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Considering a potential exercise-drug interaction, we investigated whether exercise training could improve the efficacy of specific antiparasitic chemotherapy in a rodent model of Chagas disease. Wistar rats were randomized into five groups: sedentary and uninfected (CT); sedentary and infected (SI); sedentary, infected and treated (SIT); trained and infected (TI); trained, infected and treated (TIT). After 9-weeks running training, the animals were infected with T. cruzi and followed up for 4 weeks, receiving 100 mg kg−1 day−1 benznidazole. No evidence of myocarditis was observed in CT animals. TI animals exhibited reduced parasitemia, myocarditis, and reactive tissue damage compared to SI animals, in addition to increased IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-10, heart non-protein antioxidant (NPA) levels and glutathione-s transferase activity (P < 0.05). The CT, SIT and TIT groups presented similar reductions in parasitemia, cytokines (IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-4, IL-10, IL-17 and MCP-1), inflammatory infiltrate, oxidative heart damage and antioxidant enzymes activity compared to SI and TI animals, as well as reduced heart microstructural remodeling (P < 0.05). By modulating heart inflammation and redox metabolism, exercise training exerts a protective effect against T. cruzi infection in rats. However, the antiparasitic and cardioprotective effects of benznidazole chemotherapy are more pronounced, determining similar endpoints in sedentary and trained T. cruzi-infected rats.
Meteorological and even human-made disasters are increasing every year in frequency and magnitude. The passage of a disaster affects a society without distinction, but groups with social vulnerability (low socioeconomic status, chronic medical, or psychological conditions, limited access to resources) face the most significant impact. As a result, psychological and behavioral symptoms (eg, depression and anxiety) can ensue, making the immediate response of mental health services crucial. Secondary data from a database of a temporary healthcare unit were analyzed. A total of 54 records were reviewed to collect information; univariate and bivariate analyses were done. The purpose of this article is to present our experience regarding the incorporation of a mental health services model, with its respective benefits and challenges, into a temporary healthcare unit, after Hurricane Maria in 2017.
Nematodes of the genus Physaloptera are globally distributed and more than 100 species are known. Their life cycle involves insects, including beetles, cockroaches and crickets, as intermediate hosts. This study describes a new species of Physaloptera and reports molecular phylogenetic analyses to determine its relationships within the family Physalopteridae. Physaloptera amazonica n. sp. is described from the stomach of the caviomorph rodent Proechimys gardneri collected in the Amazon rainforest in the state of Acre, Brazil. The species is characterized by the male having the first and second pair of sessile papillae asymmetrically placed, lacking a median papilla-like protuberance between the third pairs of sessile papillae, differentiated by size and shape of the spicules, while females have four uterine branches. For both nuclear 18S rRNA and MT-CO1 gene-based phylogenies, we recovered Turgida sequences forming a clade nested within Physaloptera, thus making Physaloptera paraphyletic to the exclusion of Turgida, suggesting that the latter may have evolved from the former monodelphic ancestral state to a derived polydelphic state, or that some species of Physaloptera may belong to different genera. Relationships between most taxa within Physaloptera were poorly resolved in our phylogenies, producing multifurcations or a star phylogeny. The star-like pattern may be attributed to evolutionary processes where past simultaneous species diversification events took place. Physaloptera amazonica n. sp. formed an independent lineage, separately from the other species of Physaloptera, thus supporting the status of a new species. However, all molecular data suggested a closer relationship with other Neotropical species. In conclusion, we added a new species to this already largely diverse genus Physaloptera, bringing new insights to its phylogenetic relationships. Further analyses, adding more species and markers, should provide a better understanding of the evolutionary history of physalopterids.
Mental health issues, often manifested as behavioural difficulties, in children are estimated to be high in low and middle-income countries (LMIC) settings. There is a paucity of definitive data due to a lack of well-validated tools to use across settings. This review aims to provide evidence on what tools are used and which have been adapted and validated in LMIC settings.
We performed a systematic review to identify tools used to assess or screen externalising behaviour problems in children and adolescents in LMIC and assess their cultural adaptations. We searched for studies measuring externalising behaviour in children from 0 to 19 years published up to September 2018. Articles were assessed to identify tools used and analysed using the Ecological Validity Framework.
We identified 82 articles from over 50 LMICs who had studied externalising behaviour in children. Twenty-seven tools were identified, with a predominance of studies using tools from the USA and Europe. Most studies did not describe an adaptation and evaluation process, with only one study following recommended criteria. New tools were identified which both screen and assess externalising behaviour which have not yet been utilised across settings.
Although tools from the USA and Europe are often utilised to screen and assess for externalising behaviour problems in children in LMICs, the conceptual frameworks behind the use of these tools in other cultural contexts are not always carefully examined. In order to have valid data across cultures, we should aim to adapt and validate tools before use. Provision of processes to validate tools across LMIC settings would be beneficial.
This work presents the synthesis of selenium-based nanoparticles via microwave-assisted heating and their subsequent characterization using UV-vis Spectroscopy (UV-Vis), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), techniques. Ongoing research includes the study of the nanoparticles capacity to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS).
The aim of this study was to assess the associations of intake of different types of meat with semen parameters and reproductive hormones in healthy young men. This cross-sectional study included 206 men, 18–23 years, from Southern Spain. All men completed a validated FFQ, underwent a physical examination, and provided blood and semen samples. Multivariable linear regression was used to evaluate the associations between meat intake with semen quality parameters and reproductive hormones. Total meat intake was unrelated to semen quality or reproductive hormone levels. When subgroups of meat were separately considered, however, shellfish intake was positively related to progressive motility. The adjusted percentages of progressively motile spermatozoa for men in increasing quartiles of shellfish intake were 45·2, 42·0, 49·4 and 53·2 % with a significant linear trend across quartiles (Ptrend≤0·001). In contrast, men who consumed organ meats had significantly lower progressive sperm motility (51·5 v. 42·8 %; P = 0·001) and higher luteinising hormone levels (4·0 v. 4·6 IU/l; P = 0·03) compared with men who did not consume organ meats. Intake of shellfish and organ meats was low in this population, however. Given the scarcity of data on the relation between specific types of meat with semen quality and reproductive hormone levels, additional research is needed to confirm or refute these findings.
Mud volcanoes are singular seafloor structures classified as ‘sensitive habitats’. Here we report on the sponge fauna from a field of eight mud volcanoes located in the Spanish margin of the northern Gulf of Cadiz (North-eastern Atlantic), at depths ranging from 380 to 1146 m. Thirty-eight beam-trawl samplings were conducted (covering over 61,000 m2) from 2010 to 2012, in the frame of a EC-LIFE + INDEMARES grant. A total of 1659 specimens were retrieved, belonging to 82 species, from which 79 were in the Class Demospongiae and three in Hexactinellida. Two species were new to science (Jaspis sinuoxea sp. nov.; Myrmekioderma indemaresi sp. nov.) and three others recorded for the first time in the Atlantic Ocean (Geodia anceps, Coelosphaera cryosi and Petrosia raphida). Five additional species were ‘Atlantic oddities’, since this study provides their second record in the Atlantic Ocean (Lanuginella cf. pupa, Geodia cf. spherastrella, Cladocroce spathiformis, Cladocroce fibrosa and Haliclona pedunculata). Basic numerical analyses indicated a significant linear relationship between the species richness per m2 and the number of sponge individuals per m2, meaning that in most volcanoes many species occur in equivalent, moderate abundance. Likewise, sponge species richness increased with depth, while the abundance of hard substrata resulting from carbonate precipitation and the fishing activities around the volcanoes had no detectable effect on the sponge fauna. However, in the latter case, a negative trend – lacking statistical support – underlaid the analyses, suggesting that a more extensive sampling would be necessary to derive more definitive conclusions in this regard.
Mindfulness is a form of meditation that cultivates present moment awareness in a non-judging way. It has a Buddhist origin but has been practiced in the last 40 years without relation to any religious belief. It has been proposed as a treatment for a variety of ailments.
To carry out an overview of systematic reviews of the evidence on mindfulness as a therapeutic tool.
To summarize the existing evidence on the efficacy of mindfulness.
We searched for systematic reviews in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (Cochrane Library).
We found nine Cochrane reviews (for fibromyalgia, aggressiveness in intellectually disabled people, mechanical neck disorders, reducing sedentariness at work, anxiety, somatoform disorders, and post-stroke fatigue), two Cochrane review protocols (stress reduction of patients with breast cancer, and substance use disorders), 50 non-Cochrane reviews (29 provisional abstracts and 21 structured abstracts from the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination) on the efficacy of mindfulness. The Cochrane reviews showed a lack of conclusive evidence for fibromyalgia, aggressiveness in intellectually disabled people, anxiety disorders, somatoform disorders and post-stroke fatigue. Mindfulness training induced a non-significant reduction in workplace sitting time. For chronic neck pain, mindfulness exercises minimally improved function but no global effect was perceived at short term.
According to the existing Cochrane reviews, there is a general lack of evidence mindfulness as an effective treatment. For chronic neck pain, mindfulness exercises minimally improved function. We have detected important areas where high quality clinical trials are needed.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
A metallurgical by product mostly constituted of Wustita (FeO) was transformed to Magnetite (Fe3O4) spheres using a flame treatment. Then magnetite spheres surface was modified by cold plasma treatment with ethylene, where a thin polyethylene film was deposited on the spheres surface. Finally, HDPE composites with modified spheres were obtained by melt mixing and its thermal conductivity was determined by MDSC. It was found that spheres surface modification helps to increase composites thermal conductivity.