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As in its first edition, this book traces the contours of select US common law doctrinal developments concerning international commercial arbitration. This new edition supplements the foundational work contained in the first edition in order to produce a broader and deeper work. The author explores how the US common law may help bridge cross-cultural legal differences by focusing on the need to address these contrasting approaches through the nomenclature and goal of securing equality between party-autonomy and arbitrator discretion in international commercial arbitration. This book thus focuses on the common law development of arbitrator immunity, as well as the precepts of party-initiative and –autonomy forming part of the US common law discovery rubric that may contribute to promoting expediency, efficiency and transparency in international commercial arbitration proceedings. It does so by carefully analyzing, among other things, the International Bar Association (IBA) Rules on Evidence Gathering, the Prague Rules, and the role of 28 USC. §1782 in international arbitration.
All anaesthetists need to be skilled in the administration of IV anaesthesia, yet evidence from the 5th National Audit Project (NAP5) of the Royal College of Anaesthetists and the Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland documenting cases of accidental awareness during general anaesthesia (AAGA) suggests that this might not be the case. TIVA is used in only 7% of cases, with preponderance for certain surgical operations such as those on the airway where administration of an inhaled anaesthetic is not feasible. Conversely, TIVA has been almost completely avoided in other types of surgery such as Caesarean sections, at least in the UK and Ireland. TIVA is also used for transfer of patients and in remote areas that do not have the equipment required to deliver inhaled anaesthesia. For the purpose of this discussion, it should be clarified from the outset that there are several modes of TIVA delivery. The majority is target-controlled infusion (TCI), carried out with dedicated PK pumps and used in ~5% of all cases or ~81% of TIVA cases. The most basic is manual boluses of propofol using a hand-held syringe: the anaesthetist simply injects the amount they judge necessary to maintain anaesthesia (0.7% of all UK cases, or ~10% of all TIVA cases). The third is non-TCI infusions, which constitute ~0.6% of all cases, or ~9% of TIVA cases. However, there is some international geographic variation in this practice, because in the United States TCI remains unlicensed and therefore seldom used.
In this work, the anodization of grade 2 titanium was performed using a HCl-based electrolyte in order to obtain Titania nanostructures. Different glycerol concentrations were added to the HCl electrolyte to study the effect it has on the shape and density of the nanostructures, additionally, anodization time and voltage was also varied. The anodized samples were observed by SEM microscopy and studied by Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Raman spectroscopy and XRD showed the formation of the anatase phase of the TiO2. By SEM it was possible to observe several changes in the shape of the structures, by adding glycerol ball-like structures were visible, anodization time did not change the shape of the nanostructures. However, the voltage variation showed a clear control on the shape of the structures, forming nanotubes at higher voltages. It was concluded that a better control of the shape and density of the nanostructures is achieved by adding glycerol, however, in order to overcome the resistance that the electrolyte brings, higher voltages are required.
Wake modes of a three-dimensional blunt-based body near a wall are investigated at a Reynolds number
. The targeted modes are the static symmetry-breaking mode and two antisymmetric periodic modes. The static mode orientation is aligned with the horizontal major
-axis of the base and randomly switches between a positive
and a negative
state leading to long-time bistable dynamics of the turbulent wake. The modifications of these modes are studied when continuous blowing is applied at different locations through four slits along the base edges (denoted L for left, R for right, T for top and B for bottom) in either four single asymmetric configurations or two double symmetric configurations (denoted LR and TB). Two regimes, referred to as mass and momentum, are clearly identifiable for all configurations. The mass regime, which is fairly insensitive to blowing momentum and location, is characterized by the growth of the recirculating bubble as the total injected flow rate is increased, and is associated with a base drag reduction and interpreted as resulting from the equilibrium between mass fluxes feeding and emptying the recirculating region. A simple budget model is shown to be in agreement with entrainment velocities measured for isolated turbulent mixing layers. The strength of the static mode is reduced up to 20 % when the bubble length is maximum, whereas no change in the periodic mode frequencies is found. On the other hand, the momentum regime is characterized by the deflating of the recirculating bubble, leading to base drag increase, and it is interpreted by the free shear layer forcing, which increases the entrainment velocity, thus emptying the recirculating bubble. In this regime the static mode orientation is imposed by the blowing symmetry. Lateral L and R (respectively top/bottom T and B) blowing configurations select
states in the horizontal (respectively vertical) direction, while bistable dynamics persists for the symmetric LR and TB configurations. The shape of periodic modes follows the changes in wake static orientation. The transition between the two regimes is governed by both the total injected flow rate and the location of the injection.
We report a numerical analysis of the unforced break-up of free cylindrical threads of viscous Newtonian liquid whose interface is coated with insoluble surfactants, focusing on the formation of satellite droplets. The initial conditions are harmonic disturbances of the cylindrical shape with a small amplitude
, and whose wavelength is the most unstable one deduced from linear stability theory. We demonstrate that, in the limit
, the problem depends on two dimensionless parameters, namely the Laplace number,
, and the elasticity parameter,
are the liquid density, viscosity and initial surface tension, respectively,
is the Gibbs elasticity and
is the unperturbed thread radius. A parametric study is presented to quantify the influence of
on two key quantities: the satellite droplet volume and the mass of surfactant trapped at the satellite’s surface just prior to pinch-off,
, respectively. We identify a weak-elasticity regime,
, in which the satellite volume and the associated mass of surfactant obey the scaling law
reach a plateau of about
being in close agreement with previous experiments of low-viscosity threads with clean interfaces. For
, we reveal the existence of a discontinuous transition in
at a critical elasticity,
, such that
abruptly increase at
. The jumps experienced by both quantities reach a plateau when
, while they decrease monotonically as
increases up to
, where both become zero.
The prediction of void fraction, which relies on interfacial force models, is a major issue in the context of boiling. The two-fluid model requires the modelling of the momentum transfer between phases. When bubbles are small (particle hypothesis), the momentum transfer is related to interfacial forces acting on bubbles. However, the splitting of these forces into drag, lift, added mass, etc., is not straightforward from the local point of view, where only the total interfacial force is defined as an integral of the constraint over the interface. For large-size bubbles, the particle hypothesis can be questioned. The momentum transfer can then be connected to the forces acting on a fluid element of the vapour phase. Based on the local and averaged formulations of the Navier–Stokes equations, a new balance equation for forces enables us to define lift, drag, added-mass and dispersion forces acting on a fluid element of the vapour phase. This equation gives a local definition for all the forces responsible for spatial distribution of bubbles and reflects the meaning usually assigned to the interfacial forces in the particle approach. Through this means, the link between the local formulation and physical phenomena is established and a new way of modelling the lift force is proposed. Furthermore, a new laminar dispersion force which relies on surface tension and pressure effects is introduced. The analysis of the budget equation on our direct numerical simulation database brings into light the large influence of this laminar dispersion force in the migration process. Different well-known physical behaviours can be modelled via this new force: the horizontal clustering of spherical bubbles in laminar flows and the oscillating trajectories of deformable bubbles.
Europe’s roadmap to a low-carbon economy aims to cut greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions 80% below 1990 levels by 2050. Beef production is an important source of GHG emissions and is expected to increase as the world population grows. LIFE BEEF CARBON is a voluntary European initiative that aims to reduce GHG emissions per unit of beef (carbon footprint) by 15% over a 10-year period on 2172 farms in four large beef-producing countries. Changes in farms beef carbon footprint are normally estimated via simulation modelling, but the methods current models apply differ. Thus, our initial goal was to develop a common modelling framework to estimate beef farms carbon footprint. The framework was developed for a diverse set of Western Europe farms located in Ireland, Spain, Italy and France. Whole farm and life cycle assessment (LCA) models were selected to quantify emissions for the different production contexts and harmonized. Carbon Audit was chosen for Ireland, Bovid-CO2 for Spain and CAP’2ER for France and Italy. All models were tested using 20 case study farms, that is, 5 per country and quantified GHG emissions associated with on-farm live weight gain. The comparison showed the ranking of beef systems gross carbon footprint was consistent across the three models. Suckler to weaning or store systems generally had the highest carbon footprint followed by suckler to beef systems and fattening beef systems. When applied to the same farm, Carbon Audit’s footprint estimates were slightly lower than CAP’2ER, but marginally higher than Bovid-CO2. These differences occurred because the models were adapted to a specific region’s production circumstances, which meant their emission factors for key sources; that is, methane from enteric fermentation and GHG emissions from concentrates were less accurate when used outside their target region. Thus, for the common modelling framework, region-specific LCA models were chosen to estimate beef carbon footprints instead of a single generic model. Additionally, the Carbon Audit and Bovid-CO2 models were updated to include carbon removal by soil and other environmental metrics included in CAP’2ER, for example, acidification. This allows all models to assess the effect carbon mitigation strategies have on other potential pollutants. Several options were identified to reduce beef farms carbon footprint, for example, improving genetic merit. These options were assessed for beef systems, and a mitigation plan was created by each nation. The cumulative mitigation effect of the LIFE BEEF CARBON plan was estimated to exceed the projects reduction target (−15%).
Langmuir circulation, a key turbulent process in the upper ocean, is mechanistically driven and sustained by imposed atmospheric wind stress and surface wave drift. In addition, and specifically in coastal zones, the presence of a mean current – whether associated with tidal currents or large-scale eddies – generates bottom-boundary-layer shear, which further modulates the physical attributes of coastal-zone Langmuir turbulence. We show that the presence of bottom-boundary-layer shear generated by oblique forcing between the mean current, atmospheric drag, and monochromatic wave field direction changes the orientation of the resultant, large-scale Langmuir cells. A model to predict this resultant orientation, based on salient parameters defining the forcing obliquity, is proposed. We also perform a systematic parametric study to isolate the ‘turning’ influence of salient parameters, which reveals that the resultant Langmuir cell orientation is always intermediate to the imposed forces. In order to provide a rigorous basis for the results, we study terms responsible for sustenance of streamwise vorticity, and provide a theoretical justification for the observed results.
The purpose of this paper is to describe the process of developing and implementing a transdisciplinary community-based research center, the Center for Health Equity Research (CHER) Chicago, to offer a model for designing and implementing research centers that aim to address structural causes of health inequality.
Scholars from diverse backgrounds and disciplines formed a multidisciplinary team for the Center, and adopted the structural violence framework as the organizing conceptual model. All Center activities were based on community partnership. The Center activities were organized within three cores: administrative, investigator development, and community engagement and dissemination cores. The key activities during the first year were to develop a pilot grant program for early stage investigators (ESIs) and to establish community partnership mechanisms.
CHER provided more than 60 consultations for ESIs, which resulted in 31 pilot applications over the three application cycles. Over 200 academic and community partners attended the community symposium and discussed community priority. Some challenges encountered were: to improve communication among investigators, to clarify roles and responsibilities of the three cores, and to build consensus on the definition and operationalization of the concept of structural violence.
There is an increasing need for local hubs to facilitate transdisciplinary collaboration and community engagement to effectively address health inequity. Building consensus around a shared vision among partners is a difficult and yet important step toward achieving equity.
The Murcia Twin Registry (MTR) is the only population-based registry in Spain. Created in 2006, the registry has been growing more than a decade to become one of the references for twin research in the Mediterranean region. The MTR database currently comprises 3545 adult participants born between 1940 and 1977. It also holds a recently launched satellite registry of university students (N = 204). Along five waves of data collection, the registry has gathered questionnaire and anthropometric data, as well as biological samples. The MTR keeps its main research focus on health and health-related behaviors from a public health perspective. This includes lifestyle, health promotion, quality of life or environmental conditions. Future short-term development points to the expansion of the biobank and the continuation of the collection of longitudinal data.
Predation by Engytatus varians (Distant) adults on different development stages of the prey species Bactericera cockerelli (Sulcer) (egg, second, and third nymphal instars), Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) and Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (egg, first, and second larval instars) was evaluated using tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) leaflets or plants. These insects are the primary pest of several agriculturally important crops. The influence of E. varians age on the predation capacity was also analysed. Engytatus varians females consumed significantly more B. cockerelli eggs and nymphs than males. Additionally, female predators consumed significantly more second than third instar prey at two predator ages, while males consumed significantly more the second instar than third instar prey at all predator ages. In most of the cases, females also consumed significantly more S. exigua and S. frugiperda eggs than males; however, in terms of larvae consumption, this difference was observed only in some predator ages. Females consumed more the first than second instar S. exigua than males, whereas this behaviour was only observed in males when the predators were 15 and 17 days old. No significant differences were observed in the consumption of first and second instar of S. frugiperda for both sexes of the predators. Predator age did not cause any systematic effects on the predation rates of any prey species. Based on these results, we confirmed that E. varians has potential as a biological control agent for B. cockerelli and also for the Spodoptera species bioassayed.
Tick-borne diseases (TBDs) can sometimes cause severe symptoms and lead to hospitalisation, but they often go unnoticed in the Emergency Department (ED). The aim of this study was twofold: (i) to describe the profile of patients hospitalised by TBDs; and (ii) to evaluate the data collected in the medical records from the ED in order to analyse their potential clinical consequences. A total of 84 cases that included all TBD diagnoses registered in the ED records were identified and analysed. These corresponded to all the hospitalisations by TBDs in the last 10 years (2009–2019) in two tertiary hospitals in Granada, Spain. Statistical analyses were made using RStudio. Coinciding with the absence of patient's report of exposure to ticks, 64.3% of TBDs were not suspected in the ED. Intensive care unit admission was required in 8.3% of cases, and the mortality rate was 2.4%. Non-suspected cases showed longer hospital stay (P < 0.001), treatment duration (P = 0.02) and delay in the initiation of antibiotic treatment (P < 0.001). Our findings indicate that symptoms associated with TBDs are highly non-specific. In the absence of explicit information related to potential tick exposure, TBDs are not initially suspected. As a consequence, elective treatment administration is delayed and hospitalisation time is prolonged. In conclusion, our results highlight the importance of addressing potential exposure to ticks during the ED contact with patients presenting with febrile syndrome.