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CHD is the most common birth defect type, with one-fourth of patients requiring intervention in the first year of life. Caregiver understanding of CHD may vary. Health literacy may be one factor contributing to this variability.
The study occurred at a large, free-standing children’s hospital. Recruitment occurred at a free-of-charge CHD camp and during outpatient cardiology follow-up visits. The study team revised the CHD Guided Questions Tool from an eighth- to a sixth-grade reading level. Caregivers of children with CHD completed the “Newest Vital Sign” health literacy screen and demographic surveys. Health literacy was categorised as “high” (Newest Vital Sign score 4–6) or “low” (score 0–3). Caregivers were randomised to read either the original or revised Guided Questions Tool and completed a validated survey measuring understandability and actionability of the Guided Questions Tool. Understandability and actionability data analysis used two-sample t-testing, and within demographic group differences in these parameters were assessed via one-way analysis of variance.
Eighty-two caregivers participated who were largely well educated with a high income. The majority (79.3%) of participants scored “high” for health literacy. No differences in understanding (p = 0.43) or actionability (p = 0.11) of the original and revised Guided Questions Tool were noted. There were no socio-economic-based differences in understandability or actionability (p > 0.05). There was a trend towards improved understanding of the revised tool (p = 0.06).
This study demonstrated that readability of the Guided Questions Tool could be improved. Future work is needed to expand the study population and further understand health literacy’s impact on the CHD community.
In the mink industry, feed costs are the largest variable expense and breeding for feed efficient animals is warranted. Implementation of selection for feed efficiency must consider the relationships between feed efficiency and the current selection traits BW and litter size. Often, feed intake (FI) is recorded on a cage with a male and a female and there is sexual dimorphism that needs to be accounted for. Study aims were to (1) model group recorded FI accounting for sexual dimorphism, (2) derive genetic residual feed intake (RFI) as a measure of feed efficiency, (3) examine the relationship between feed efficiency and BW in males (BWM) and females (BWF) and litter size at day 21 after whelping (LS21) in Danish brown mink and (4) investigate direct and correlated response to selection on each trait of interest. Feed intake records from 9574 cages, BW records on 16 782 males and 16 875 females and LS21 records on 6446 yearling females were used for analysis. Genetic parameters for FI, BWM, BWF and LS21 were obtained using a multivariate animal model, yielding sex-specific additive genetic variances for FI and BW to account for sexual dimorphism. The analysis was performed in a Bayesian setting using Gibbs sampling, and genetic RFI was obtained from the conditional distribution of FI given BW using genetic regression coefficients. Responses to single trait selection were defined as the posterior distribution of genetic superiority of the top 10% of animals after conditioning on the genetic trends. The heritabilities ranged from 0.13 for RFI in females and LS21 to 0.59 for BWF. Genetic correlations between BW in both sexes and LS21 and FI in both sexes were unfavorable, and single trait selection on BW in either sex showed increased FI in both sexes and reduced litter size. Due to the definition of RFI and high genetic correlation between BWM and BWF, selection on RFI did not significantly alter BW. In addition, selection on RFI in either sex did not affect LS21. Genetic correlation between sexes for FI and BW was high but significantly lower than unity. The high correlations across sex allowed for selection on standardized averages of animals’ breeding values (BVs) for RFI, FI and BW, which yielded selection responses approximately equal to the responses obtained using the sex-specific BVs. The results illustrate the possibility of selecting against RFI in mink with no negative effects on BW and litter size.
Africa is the second largest continent in terms of size and population.1,2 With approximately 1.256 billion people (about 15% of the world’s population) and a land area of 30.3 million square kilometers (including adjacent islands), it occupies about 20.4% of the earth’s total land area.1 A significant fraction of the people in the Caribbean* and South America are of African descent, and there are many historical and cultural links among the people of these regions.3 South America has 422.5 million people, and the Caribbean has about 39.12 million people;1 hence, the total population of all three areas represents about 20% of the world’s population.1,2 Similarities in climate also mean that common approaches can be explored for establishing sustainable building materials, and the range of development indices offer unique opportunities for collaborations in research and education that can facilitate human development.4
Impending global crises and US demographic changes require the United States to develop its intellectual capital fully, especially in science and engineering, in order to maintain its global leadership and economic strength. As US population demographic changes continue and make their way through our educational system, they will directly affect thinking and practices regarding science and engineering education in the United States, the future of science and engineering professions, and the need for diversity in the science and engineering workforce. It is essential to measure and understand the demographics of science and engineering students who will be available to the workforce in the near future, and their same-gender and same-race role models and mentors.
What does queer mean? And how does identifying as queer affect one’s day-to-day life in the arena of materials science and engineering (MSE)? Although when I was growing up, “queer” was treated as an offensive term, queer has been adopted by a growing number of folks who do not conform to traditional societal conventions.1 This encompasses lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender, non-binary, intersex, asexual or other broadly related groups (LGBTQ+), and any similarly aligned subpopulations of humanity that can be broadly defined as gender and sexual minorities (GSM).2–4 Identity is an important attribute that has been tied to the effectiveness of efforts to broaden participation in science5 and engineering.6,7 Identity is important because our sense of self is derived from others, as are the social constructs that establish hierarchies on what is desirable or normal.8 If we associate success in a particular career path with a particular identity (e.g., heterosexual, cis-gender, white male), and our identity is other than that, we may carry an extra burden in achieving success in that career path.9 And, as we all have multiple identities (race, ethnicity, gender, religion) based upon various aspects of our backgrounds, it is evident that personal identities that coincide with the norms of a particular professional role are the easiest. The impacts of identity on self-efficacy are inherent to both imposter syndrome10 and stereotype threat.11
As a result of the selection for genotypes with greater sow prolificacy, litter size increased and, concomitantly, average litter birth weight and early postnatal survival rates of low birth weight (L-BtW) offspring decreased. This study compared the impact of l-carnitine (CAR) and l-arginine (ARG) supplemented with a milk replacer and fed to L-BtW piglets born from large litters from days 7 to 28 of age on growth performance, carcass composition, organ and Semitendinosus muscle (STM) development. A total of 30 female and castrated Swiss Large White piglets weaned at 7 days of age were assigned to three milk replacer diets containing either no supplement (CON), CAR (0.40 g/piglet per day) or ARG (1.08 g/kg BW per day). Piglets were kept in pairs in rescue decks (0.54 m2). They were weighed daily and daily allowance of both, feed and ARG, was adjusted accordingly. Thus, feed allowance depended on growth. Each day, the milk replacer was prepared with water (1:4). Feed (allowance: 60 g dry matter/kg BW per day) was offered daily in six equal rations. Feed intake and feed efficiency was assessed for the pairs and apparent total tract-energy and -protein digestibility was determined from days 21 to 28 of age. On day 28, piglets were euthanized, blood samples were collected and the whole STM and organs were weighed. In STM, the size and metabolic properties of myofibers were determined. No difference in growth performance was found between dietary treatments, but piglets from the CAR group tended (P<0.10) to grow faster during the 1st experimental week and consume more feed from days 14 to 21 as compared with piglets of the CON group. A setback in growth in the last week in the CAR group coincided with the lower (P<0.05) energy and protein digestibility. Dietary treatments had no effect on STM and organ weight and myofiber size. Compared with the other groups, there were trends (P<0.10) for blood serum urea and glucose level to be greater in CAR and for non-esterified fatty acid level to be greater in ARG piglets. The greater (P<0.05) ratio of lactate dehydrogenase to either citrate synthase or β-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase indicated that the relative importance of the glycolytic compared with the oxidative pathway was greater in STM of CAR and ARG compared with CON piglets. These results suggest that ARG and CAR supplements were beneficial for muscle maturation whereas findings on phenotypic traits were rather unsystematic.
Adverse psychosocial working environments characterized by job strain (the combination of high demands and low control at work) are associated with an increased risk of depressive symptoms among employees, but evidence on clinically diagnosed depression is scarce. We examined job strain as a risk factor for clinical depression.
We identified published cohort studies from a systematic literature search in PubMed and PsycNET and obtained 14 cohort studies with unpublished individual-level data from the Individual-Participant-Data Meta-analysis in Working Populations (IPD-Work) Consortium. Summary estimates of the association were obtained using random-effects models. Individual-level data analyses were based on a pre-published study protocol.
We included six published studies with a total of 27 461 individuals and 914 incident cases of clinical depression. From unpublished datasets we included 120 221 individuals and 982 first episodes of hospital-treated clinical depression. Job strain was associated with an increased risk of clinical depression in both published [relative risk (RR) = 1.77, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.47–2.13] and unpublished datasets (RR = 1.27, 95% CI 1.04–1.55). Further individual participant analyses showed a similar association across sociodemographic subgroups and after excluding individuals with baseline somatic disease. The association was unchanged when excluding individuals with baseline depressive symptoms (RR = 1.25, 95% CI 0.94–1.65), but attenuated on adjustment for a continuous depressive symptoms score (RR = 1.03, 95% CI 0.81–1.32).
Job strain may precipitate clinical depression among employees. Future intervention studies should test whether job strain is a modifiable risk factor for depression.
Dietary advanced glycation end products (AGE) formed during heating of food have gained interest as potential nutritional toxins with adverse effects on inflammation and glucose metabolism. In the present study, we investigated the short-term effects of high and low molecular weight (HMW and LMW) dietary AGE on insulin sensitivity, expression of the receptor for AGE (RAGE), the AGE receptor 1 (AGER1) and TNF-α, F2-isoprostaglandins, body composition and food intake. For 2 weeks, thirty-six Sprague–Dawley rats were fed a diet containing 20 % milk powder with different proportions of this being given as heated milk powder (0, 40 or 100 %), either native (HMW) or hydrolysed (LMW). Gene expression of RAGE and AGER1 in whole blood increased in the group receiving a high AGE LMW diet, which also had the highest urinary excretion of the AGE, methylglyoxal-derived hydroimidazolone 1 (MG-H1). Urinary excretion of Nε-carboxymethyl-lysine increased with increasing proportion of heat-treated milk powder in the HMW and LMW diets but was unrelated to gene expression. There was no difference in insulin sensitivity, F2-isoprostaglandins, food intake, water intake, body weight or body composition between the groups. In conclusion, RAGE and AGER1 expression can be influenced by a high AGE diet after only 2 weeks in proportion to MG-H1 excretion. No other short-term effects were observed.
The objectives of this study were to investigate the individual variation, repeatability and correlation of methane (CH4) production from dairy cows measured during 2 different years. A total of 21 dairy cows with an average BW of 619±14.2 kg and average milk production of 29.1±6.5 kg/day (mean±s.d.) were used in the 1st year. During the 2nd year, the same cows were used with an average BW of 640±8.0 kg and average milk production of 33.4±6.0 kg/day (mean±s.d.). The cows were housed in a loose housing system fitted with an automatic milking system (AMS). A total mixed ration was fed to the cows ad libitum in both years. In addition, they were offered concentrate in the AMS based on their daily milk yield. The CH4 and CO2 production levels of the cows were analysed using a Gasmet DX-4030. The estimated dry matter intake (EDMI) was 19.8±0.96 and 23.1±0.78 (mean±s.d.), and the energy-corrected milk (ECM) production was 30.8±8.03 and 33.7±5.25 kg/day (mean±s.d.) during the 1st and 2nd year, respectively. The EDMI and ECM had a significant influence (P<0.001) on the CH4 (l/day) yield during both years. The daily CH4 (l/day) production was significantly higher (P<0.05) during the 2nd year compared with the 1st year. The EDMI (described by the ECM) appeared to be the key factor in the variation of CH4 release. A correlation (r=0.54) of CH4 production was observed between the years. The CH4 (l/day) production was strongly correlated (r=0.70) between the 2 years with an adjusted ECM production (30 kg/day). The diurnal variation of CH4 (l/h) production showed significantly lower (P<0.05) emission during the night (0000 to 0800 h). The between-cows variation of CH4 (l/day, l/kg EDMI and l/kg ECM) was lower compared with the within-cow variation for the 1st and 2nd years. The repeatability of CH4 production (l/day) was 0.51 between 2 years. In conclusion, a higher EDMI (kg/day) followed by a higher ECM (kg/day) showed a higher CH4 production (l/day) in the 2nd year. The variations of CH4 (l/day) among the cows were lower than the within-cow variations. The CH4 (l/day) production was highly repeatable and, with an adjusted ECM production, was correlated between the years.
Consumption of poultry meat is considered as one of the main sources of human campylobacteriosis, and there is clearly a need for new surveillance and control measures based on quantitative data on Campylobacter spp. colonization dynamics in broiler chickens. We conducted four experimental infection trials, using four isolators during each infection trial to evaluate colonization of individual broiler chickens by Campylobacter jejuni over time. Individual and pooled faecal samples were obtained at days 4, 7 and 12 post-inoculation (p.i.) and caecal samples at day 12 p.i. There were large differences between broiler chickens in the number of C. jejuni in caecal and faecal material. Faecal samples of C. jejuni ranged from 4·0 to 9·4 log c.f.u./g and from 4·8 to 9·3 log c.f.u./g in the caeca. Faecal c.f.u./g decreased with time p.i. Most variation in c.f.u. for faecal and caecal samples was attributed to broiler chickens and a minor part to isolators, whereas infection trials did not affect the total variance. The results showed that pooled samples within isolators had lower c.f.u./g compared to the arithmetic mean of the individual samples. There was a significant correlation between faecal c.f.u./g at days 4 and 7 p.i., days 7 and 12 p.i. and for caecal and faecal c.f.u./g at day 12 p.i.
The formation and decomposition of silico-ferrite of calcium and aluminium (SFCA) and SFCA-I iron ore sinter bonding phases have been investigated using in situ synchrotron and laboratory X-ray diffraction (XRD) and neutron diffraction (ND). An external standard approach for determining absolute phase concentrations via Rietveld refinement-based quantitative phase analysis is discussed. The complementarity of in situ XRD and ND in characterising sinter phase formation and decomposition is also shown, with the volume diffraction afforded by the neutron technique reducing errors in the quantification of magnetite above ~1200 °C. Finally, by collecting 6 s laboratory XRD datasets and using a heating rate of 175 °C min−1, phase formation and decomposition have been monitored under heating rates more closely approximating those encountered in industrial iron ore sintering.
The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the compensatory growth feeding strategy could be a suitable solution for overcoming the negative effects on growth, carcass composition and meat quality of low birth weight pigs. Forty-two Swiss Large White barrows from 21 litters were selected at weaning and categorized into either being light (L; >0.8 and <1.3 kg) or heavy (H; >1.7 kg) birth weight pigs. From 27.8 kg BW, pigs were assigned within birth weight group to one of three feeding groups: AA: ad libitum access to the grower and finisher diet, RR: restricted access to the grower and finisher diet or RA: restricted access to the grower diet and ad libitum access to the finisher diet. At slaughter, the longissimus (LM) and semitendinosus (STM) muscles were removed from the right side of the carcass. Weight, girth and length of the STM and the LM area were determined after muscle excision. Carcass characteristics and meat quality traits were assessed. Using mATPase histochemistry, myofibre size and myofibre type distribution were determined in the LM and STM. Because of longer days on feed, total feed intake was greater (P<0.01) and feed efficiency was lower (P<0.01) in L than H barrows. Regardless of the birth weight group, AA and RA barrows grew faster (P<0.05) than RR barrows. During the compensatory growth period, RA barrows grew faster (P<0.05) than AA or RR barrows. Growth efficiency did not differ between RA and RR barrows but was greater (P<0.05) compared with AA barrows. Carcasses of L barrows were fatter as indicated by the lower (P⩽≤0.05) lean meat and greater (P⩽0.02) omental and subcutaneous fat percentage. Lean meat percentage was lower (P⩽0.05) in AA and RA than RR barrows. These differences caused by ad libitum feed access tended to be greater (feeding regime × birth weight group interaction; P<0.08) in L than H barrows. In L barrows, slow oxidative, fast oxidative glycolytic and overall average myofibre size of the LM and the fast glycolytic myofibres and overall average myofibre size of the dark portion of the STM were larger (P⩽0.03) than in H barrows. The study revealed that the compensatory growth feeding strategy was inadequate in overcoming the disadvantages of low birth weight.
We present a new joint analysis of pulsar dispersion measures and diffuse Hα emission in the Milky Way, which we use to derive the density, pressure and filling factor of the thick disk component of the warm ionised medium (WIM) as a function of height above the Galactic disk. By excluding sightlines at low Galactic latitude that are contaminated by Hii regions and spiral arms, we find that the exponential scale-height of free electrons in the diffuse WIM is 1830–250+120 pc, a factor of two larger than has been derived in previous studies. The corresponding inconsistent scale heights for dispersion measure and emission measure imply that the vertical profiles of mass and pressure in the WIM are decoupled, and that the filling factor of WIM clouds is a geometric response to the competing environmental influences of thermal and non-thermal processes. Extrapolating the properties of the thick-disk WIM to mid-plane, we infer a volume-averaged electron density 0.014 ± 0.001 cm−3, produced by clouds of typical electron density 0.34 ± 0.06 cm−3 with a volume filling factor 0.04 ± 0.01. As one moves off the plane, the filling factor increases to a maximum of ∼30% at a height of ≈1–1.5 kpc, before then declining to accommodate the increasing presence of hot, coronal gas. Since models for the WIM with a ≈1 kpc scale-height have been widely used to estimate distances to radio pulsars, our revised parameters suggest that the distances to many high-latitude pulsars have been substantially underestimated.
The emission nebula around the subdwarf B (sdB) star PHL 932 is currently classified as a planetary nebula (PN) in the literature. Based on a large body of multi-wavelength data, both new and previously published, we show here that this low-excitation nebula is in fact a small Strömgren sphere (Hii region) in the interstellar medium around this star. We summarise the properties of the nebula and its ionizing star, and discuss its evolutionary status. We find no compelling evidence for close binarity, arguing that PHL 932 is an ordinary sdB star. We also find that the emission nebulae around the hot DO stars PG 0108 + 101 and PG 0109 + 111 are also Strömgren spheres in the ISM, and along with PHL 932, are probably associated with the same extensive region of high-latitude molecular gas in Pisces–Pegasus.