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Hagstromite, Pb8Cu2+(Te6+O6)2(CO3)Cl4, (IMA2019-093) is a new tellurate mineral from Otto Mountain near Baker, California, USA. It occurs on quartz in association with cerussite, fuettererite and thorneite. It is a secondary oxidation zone mineral and is presumed to have formed by oxidation of earlier formed tellurides, chalcopyrite and galena. Hagstromite occurs as light yellow–green blades, up to ~100 μm long. Crystals are transparent with adamantine to silky lustre. The mineral is brittle with two cleavages providing splintery fracture; the Mohs hardness is probably between 2 and 3. The calculated density is 7.062 g cm–3. Hagstromite is optically biaxial (+), with calculated indices of refraction for α = 2.045, β = 2.066 and γ = 2.102; 2Vmeas = 76(1)°; and optical orientation X = b, Y = a and Z = c. The Raman spectrum of hagstromite exhibits similarities with those of agaite and thorneite and confirms the presence of CO32–. The electron microprobe analyses provided the empirical formula Pb8.07Cu2+0.98Te6+1.96C1.17Cl3.83O15.34. Hagstromite is orthorhombic, space group Ibam, with a = 23.688(17), b = 9.026(8), c = 10.461(8) Å, V = 2237(3) Å3 and Z = 4. The crystal structure of hagstromite (R1 = 0.0659 for 284 I > 2σI reflections) contains a novel Cu2+Te6+2O12 chain assembled of corner-sharing Cu2+O4 squares and Te6+O6 octahedra. The O atoms in the chains form bonds with Pb2+ cations, which in turn bond to Cl– and CO32– anions, thereby creating a framework structure.
This study is aimed to establish biological, psychological, and social risk factors for a group of patients hospitalized following a suicide attempt or suicide ideation, and controls. Patients were characterized by different degrees of severity, namely: 1)Nearly Lethal Suicide Attempt 2)Suicide Attempt with a Survival Strategy 3)Suicidal Ideation without Suicide Attempt, 4) Control inpatients without suicide ideation or history.
We evaluated nearly 100 patients using several scales for the assessment of: Personality, Reasons for Living, Axis I, Social factors and History of previous suicide attempts.
There is a higher proportion of young, adolescent, single and female patients. Most of them asked for help after the suicide attempt. The majority had a comorbid diagnosis for substance abuse. In reference to personality disorders, we found counterintuitively, that those who made a Nearly Lethal Suicide attempt were healthier than the subjects who's suicide attempt was less severe.
This finding is also reflected in the fact that those with a less severe suicide attempt rated much higher on impulsivity and also were much less satisfied with their family and friends. This last trait is probably associated with personality disorders.
Patients who made a Nearly lethal suicide attempt had much higher on the Reasons for Living questionnaire. Compared to less severe suicide attempters, they had more reasons to stay alive. This last finding might be an early aftereffect of the attempt.
Behavioural, psychological and cognitive disturbance have been associated with hypothyroidism, even it has been suggested that this symptoms may remain despite adequate replacement therapy with thyroxine.
To describe prevalence, sociodemographics and clinical features of patients with hypothyroidism in an acute psychiatric unit.
To know about the relation between hypothyroidism and psychiatric symptoms.
Data base collection of all patients admitted between 2010 and 2014 in the acute unit of our psychiatric hospital in Barcelona, was analyzed using SPSS program.
In all 3.1% of the 4536 total patients had hypothyroidism. Among them, 46% were duplicate cases. Mean age was 53 ± 14.27 years. A total of 82.7% were woman. Patients having a TSH lower than 0.30 were 12%, TSH normal were 60.2%, TSH higher than 5 were 27.8%. Most frequent Levothyroxine dosage was: 75 μg (22.1%), 100 μg (19%), 25 μg (12.5%) and 125 μg (12.5%). Diagnosis more frequently associated with hypothyroidism was: Bipolar (26.5%), Schizophrenia (20%), Depression (15.1%), Unspecified psychosis (10%), Personality disorder (10%), Schizoaffective disorder (7.2%), Paranoia 4.3%.
Most of patients were stable of thyroid condition when had been admitted to our hospital. Hypothyroidism could be a relapse factor, even when treatment is adequate. Affective disorders are more frequently related with hypothyroidism (lithium has to be consider a confounding factor).
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
The integrated care in dual diagnosis units involves selecting pharmacological treatment strategies for both substance use disorder and the non-addictive psychiatric disorder. It is recommended to choose drugs with a favorable balance between efficacy/tolerability, an adequate side effects profile and the minimal drug interactions.
Objectives and aims
To evaluate the tolerability and side effects after first administration-first dose of an extended-release injectable suspension of aripiprazole in a group of patients admitted to an acute dual diagnosis unit.
The study included a series of patients admitted in our unit from May to August 2015 that received the first dose of the aripiprazole preparation (400 mg). Evaluations included different scales for side effects (SAS, ESRS, UKU) and the clinical global impression scale (CGI).
A total of 9 patients were included and evaluated (all men, mean age: 39-years-old). Diagnoses were: bipolar disorder (5/9), schizophrenia (2/9), schizoaffective disorder (1/9) and delusional disorder (1/9) with concomitant substance use disorder (6 cannabis, 2 alcohol, 1 cocaine). All of them without outpatient control and treatment at admission. The results of the clinical scales conclude that none of them had significant side effects, including extrapyramidal, with an improvement in the ICG scale.
Tolerability of extended-release injectable suspension of aripiprazole was good in all cases. In the future, new cases should be included to extend the sample and to evaluate other aspects such as the craving for substances.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Personality dimensions related with drug use are novelty seeking, impulsivity and harm avoidance. Studies predicting drug of choice over personality variables are controversial.
To describe personality profile of drug users in relation to substance of choice.
To know personality dimension differences according to drug used.
Cloninger's TCI-R was administered to 218 patients in a dual diagnosis unit.
SPSS was applied.
Of the patients, 33.94% had personality disorder. Principal substances used were alcohol, cocaine and cannabis.
Most of drug users had normal scores in each dimension. No high scores were found in reward dependence, self-directedness and cooperativeness with any drug.
High scores were observed for novelty seeking in 42.9% of timulants users; for arm avoidance in a quarter of cocaine, alcohol and methadone users and for persistence in 18.2% of hypnotics users.
Low scores were observed for reward dependence in 45% of heroine and hypnotics users; for persistence in 50% of methadone and 32% of cocaine users; for self-directedness in most of types of drug users and for cooperativeness in up to 50% in heroine, hypnotics, stimulants and cocaine users.
Statistical significant differences were observed for cocaine use and high novelty seeking and low cooperation; for non cannabis use and high harm avoidance; for non anfetamine use and low scores in reward dependence; for opiate use and low self-directedness.
Most of patients had normal scores in the different dimensions.
Presence of comorbid personality disorder led us to consider the results with caution.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Describe the distinguishing characteristics between patients with early onset of alcohol use (EARLY, age < 15) and late onset of alcohol use (LATE, age > 16), both affected of acute non-substance use psychiatric disorders (non-SUD) and any substance use disorder admitted in a dual diagnosis unit.
Material and methods
Data on demographic, family, and clinical factors were gathered among subjects admitted to our dual diagnosis unit along three years, all of them meeting DSM-IV criteria of any non-substance related Axis I or II disorder and comorbid substance use disorder (SUD). Statistical analysis was performed by using SPSS program.
We show results of 748 patients (437 of EARLY group and 311 of LATE group). Predominantly male (73,53%) with a mean age of 39,60 ± 9,7 years. Most prevalent non-SUD psychiatric disorders were psychotic disorder (39,97%) and personality disorder (39,30%). In our sample, most common substances of abuse were Alcohol (45,05%) and Cocaine (30,35%). EARLY patients had an earlier first contact all substances as well as an earlier age of problematic consumption of cocaine, alcohol, opioids and nicotine; they also had major prevalence of opioid SUD, sedatives SUD and amphetamines SUD (see Tables 1, 2 and 3).
Patients who began earlier their consumptions of alcohol had major prevalence of opioid, sedatives and amphetamine use. They also had earlier consumptions of other substances and earlier problematic consumptions of cocaine, alcohol, opioids and nicotine, what probably means greater severity of drug addiction in the long run.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Motor abnormalities (MAs) are the primary manifestations of schizophrenia. However, the extent to which MAs are related to alterations of subcortical structures remains understudied.
We aimed to investigate the associations of MAs and basal ganglia abnormalities in first-episode psychosis (FEP) and healthy controls. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed on 48 right-handed FEP and 23 age-, gender-, handedness-, and educational attainment-matched controls, to obtain basal ganglia shape analysis, diffusion tensor imaging techniques (fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity), and relaxometry (R2*) to estimate iron load. A comprehensive motor battery was applied including the assessment of parkinsonism, catatonic signs, and neurological soft signs (NSS). A fully automated model-based segmentation algorithm on 1.5T MRI anatomical images and accurate corregistration of diffusion and T2* volumes and R2* was used.
FEP patients showed significant local atrophic changes in left globus pallidus nucleus regarding controls. Hypertrophic changes in left-side caudate were associated with higher scores in sensory integration, and in right accumbens with tremor subscale. FEP patients showed lower fractional anisotropy measures than controls but no significant differences regarding mean diffusivity and iron load of basal ganglia. However, iron load in left basal ganglia and right accumbens correlated significantly with higher extrapyramidal and motor coordination signs in FEP patients.
Taken together, iron load in left basal ganglia may have a role in the emergence of extrapyramidal signs and NSS of FEP patients and in consequence in the pathophysiology of psychosis.
For their glucose supply, ruminants are highly dependent on the endogenous synthesis in the liver, but despite the numerous studies that evaluated hepatic glucose production, very few simultaneously measured hepatic glucose production and uptake of all precursors. As a result, the variability of precursor conversion into glucose in the liver is not known. The present study aimed at investigating by meta-analysis the relationships between hepatic glucose net release and uptake of precursors. We used the FLuxes of nutrients across Organs and tissues in Ruminant Animals database, which gathers international results on net nutrient fluxes at splanchnic level measured in catheterized animals. Response equations were developed for intakes up to 41 g DM intake/kg BW per day of diets varying from 0 to 100 g of concentrate/100 g DM in the absence of additives. The net hepatic uptake of propionate, α-amino-N and l-lactate was linearly and better related to their net portal appearance (NPA) than to their afferent hepatic flux. Blood flow data were corrected for lack of deacetylation of the para-aminohippuric acid, and this correction was shown to impact the response equations. To develop response equations between the availability of precursors (portal appearance and hepatic uptake) and net glucose hepatic release, missing data on precursor fluxes were predicted from dietary characteristics using previously developed response equations. Net hepatic release of glucose was curvilinearly related to hepatic supply and uptake of the sum of precursors, suggesting a lower conversion rate of precursors at high precursor supply. Factors of variation were explored for the linear portion of this relationship, which applied to NPA of precursors ranging from 0.99 to 9.60 mmol C/kg BW per h. Hepatic release of glucose was shown to be reduced by the portal absorption of glucose from diets containing bypass starch and to be increased by an increased uptake of β-hydroxybutyrate indicative of higher body tissue mobilization. These relationships were affected by the physiological status of the animals. In conclusion, we established equations that quantify the net release of glucose by the liver from the net availability of precursors. They provide a quantitative overview of factors regulating hepatic glucose synthesis in ruminants. These equations can be linked with the predictions of portal absorption of nutrients from intake and dietary characteristics, and provide indications of glucose synthesis from dietary characteristics.
As a result of the genetic selection for prolificacy and the improvements in the environment and farms management, litter size has increased in the last few years so that energy requirements of the lactating sow are greater. In addition, selection for feed efficiency of growing pigs is also conducted in maternal lines, and this has led to a decrease in appetite and feed intake that is extended to the lactation period, so the females are not able to obtain the necessary energy and nutrients for milk production and they mobilize their energetic reserves. When this mobilization is excessive, reproductive and health problems occur which ends up in an early sow culling. In this context, it has been suggested to improve feed efficiency at lactation through genetic selection. The aim of this study is to know, in a Duroc population, the genetic determinism of sow feed efficiency during lactation and traits involved in its definition, as well as genetic and environmental associations between them. The studied traits are daily lactation feed intake (dLFI), daily sow weight balance (dSWB), backfat thickness balance (BFTB), daily litter weight gain (dLWG), sow residual feed intake (RFI) and sow restricted residual feed intake (RRFI) during lactation. Data corresponded to 851 parities from 581 Duroc sows. A Bayesian analysis was performed using Gibbs sampling. A four-trait repeatability animal model was implemented including the systematic factors of batch and parity order, the standardized covariates of sow weight (SWf) and litter weight (LWs) at farrowing for all traits and lactation length for BFTB. The posterior mean (posterior SD) of heritabilities were: 0.09 (0.03) for dLFI, 0.37 (0.07) for dSWB, 0.09 (0.03) for BFTB, 0.22 (0.05) for dLWG, 0.04 (0.02) for RFI and null for RRFI. The genetic correlation between dLFI and dSWB was high and positive (0.74 (0.11)) and null between dLFI and BFTB. Genetic correlation was favourable between RFI and dLFI and BFTB (0.71 (0.16) and −0.69 (0.18)), respectively. The other genetic correlations were not statistically different from zero. The phenotypic correlations were low and positive between dLFI and dSWB (0.27 (0.03), dSWB and BFTB (0.25 (0.04)), and between dLFI and dLWG (0.16 (0.03)). Therefore, in the population under study, the improvement of the lactation feed efficiency would be possible either using RFI, which would not have unfavourable correlated effects, or through an index including its component traits.
Clinical Enterobacteriacae isolates with a colistin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ≥4 mg/L from a United States hospital were screened for the mcr-1 gene using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and confirmed by whole-genome sequencing. Four colistin-resistant Escherichia coli isolates contained mcr-1. Two isolates belonged to the same sequence type (ST-632). All subjects had prior international travel and antimicrobial exposure.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: The objective of this project is to determine whether HRV, collected peri-operatively, is predictive of cognitive decline among older adults who undergo elective surgery/anesthesia. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: This project is a part of the ongoing INTUIT/PRIME study, which is collecting pre- and post-operative cognitive testing, fMRI imaging, CSF samples, and EEG recordings from 200 older adults (age ≥ 60) undergoing elective non-cardiac/non-neurologic surgery scheduled to last > 2 hours at Duke University Medical Center and Duke Regional Hospital. This project utilizes data from the first 60 INTUIT participants who contributed continuous heart rate data before and during surgery. Participants undergo cognitive testing prior to surgery (baseline) and at 6 weeks after surgery. Our primary dependent variable is the change in the composite score from baseline to 6-weeks. Delirium is assessed in the hospital with the twice daily 3D-CAM tool, so we will report the proportion of individuals with 6-week cognitive decline who exhibited delirium in the days following surgery. Participants’ echocardiogram (ECG) recordings are extracted pre- and intraoperatively from B650/B850 patient monitors with VSCapture software. HRV is defined as the variability between successive R-spikes or inter-beat-intervals on ECG. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: We anticipate that lower intraoperative HRV is associated with worse cognitive decline at 6 weeks after surgery. As secondary objectives, we will determine whether pre-operative HRV or change in HRV (from pre-operative to intra-operative measures) are predictive of cognitive decline after surgery. We expect that in-hospital delirium will be detected in a higher proportion of those with 6-week cognitive decline, compared to those with stable or improved cognition at 6 weeks. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: HRV may address the present need for pre- and intra-operative cognitive risk stratification in the elderly. Physiological indices like HRV have the potential to dramatically change our understanding of CI in older adults undergoing surgery, as they offer an accessible, cost-effective, and non-invasive means whereby clinicians, particularly those unfamiliar with the nuances of geriatric and CI/dementia-related care, can monitor patients and refer those at high-risk of CI after surgery for early intervention.
The crystal structure of tlapallite has been determined using single-crystal X-ray diffraction and supported by electron probe micro-analysis, powder diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. Tlapallite is trigonal, space group P321, with a = 9.1219(17) Å, c = 11.9320(9) Å and V = 859.8(3) Å3, and was refined to R1 = 0.0296 for 786 reflections with I > 2σ(I). This study resulted from the discovery of well-crystallised tlapallite at the Wildcat prospect, Utah, USA. The chemical formula of tlapallite has been revised to (Ca,Pb)3CaCu6[Te4+3Te6+O12]2(Te4+O3)2(SO4)2·3H2O, or more simply (Ca,Pb)3CaCu6Te4+8Te6+2O30(SO4)2·3H2O, from H6(Ca,Pb)2(Cu,Zn)3(TeO3)4(TeO6)(SO4). The tlapallite structure consists of layers containing distorted Cu2+O6 octahedra, Te6+O6 octahedra and Te4+O4 disphenoids (which together form the new mixed-valence phyllotellurate anion [Te4+3Te6+O12]12−), Te4+O3 trigonal pyramids and CaO8 polyhedra. SO4 tetrahedra, Ca(H2O)3O6 polyhedra and H2O groups fill the space between the layers. Tlapallite is only the second naturally occurring compound containing tellurium in both the 4+ and 6+ oxidation states with a known crystal structure, the other being carlfriesite, CaTe4+2Te6+O8. Carlfriesite is the predominant secondary tellurium mineral at the Wildcat prospect. We also present an updated structure for carlfriesite, which has been refined to R1 = 0.0230 for 874 reflections with I > 2σ(I). This updated structural refinement improves upon the one reported previously by refining all atoms anisotropically and presenting models of bond valence and Te4+ secondary bonding.
We present ALMA band 7 data of the extreme OH/IR star, OH 26.5+0.6. In addition to lines of CO and its isotopologues, the circumstellar envelope also exhibits a number of emission lines due to metal-containing molecules, e.g., NaCl and KCl. A lack of C18O is expected, but a non-detection of C17O is puzzling given the strengths of H217O in Herschel spectra of the star. However, a line associated with Si17O is detected. We also report a tentative detection of a gas-phase emission line of MgS. The ALMA spectrum of this object reveals intriguing features which may be used to investigate chemical processes and dust formation during a high mass-loss phase.
To summarize and discuss logistic and administrative challenges we encountered during the Benefits of Enhanced Terminal Room (BETR) Disinfection Study and lessons learned that are pertinent to future utilization of ultraviolet (UV) disinfection devices in other hospitals
Multicenter cluster randomized trial
SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS
Nine hospitals in the southeastern United States
All participating hospitals developed systems to implement 4 different strategies for terminal room disinfection. We measured compliance with disinfection strategy, barriers to implementation, and perceptions from nurse managers and environmental services (EVS) supervisors throughout the 28-month trial.
Implementation of enhanced terminal disinfection with UV disinfection devices provides unique challenges, including time pressures from bed control personnel, efficient room identification, negative perceptions from nurse managers, and discharge volume. In the course of the BETR Disinfection Study, we utilized several strategies to overcome these barriers: (1) establishing safety as the priority; (2) improving communication between EVS, bed control, and hospital administration; (3) ensuring availability of necessary resources; and (4) tracking and providing feedback on compliance. Using these strategies, we deployed ultraviolet (UV) disinfection devices in 16,220 (88%) of 18,411 eligible rooms during our trial (median per hospital, 89%; IQR, 86%–92%).
Implementation of enhanced terminal room disinfection strategies using UV devices requires recognition and mitigation of 2 key barriers: (1) timely and accurate identification of rooms that would benefit from enhanced terminal disinfection and (2) overcoming time constraints to allow EVS cleaning staff sufficient time to properly employ enhanced terminal disinfection methods.
Animal proteins are naturally 15N enriched relative to the diet and the extent of this difference (Δ15Nanimal-diet or N isotopic fractionation) has been correlated to N use efficiency (NUE; N gain or milk N yield/N intake) in some recent ruminant studies. The present study used meta-analysis to investigate whether Δ15Nanimal-diet can be used as a predictor of NUE across a range of dietary conditions, particularly at the level of between-animal variation. An additional objective was to identify variables related to N partitioning explaining the link between NUE and Δ15Nanimal-diet. Individual values from eight publications reporting both NUE and Δ15Nanimal-diet for domestic ruminants were used to create a database comprising 11 experimental studies, 41 treatments and individual animal values for NUE (n=226) and Δ15Nanimal-diet (n=291). Data were analyzed by mixed-effect regression analysis taking into account experimental factors as random effects on both the intercept and slope of the model. Diets were characterized according to the INRA feeding system in terms of N utilization at the rumen, digestive and metabolic levels. These variables were used in a partial least squares regression analysis to predict separately NUE and Δ15Nanimal-diet variation, with the objective of identifying common variables linking NUE and Δ15Nanimal-diet. For individuals reared under similar conditions (within-study) and at the same time (within-period), the variance of NUE and Δ15Nanimal-diet not explained by dietary treatments (i.e. between-animal variation plus experimental error) was 35% and 55%, respectively. Mixed-effect regression analysis conducted with treatment means showed that Δ15Nanimal-diet was significantly and negatively correlated to NUE variation across diets (NUE=0.415 −0.055×Δ15Nanimal-diet). When using individual values and taking into account the random effects of study, period and diet, the relationship was also significant (NUE=0.358 −0.035×Δ15Nanimal-diet). However, there may be a biased prediction for animals close to zero, or in negative, N balance. When using a novel statistical approach, attempting to regress between-animal variation in NUE on between-animal variation in Δ15Nanimal-diet (without the influence of experimental factors), the negative relationship was still significant, highlighting the ability of Δ15Nanimal-diet to capture individual variability. Among the studied variables related to N utilization, those concerning N efficiency use at the metabolic level contributed most to predict both Δ15Nanimal-diet and NUE variation, with rumen fermentation and digestion contributing to a lesser extent. This study confirmed that on average Δ15Nanimal-diet can predict NUE variation across diets and across individuals reared under similar conditions.
In cattle, the chemical composition of the carcass is usually evaluated from one of three reference methods (rib dissection, specific gravity or a combination of easily obtained measures) or is estimated from proxy traits (USDA yield grade (YG), subcutaneous fat thickness (SFT)). Objectives were to evaluate if the relationships between the chemical composition of the carcass and each of the proxy traits (YG, SFT) differed depending on the reference method. The study was conducted by meta-analysis from published results using 25 publications that reported carcass composition and proxy traits (53%, 31% and 16% of the data were based on rib dissection, specific gravity and combination of easily obtained measures, respectively). Results showed that the amounts of carcass fat or protein that can be predicted from a given proxy trait (YG or SFT) differ significantly with the reference method used to determine carcass fat or protein.
While vitrification has become the method of choice for preservation of human oocytes and embryos, cryopreservation of complex tissues and of large yolk-containing cells, remains largely unsuccessful. One critical step in such instances is appropriate permeation while avoiding potentially toxic concentrations of cryoprotectants. Permeation of water and small non-charged solutes, such as those used as cryoprotectants, occurs largely through membrane channel proteins termed aquaporins (AQPs). Substitution of a Thr by an Ala residue in the pore-forming motif of the zebrafish (Dario rerio) Aqp3b paralog resulted in a mutant (DrAqp3b-T85A) that when expressed in Xenopus or porcine oocytes increased their permeability to ethylene glycol at pH 7.5 and 8.5. The main objective of this study was to test whether ectopic expression of DrAqp3b-T85A also conferred higher resistance to cryoinjury. For this, DrAqp3b-T85A + eGFP (reporter) cRNA, or eGFP cRNA alone, was microinjected into in vivo fertilized 1-cell mouse zygotes. Following culture to the 2-cell stage, appropriate membrane expression of DrAqp3b-T85A was confirmed by immunofluorescence microscopy using a primary specific antibody directed against the C-terminus of DrAqp3b. Microinjected 2-cell embryos were then cryopreserved using a fast-freezing rate and low concentration (1.5 M) of ethylene glycol in order to highlight any benefits from DrAqp3b-T85A expression. Notably, post-thaw survival rates were higher (P<0.05) for T85A–eGFP-injected than for -uninjected or eGFP-injected embryos (73±7.3 vs. 28±7.3 or 14±6.7, respectively). We propose that ectopic expression of mutant AQPs may provide an avenue to improve cryopreservation results of large cells and tissues in which current vitrification protocols yield low survival.
An unusually diverse array of 25 secondary Te oxysalt minerals has been documented from Otto Mountain, California, and 18 of these from the Bird Nest drift sublocality. A paragenetic sequence for these minerals is proposed, using observed overgrowth relationships plus spatial association data and data from other localities. Apart from Te and O, the components Pb, Cu and H are essential in the majority of the minerals. The atomic Cu/Te ratio decreases through the paragenetic sequence. This, and the occurrence of minerals with additional components such as Cl–, CO32–, SO42– and Fe3+ at an intermediate stage, suggests nonmonotonic evolution of the parent fluids, reflecting differing access to or spatial distribution of various components. For the minerals with known crystal structures, two alternative 'structural units' were identified, one consisting only of the Te4+ or Te6+ oxyanion, while the other also included small, strongly-bound cations such as Cu2+. The degree of polymerization for the Te oxyanion correlated with the paragenetic sequence: the monomeric tellurate anions of early minerals were replaced progressively by dimers, chains and sheet structures, which may relate to a decreasing abundance of the 'network modifying' Cu2+ cation, analogous to Bowen's discontinuous reaction series in igneous rock-forming silicates. No relationship was seen between paragenetic order and the larger type of structural unit, or structural complexity as defined by information content. This contrasts with results in the literature for evaporite sulfates and pegmatite phosphates. While structure–paragenesis relationships may be widespread, the exact nature of such relationships may be different for different chemical systems and different paragenetic environments.
Gametocytes are the specialized form of Plasmodium parasites that are responsible for human-to-mosquito transmission of malaria. Transmission of gametocytes is highly effective, but represents a biomass bottleneck for the parasite that has stimulated interest in strategies targeting the transmission stages separately from those responsible for clinical disease. Studying targets of naturally acquired immunity against transmission-stage parasites may reveal opportunities for novel transmission reducing interventions, particularly the development of a transmission blocking vaccine (TBV). In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on immunity against the transmission stages of Plasmodium. This includes immune responses against epitopes on the gametocyte-infected erythrocyte surface during gametocyte development, as well as epitopes present upon gametocyte activation in the mosquito midgut. We present an analysis of historical data on transmission reducing immunity (TRI), as analysed in mosquito feeding assays, and its correlation with natural recognition of sexual stage specific proteins Pfs48/45 and Pfs230. Although high antibody titres towards either one of these proteins is associated with TRI, the presence of additional, novel targets is anticipated. In conclusion, the identification of novel gametocyte-specific targets of naturally acquired immunity against different gametocyte stages could aid in the development of potential TBV targets and ultimately an effective transmission blocking approach.