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The control over the materials structure is crucial for the modulation of its properties, in order to achieve this control is important to know the formation mechanism of the material as function of parameters used. For this purpose, the effect of temperature (120, 140, 160 and 180 °C) on the hydrothermal synthesis of zinc sulphide is evaluated and a proposal of the sequence of reactions formation of zinc sulphur is presented. ZnS nanostructures with blend-phase were obtained, the temperature increment induces the growth of the nanostructure ranged between .62 and 12.72 nm, furthermore, increase the crystallinity of the ZnS nanostructures. The proposed reactions suggest the formation of a complex of thioacetamide with the Zn+2 and its subsequent decomposition into ZnS.
A student's t-test was applied in carbon nanospheres synthesis from cis-1,4-polyisoprene considering the green chemical principles. The synthesis was carried out by Chemical Vapor Deposition method with a quartz tube reactor using an AISI 304 steel bar as catalyst. It was possible to obtain two types of different samples, one from the surface of the steel bar (catalyst) and another from the quartz tube surface (without catalyst) in the same experiment. Carbon spheres were observed in both samples by micrographs obtained by FESEM. The Raman and FTIR spectroscopies shown characteristic bands of this carbon structures (G and D). The results obtained by student's t-test proved a statistical significance between spheres means of samples collected from steel bar and quartz tube surface.
We investigate the late-time Richtmyer–Meshkov instability (RMI) growth of sinuous perturbations on an air/sulphur hexafluoride interface (Atwood number,
$A \sim 0.67$
) subjected to a Mach 1.2 planar shock wave at Los Alamos National Laboratory's vertical shock tube facility. Interface perturbations are established using a novel membraneless technique where cross-flowing air and SF
separated by an oscillating splitter plate create a perturbed density interface. The interface formed has multi-modal features and residual small perturbations, however, a dominant mode is still noticeable. The late-time perturbation growths scale with
initial conditions (where
is the wavenumber and
is the initial amplitude of the dominant mode) as measured at the pre-shock interface. Past nonlinear models based on potential-flow theory, heuristic/interpolation approaches, Padé approximants and numerical simulations are evaluated against present experimental results. Accounting for an explicit
dependence in Sadot et al.'s (Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 80, issue 8, 1998, pp. 1654–1657) model, we propose an empirical rational function that captures the asymptotic behaviour of perturbation growth for a broad range of initial conditions (
$0.30 \leq ka_0 \leq 0.86$
). The onset of mixing transition and its initial condition dependence are investigated with respect to the minimum state criterion (
$Re = 1.6 \times 10^5$
) for unsteady flows by Zhou (Phys. Plasmas, vol. 14, 2007, 082701). Earlier mixing transitions for higher
initial conditions are noted from local and global Reynolds number estimates which are corroborated by the existence of an inertial sub-range and formation of mixing regions indicating the physical significance of the minimum state criterion in RMI flows. The transition is accompanied by the increasing teapot-like appearance of joint probability density functions of
(invariants of the reduced velocity gradient tensor), establishing the technique as a useful tool for turbulence detection in two-dimensional diagnostics.
It's been proved that cognitive stimulation has direct effects over the improvement of general cognitive functions in people with cognitive impairment. People older than 50 are progressively familiar with computers and mobile devices, opening an opportunity for computer based online cognitive stimulation programmes.
To compare the efficacy of face to face cognitive stimulation (FFCS) with online home delivered cognitive stimulation (OCS) regarding adherence, number of sessions, cognitive function and mood.
Patients and Methods
Participants were enrolled in a public memory clinic; 51 patients with cognitive decline were assigned to two groups: 27 received FFCS in a group format and 24 received OCS with the assistance of a carer. Both face to face and online interventions where designed and supervised by a trained Occupational Therapist. Pre and post assessments were carried out by a Clinical Psychologist with the Mini Mental State Exam (MMSE), the clock test, and the brief Geriatric Depression Scale. No differences were found between groups in age (69.65±9.74 years), cognitive function (MMSE=24.63±3.67), gender (55% women) and education. The treatment consisted of 32 sessions of CS held twice a week during 4 months.
Data was analysed with nonparametric statistics and between group effect sizes were calculated. The FFCS participants completed 29.19 ± 1.73 sessions while the OCS group completed 26.00 ± 10.64 sessions (p < .000). All the participants in the FFCS group (100%) and 14 of the OCS group (58%) finished the treatment (p < .000).
Between group effect size favoured the FFCS intervention for MMSE (dc = 0.36). No between group differences were found for mood (dc = −0.5) or the clock test (dc = 0.13).
FFCS is better accepted by patients than OCS, with higher rates of adherence and less dropouts. FFCS leads to better results in the preservation of cognitive capacity.
Background: Annual flu vaccination is the most effective way to prevent the disease and its complications. Vaccine effectiveness (EV) varies from season to season, requiring annual re-evaluation. The objective of this study was to estimate the preliminary effectiveness of the influenza vaccine until epidemiological week 4 of the 2019–2020 season, in patients admitted to a tertiary-level hospital. Method: We conducted a case-control study at University General Hospital, Alicante, Spain, during the 2019–2020 season. We included all patients hospitalized with influenza confirmed by laboratory test (ie, PCR positive for influenza) during the period between epidemiological week 40 of 2019 and epidemiological week 4 of 2020. These were considered cases, and those with clinical suspicion of influenza and negative RT-PCR were considered controls. Vaccination coverage was calculated in cases and in controls, determining the odds ratio. We calculated the vaccine effectiveness (VE) and its 95% confidence interval using the following formula: VE = (1 − odds ratio) ×100. Result: We included 545 patients: 61 cases and 484 controls. The overall EV for influenza cases prevention was 40.7% (95% CI, −17.1 to 70.1), and for those >1 year of age, the overall EV was 56.9% (95% CI, 13.9–78.5). Conclusion: The 2019–2020 Influenza vaccine was effective in preventing influenza cases in patients admitted up to week 4 of the 2019–2020 season. These results are preliminary and may vary; they should be re-evaluated at the end of the season.
Background: Estimating the burden of intestinal colonization with antibiotic-resistant gram-negative bacteria (AR-GNB) is critical to understanding their global epidemiology and spread. We aimed to determine the prevalence of, and risk factors for, intestinal colonization due to AR-GNB in population-based hospital and community settings in Chile. Methods: Between December 2018 and May 2019, we enrolled randomly selected hospitalized adults in 4 tertiary-care public hospitals (Antofagasta, Santiago, Curico and Puerto Montt), and adults residing in a community-based cohort in the rural town of Molina. Following informed consent, we collected rectal swabs and epidemiological information through a standardized questionnaire. Swabs were plated onto MacConkey agar with 2 µg/mL ciprofloxacin or ceftazidime. All recovered morphotypes were identified, and antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed via disk diffusion. The primary outcome was the prevalence of colonization with fluoroquinolone (FQ)- or third-generation cephalosporin (3GC)–resistant GNB. The secondary outcome was the prevalence of colonization with multidrug-resistant (MDR) GNB, defined as GNB resistant to ≥3 antibiotic classes. Categories were not mutually exclusive. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed to describe risk factors for colonization with these categories. Results: In total, 775 hospitalized adults and 357 community participants were enrolled, with a median age of 60 years (IQR, 42–72) and 55 years (IQR, 48–62) years, respectively. Among hospitalized participants, the prevalence of colonization with FQ- or 3GC-resistant GNB was 47% (95% CI, 43%–50%) and 41% (95% CI, 38%–45%), respectively, whereas the prevalence of MDR-GNB colonization was 27% (95% CI, 24%–31%). In the community setting, the prevalence of colonization with either FQ-, 3GC-resistant GNB, or MDR-GNB was 40% (95% CI, 34%–45%), 29% (95% CI, 24%– 34%), and 5% (95% CI, 3%–8%), respectively. Independent risk factors for hospital MDR-GNB colonization included the hospital of admission, unit of hospitalization (intensive care units carried the highest risk), in-hospital antimicrobial exposure, comorbidities (Charlson index), and length of stay. In the community setting, recent antibiotic exposure (<3 months) predicted colonization with either FQ- or 3GC-resistant GNB, and alcohol consumption was inversely associated with MDR GNB colonization. Conclusions: A high burden of colonization with AR-GNB was observed in this sample of hospitalized and community-dwelling adults in Chile. The high burden of colonization with GNB resistant to commonly used antibiotics such as FQ and 3GC found in community dwellers, suggests that the community may be a relevant source of antibiotic resistance. Efforts to understand relatedness between resistant strains circulating in the community and the hospital are needed.
The Mayan Codex of Mexico (MCM), the only Mayan codex found in the 20th century, was unveiled in 1971 during the Ancient Maya Calligraphy exhibition at Club Grolier. The codex comprises 10 pages of bark paper in accordion format, coated with a layer of plaster on both sides. It illustrates the synodic cycles of Venus, with its four phases. Since its discovery, the MCM has been subject to controversy and discussions about its authenticity. In 2016, a group of specialists led by Baltazar Brito chief of the National Library of Anthropology and History, carried out an exhaustive study of the codex with the purpose of determining its temporality and authenticity. In this work, the pre-Columbian authenticity of the codex is verified by the radiocarbon (14C) technique using AMS. Two cleaning procedures were contrasted: the standard acid-base-acid (ABA) protocol and a second one with Soxhlet plus ABA. Results obtained when samples were prepared following ABA protocol only, placed the age of the bark paper between 991 and 1147 cal AD. The second cleaning method with Soxhlet plus ABA, resulted in younger ages, between 1159 and 1261 cal AD. However, we consider that when Sohxlet is used as part of the cleaning protocol, organic contaminants are reduced to a minimum, and 14C dates are more reliable. These results indicate that the vegetal support of the MCM belongs to Postclassical Mayan period and place it as the oldest known manuscript of America found to date.
In 1990, Latin American countries committed to psychiatric reforms including psychiatric bed removals. Aim of the study was to quantify changes in psychiatric bed numbers and prison population rates after the initiation of psychiatric reforms in Latin America.
We searched primary sources to collect numbers of psychiatric beds and prison population rates across Latin America between the years 1991 and 2017. Changes of psychiatric bed numbers were compared against trends of incarceration rates and tested for associations using fixed-effects regression of panel data. Economic variables were used as covariates. Reliable data were obtained from 17 Latin American countries: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Honduras, Guatemala, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, El Salvador, Uruguay and Venezuela.
The number of psychiatric beds decreased in 15 out of 17 Latin American countries (median −35%) since 1991. Our findings indicate the total removal of 69 415 psychiatric beds. The prison population increased in all countries (median +181%). Panel data regression analyses showed a significant inverse relationship −2.70 (95% CI −4.28 to −1.11; p = 0.002) indicating that prison populations increased more when and where more psychiatric beds were removed. This relationship held up when introducing per capita income and income inequality as covariates −2.37 (95% CI −3.95 to −0.8; p = 0.006).
Important numbers of psychiatric beds have been removed in Latin America. Removals of psychiatric beds were related to increasing incarceration rates. Minimum numbers of psychiatric beds need to be defined and addressed in national policies.
Chapter eight discusses developments in the apportionment of jurisdiction between arbitrators and courts concerning the validity of contracts containing arbitration clauses, as well as developments pertaining to the severability doctrine and its connection to the U.S. common law on adjudicating challenges to the arbitral tribunal’s jurisdiction. The issue of orthodox and U.S. common law arbitrability as a gateway issue also is reviewed.
Eliminating the badges of judicial prejudice and hostility against arbitration has been a gradual doctrinal development, but certainly one that reached fruition with the Supreme Court’s mandate in Mitsubishi. The acceptance of arbitration as an alternative dispute resolution methodology in domestic and international contexts by all stakeholders has advanced the cause of fashioning a dispute resolution framework that helps to meet the contemporary demands of economic globalization. It has mitigated the fissure between an economic order characterized by the development of a transnational monolithic market and a fragmented international legal order.
The fifth chapter consists of a discussion of the International Bar Association (“IBA”) Rules on the Taking of Evidence in International Arbitration, with reference to the Rules of Arbitration of the International Chamber of Commerce, the Rules of the International Center for Dispute Resolution, and the Rules of the London Court of International Arbitration. This section culminates with a synthesis of international arbitration rules analyzed through the prism of party-autonomy and some of the more salient features comprising the very fabric of the common law. Chapter five as well explores the “Prague Rules.”
Consists of a historical analysis of international commercial arbitration in the United States. It traces the origins of international commercial arbitration to the arbitration agreements that follow the 1687 enactment of the Statute of Fines and Penalties in England, and also references the Act of 1854 in England that vested courts with the discretion to stay a legal proceeding in deference to arbitration agreements. This chapter also documents early U.S. common law authority that was antagonistic to arbitration generally. This introduction in abbreviated manner reviews landmark Supreme Court decisions that most descriptively represent the development of international arbitration and arbitration generally as standing in pari materia with judicial proceedings.