members of the Executive Board to get more involved in their regular meetings.
He had the six most important slides from his presentation printed out in large format and placed them in the meeting room. Up until then, all eight executive board members would sit in comfortable armchairs and passively watch one slide after another – and he wanted to change this. His goal was to activate himself and his colleagues not only physically, but also mentally because all too often, any discussion was superficial at best. As the board members rose from their armchairs and began to walk from one large-format slide to another, something amazing happened. Without a projected slide on the wall and the hum of the beamer, an atmosphere of calm concentration began to fill the room. People really started to get to grips with the details and there was a buzz of animated conversation. One person even took a pen and drew a circle between two existing decision options with a question mark saying, ‘and there could be a third option’.
↑ As we there yet? Well, almost. In this chapter, we want to take a brief look back with you and summarise the key findings in such a way that you will be able to apply your new-found knowledge with confidence. We will also take a look at promising developments in the world of meeting management – in terms of both the technology and the psychology of meetings.
← In this book, we have introduced you to the nudging approach as a way to improve the quality of your business meetings. We have assigned a large number of nudges into four different cornerstones, each of which comprises two subareas (see ). This has made the whole spectrum of nudging principles bear more fruit in meetings. For example, we have frequently used pre-structuring, signalling and feedback nudges to encourage meeting participants to work more productively.
‘I. Love. This. Meeting!’ announced Rea’s boss to the assembled group. Rea looked at him in disbelief. Astonished, her colleagues looked at Rea. How had she managed to convert the notorious pessimist Ian Hampton into a dedicated Meet-Up practitioner in a matter of minutes? What had happened?
Just a week ago, Rea Yunen was standing in her new boss’s office being told that he’d had enough of spending more than ten hours each week in unproductive meetings. Without further ado, he appointed her chairperson (he even used the term ‘meeting magician’) of the team to ‘sort out this mess’. She was astonished. She had not envisaged anything like this when she applied for the post. How could she do it? Was she capable of changing a fossilised meeting culture? What difference could she – a small cog in a big wheel – make?
← One of the best meetings we ever attended as moderators enabled a diagnostics company to bring its latest product to market six months earlier than planned, generating significant additional revenue. How was this achieved?
Believe it or not, the breakthrough came about because we were able to create and maintain orientation in a critical discussion despite an incredible amount of detail. Thanks to skilful navigation through the various issues (technical, medical, legal and commercial), the team was able to gain remarkable new insights and remove several go-to-market barriers more quickly than expected.
Practically speaking, this took place in a so-called ‘lessons learned meeting’, when past mistakes, successes and their consequences (findings and measures taken) are jointly considered. The following illustration (Figure 15) shows the poster we used.
‘What a great feeling’, thought the CEO of a start-up company in Zurich when he looked at the Scrumboard in the meeting room, and said, ‘It’s so good to see what we’ve accomplished’. At this, his colleague replied with a broad grin, ‘We really should have thought of this earlier’. It was only the week before that this start-up had introduced the Scrumboard for all projects and meetings. The Scrumboard shows upcoming tasks, tasks underway and completed tasks on a visual template for every project (see Figure 44). In addition, respective team members can be identified using colour coding. The section for completed tasks meant employees could hardly wait to move their Post-it notes from ‘underway’ to ‘done’.
Quiz question: What do small plates, pink prisons, flies painted on urinals and organ donation all have in common? And what does any of this have to do with meetings?
Well, all four cases are examples of nudging in action and the same mechanism at work here can also turn your meetings into productive meetings. The idea goes like this:
If we use smaller plates, then the portions appear larger and we feel full faster, meaning we eat less. In a US prison whose cells were painted pink, the number of aggressive attacks fell significantly. Since images of flies began appearing on the urinals in men’s toilets at Amsterdam Airport, the floors have been much cleaner (men, it seems, love aiming at something). Similarly, in countries where you are automatically registered as an organ donor and have to opt-out if you do not want to be one, the number of potential donors is much higher than in places where you have to opt-in.
Have you ever experienced that feeling? Suddenly the room is full of positive energy and you can build quickly and easily on your colleagues’ ideas, while they do the same. You feel valued and are surprised at just how quickly you can make progress, and – as if guided by an unseen force – exchange information, develop ideas, make decisions and initiate measures.
In psychology, such hyper-productive states are called flow experiences. As a person or group, you are absorbed in a task and can easily shut out doubts, ulterior motives and distractions. You are focused and committed, but without losing sight of the bigger picture ().
↑ In this chapter, we will give you a systematic overview of the Meet-Up approach and its four types of impulse across the different phases of a meeting. We will also show you how these four cornerstones interact and what you can expect in Chapters 5–8. Furthermore, you can use the simple frame of reference in this chapter as a diagnosis and evaluation tool to gauge the current state of your business meetings. Above all, however, the spiral in this chapter is a simple way to visualise the success factors of meetings, to use them as a checklist or to create your own nudges.
You are on the management floor of a large infrastructure office. The huge conference table is made of beautiful wood with recessed retractable monitors. On the walls hang expensive paintings and a huge plasma screen. The espresso is excellent. An hour-long meeting with the Board of Directors on the topic of strategy adjustment has been scheduled, and only four of the twelve expected attendees have arrived. Fifteen minutes later, the meeting is now underway but key people keep leaving the room to make phone calls. Instead of discussing strategy, those present talk about where they live, problems with the computer network and politics. You stare at the scene in disbelief for a while and then courageously ask about the reasons for a strategy adjustment. Almost immediately, you regret speaking up because it gives rise to a 15-minute monologue by the Chairman, beginning with strategy but then digressing into regulatory frameworks.
This book is about meetings and providing a new perspective from behavioural economics called nudging to make meetings more productive and enjoyable. Nudging hacks into the fast, automatic, subconscious system in human reasoning to breed success in every get-together. Once you know the foundations of focus, orientation, involvement, and commitment, the advantages of nudging are evident. The authors provide an explanation of nudge theory and 6 principles of how nudging affects our behavior. Examples from the actions and choices of the Dalai Lama, Ray Dalio, and Barack Obama demonstrate how nudging can make a difference. Based on theory, the book also gives 100 very practical nudges to improve meeting productivity that can be used by any meeting leader or participant.