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We have carried out an ALMA Cycle 2 survey of 15 confirmed or candidate low-mass (<0.2M⊙) members of the TW Hya Association (TWA) with the goal of detecting line emission from CO molecular gas and continuum emission from cold dust. Our targets have spectral types of M4-L0 and hence represent the extreme low end of the TWA's mass function. The survey has yielded a detection of 12CO(2–1) emission around TWA 34. This newly discovered ~10 Myr-old molecular gas disk lies just ~50pc from Earth.
The maternal weight gain chart proposed by Rosso and Mardones (RM) was subsequently modified by Atalah et al. (AEA). Both charts are widely used in Latin America. The purpose of this study was to compare birth length (BL) and birth weight (BW) outcomes of both charts. A prospective study of pregnant women and their offspring’s was performed in Santiago, Chile. From a total sample of 27,613 pregnant women a sub-sample of 11,465 term healthy singleton pregnant women was selected for additional analyses. κ statistics was used to study the degree of agreement of both charts in the diagnosis of maternal nutritional status. Obese and underweight women were classified using both standards at the beginning of pregnancy and compared in terms of BL<50 cm, BW<3000 g and BW>4250 g proportions. Sensitivity and specificity values of at risk newborns, whose categories were considered as gold standard, were obtained for obese and underweight women of each chart. There was a moderate agreement in the nutritional classification of these charts. Proportions of BL<50 cm and both BW<3000 g and>4250 g were similar at each nutritional category; however, absolute figures for at risk newborns were much higher in the RM underweight and obese women. The RM chart showed higher sensitivity values than the AEA chart. The higher sensitivity of the RM chart would support its use for prevention purposes. This chart is advisable for Latin American countries and also for most developing countries.
The Millimetre Astronomy Legacy Team 90 GHz (MALT90) survey aims to characterise the physical and chemical evolution of high-mass star-forming clumps. Exploiting the unique broad frequency range and on-the-fly mapping capabilities of the Australia Telescope National Facility Mopra 22 m single-dish telescope1, MALT90 has obtained 3′ × 3′ maps towards ~2 000 dense molecular clumps identified in the ATLASGAL 870 μm Galactic plane survey. The clumps were selected to host the early stages of high-mass star formation and to span the complete range in their evolutionary states (from prestellar, to protostellar, and on to
regions and photodissociation regions). Because MALT90 mapped 16 lines simultaneously with excellent spatial (38 arcsec) and spectral (0.11 km s−1) resolution, the data reveal a wealth of information about the clumps’ morphologies, chemistry, and kinematics. In this paper we outline the survey strategy, observing mode, data reduction procedure, and highlight some early science results. All MALT90 raw and processed data products are available to the community. With its unprecedented large sample of clumps, MALT90 is the largest survey of its type ever conducted and an excellent resource for identifying interesting candidates for high-resolution studies with ALMA.
DX Cha (HD 104237) is a southern, optically bright Herbig Ae star with an infrared excess, that is part of a small stellar group younger than 5 Myr. We used the APEX and ASTE submillimeter telescopes in Chile to search for continuum and gas emission around this system. Using LABOCA on APEX we detect strong continuum emission around HD104237-A and system component HD104237-E. Our ASTE spectrum detects a double-peaked 12CO(3-2) line profile towards the system, typical of a rotating disk. The new data are used as constraints with MCFOST to produce a disk model that fits the entire SED as well as the observed CO line profile.
The associations between school performance and cognitive abilities with birth characteristics have mostly been studied without taking into consideration the effects of gestational age (GA). Our aim was to study the association between prenatal growth and cognitive function in term-born Chilean school children. A cohort of over 200,000 term-born fourth graders who took the regular national test for school performance was studied. Outcome parameters were language and mathematics test scores in relation to prenatal growth. A total of 256,040 subjects took the test and 220,940 were included in the final study sample. Prenatal growth was modestly, but significantly, associated with school performance. Adjusted β coefficients for 1 cm increase in birth length were 1.28 and 0.77 for mathematics and language, respectively; the corresponding values for 100 g increase in birth weight were 0.59 and 0.34, respectively. Increased GA was associated with lower test scores. Adjusted β coefficients for the birth measurements generally had a lower strength of association than those of socio-economic factors. However, the confounders most strongly associated with educational achievements were socio-economic factors, known to be associated with birth size. Lower socio-economic status is known to negatively influence both prenatal growth and cognitive function, supporting the overall importance of prenatal growth in relation to cognitive outcomes.
The association of prenatal growth with metabolic syndrome (MS) components and insulin resistance (IR) in children has not been studied in Chile and most developing countries. Some associations found in developed countries are controversial. A retrospective cohort study was designed linking present information on MS components and IR in children with register-based information on birth weight (BW), birth length (BL) and gestational age (GA). Examinations included anthropometry and blood pressure (BP), as well as self-report of pubertal status. A fasting blood sample was taken to determine lipids, glucose, insulin and homeostasis model assessment (HOMA)-IR was calculated. The study cohort of 2152 children was on average 11.4 ± 1.0 years old. The prevalence of MS, IR and overweight were 7.6%, 24.5% and 34%, respectively. Elevated BP was negatively associated with dichotomized risk categories of the perinatal factors studied (BW, BL and GA). Contingency tables showed that high waist circumference (WC) and elevated BP had a U-shaped association with various categories of BW and BL, respectively. Stepwise linear regressions selected: (a) WC as inversely associated to GA and directly associated to BW, (b) BP as inversely associated to GA and (c) HOMA-IR as inversely associated to BL. Non-optimal prenatal growth seems to predispose to high WC, elevated BP and IR in school-age children, supporting the early life origin of several non-communicable diseases. Those associations were rather weak as estimated by the slopes of the regressions and probably reduced by their U-shaped nature; they would reasonably become stronger with a longer follow-up.
Submillimeter dust continuum emission traces high molecular column densities and, thus,
dense cloud regions in which new stars are forming. Surveys of the Galactic plane in such
emission have the potential of delivering an unbiased view of high-mass star formation
throughout the Milky Way. The location of the APEX telescope on the Chajnantor plateau in
Chile is ideally suited for mapping the inner Galaxy. ATLASGAL, The APEX Telescope Large
Area Survey of the Galaxy at 870 μm, is a survey of the Galactic plane
using the Large APEX Bolometer Camera (LABOCA), in the Galactic longitude and latitude
ranges of ±60 and ±1.5°, respectively. This survey is providing an unbiased sample of
cold dusty clumps in the Galaxy at submillimeter wavelength and a variety of molecular
line follow-up observations have been started to characterize the physical and chemical
conditions in the newly found clumps. Here, first results from this survey and its
follow-up programs are described.
In the elderly, nutritional deficiencies, such as low energy and protein intake, are suggested to increase the risk of osteoporotic fractures. Modulation of the amount and quality of protein intake under energy deficient conditions represents an interesting strategy to prevent aged-related bone loss. We investigated the effect of a 5-month dietary restriction on bone status in 16-month-old male rats. Rats were randomised into six groups (n 10 per group). Control animals were fed a normal diet containing either casein (N-C) or whey protein (N-WP). The other groups received a 40 % protein and energy-restricted diet with casein or whey protein (PER-C and PER-WP) or a normal protein and energy-restricted diet (ER-C and ER-WP). Both restrictions (PER and ER) induced a decrease in femoral bone mineral density (BMD), consistent with impaired biomechanical properties and a reduced cortical area at the diaphysis. Plasma osteocalcin and urinary deoxypyridinoline levels suggested a decrease in bone turnover in the PER and ER groups. Interestingly, circulating insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) levels were also lowered. Overall, normal protein intake did not elicit any bone sparing effect in energy-deficient rats. Regarding protein quality, neither casein nor WP appeared to significantly prevent the BMD decrease. This study confirms that nutritional deficiencies may contribute to osteopenia through decreased IGF-1 levels. Moreover, it seems that impaired bone status could not be significantly prevented by modulating the amount and quality of dietary proteins.
A survey of color vision defects was performed on a random sample of 138 Santiago male school children aged 14-15 years. Over-all incidence of red-green defects was found to be 4.34 percent. Blue-yellow minor defects were found in 17 cases (12 percent). The following major defects were found: extreme tritanomaly plus extreme tetartanomaly (1 case), and extreme tetartanomaly plus weak tritan defects (2 cases).
These results suggest a probable incidence of 2.16 percent of congenital blue blindness in the general male population of Santiago, Chile.
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