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Poor physical health in severe mental illness (SMI) remains a major issue for clinical practice.
To use electronic health records of routinely collected clinical data to determine levels of screening for cardiometabolic disease and adverse health outcomes in a large sample (n = 7718) of patients with SMI, predominantly schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.
We linked data from the Glasgow Psychosis Clinical Information System (PsyCIS) to morbidity records, routine blood results and prescribing data.
There was no record of routine blood monitoring during the preceding 2 years for 16.9% of the cohort. However, monitoring was poorer for male patients, younger patients aged 16–44, those with schizophrenia, and for tests of cholesterol, triglyceride and glycosylated haemoglobin. We estimated that 8.0% of participants had diabetes and that lipids levels, and use of lipid-lowering medication, was generally high.
Electronic record linkage identified poor health screening and adverse health outcomes in this vulnerable patient group. This approach can inform the design of future interventions and health policy.
Applying high-resolution electron backscatter diffraction (HR-EBSD) to materials without regions that are amenable to the acquisition of backgrounds for static flat fielding (background subtraction) can cause analysis problems. To address this difficulty, the efficacy of electron beam induced deposition (EBID) of material as a source for an amorphous background signal is assessed and found to be practical. Using EBID material for EBSD backgrounds allows single crystal and large-grained samples to be analyzed using HR-EBSD for strain and small angle rotation measurement.
Introduction: Point of care ultrasound (US) is a key adjunct in the management of trauma patients, in the form of the extended focused assessment with sonography in trauma (E-FAST) scan. This study assessed the impact of adding an edus2 ultrasound simulator on the diagnostic capabilities of resident and attending physicians participating in simulated trauma scenarios. Methods: 12 residents and 20 attending physicians participated in 114 trauma simulations utilizing a Laerdal 3G mannequin. Participants generated a ranked differential diagnosis list after a standard assessment, and again after completing a simulated US scan for each scenario. We compared reports to determine if US improved diagnostic performance over a physical exam alone. Standard statistical tests (χ2 and Student t tests) were performed. The research team was independent of the edus2 designers. Results: Primary diagnosis improved significantly from 53 (46%) to 97 (85%) correct diagnoses with the addition of simulated US (χ2=37.7, 1df; p=<0.0001). Of the 61 scenarios where an incorrect top ranked diagnosis was given, 51 (84%) improved following US. Participants were assigned a score from 1 to 5 based on where the correct diagnosis was ranked, with a 5 indicating a correct primary diagnosis. Median scores significantly increased from 3.8 (IQR 3, 4.9) to 5 (IQR 4.7, 5; W=219, p<0.0001).Participants were significantly more confident in their diagnoses after using the US simulator, as shown by the increase in their mean confidence in the correct diagnosis from 53.1% (SD 22.8) to 83.5% (SD 19.1; t=9.0; p<0.0001)Additionally, participants significantly narrowed their differential diagnosis lists from an initial medium count of 3.5 (IQR 2.9, 4.4) possible diagnoses to 2.4 (IQR 1.9, 3; W=-378, p<0.0001) following US. The performance of residents was compared to that of attending physicians for each of the above analyses. No differences in performance were detected. Conclusion: This study showed that the addition of ultrasound to simulated trauma scenarios improved the diagnostic capabilities of resident and attending physicians. Specifically, participants improved in diagnostic accuracy, diagnostic confidence, and diagnostic precision. Additionally, we have shown that the edus2 simulator can be integrated into high fidelity simulation in a way that improves diagnostic performance.
The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is scheduled for launch in 2018. To operate and observe efficiently, JWST will rely on various external astrometric and photometric catalogues, in particular the HST Guide Star Catalog (GSC), for instance to locate sources accurately on the sky. The incorporation of the Gaia astrometric catalog will improve the absolute astrometry of the GSC and is therefore relevant for JWST operations. We outline how the JWST Science and Operations Center hosted at the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) intends to use the Gaia survey results to improve upon operational aspects such as the guiding and the geometric focal plane characterisation of JWST.
A new approach is proposed to analyze Bremsstrahlung X-rays that are emitted from laser-produced plasmas (LPP) and are measured by a stack type spectrometer. This new method is based on a spectral tomographic reconstruction concept with the variational principle for optimization, without referring to the electron energy distribution of a plasma. This approach is applied to the analysis of some experimental data obtained at a few major laser facilities to demonstrate the applicability of the method. Slope temperatures of X-rays from LPP are determined with a two-temperature model, showing different spectral characteristics of X-rays depending on laser properties used in the experiments.
Scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) through-focus imaging (TFI) has been used to determine the three-dimensional atomic structure of Bi segregation-induced brittle Cu grain boundaries (GBs). With TFI, it is possible to observe single Bi atom distributions along Cu  twist GBs using an aberration-corrected STEM operating at 200 kV. The depth resolution is ~5 nm. Specimens with GBs intentionally inclined with respect to the microscope’s optic axis were used to investigate Bi segregant atom distributions along and through the Cu GB. It was found that Bi atoms exist at most once per Cu unit cell along the GB, meaning that no continuous GB film is present. Therefore, the reduced fracture toughness of this particular Bi-doped Cu boundary would not be caused by fracture of Bi–Bi bonds.
During the Skylab period from June 1973 to January 1974 approximately 1500 type III metre-wave radio bursts or burst groups were reported (Solar Geophysical Data Prompt Reports). The longitudinal distribution of these type III bursts closely resembles that of sunspots and of the coronal transients observed above 2 R⊙ by the white-light coronagraph on Skylab. White light ejection transients appear as large loop or blob-like structures which carry material outward from the Sun and rearrange the corona. In front of the main, bright structures there are weak enhancements of brightness, termed forerunners (Jackson and Hildner 1978; Jackson 1978). In this paper we enquire into whether or not type III bursts are in any way related to the onset of solar mass ejections indicated by coronal transients.
This paper describes a preliminary series of observations of the Sun made at a frequency of 80 MHz with the 3 km radioheliograph of the Culgoora Observatory. The instrument records, at one-second intervals, pictures of the solar image in the form of 60 (E-W) × 48 (N-S) points, each separated in angle by half the Rayleigh limit (2’ arc in the zenith). At the time of the present observations the instrument was incomplete in three main respects : (a) the facilities for recording opposite senses of circular polarization were not available; (b) the automatic image compensation for zenith-angle foreshortening was not available—hence the optical disk of the Sun appears elliptical; and (c) the phase and amplitude calibration procedures had not been fully established, resulting in a higher sidelobe level than that specified in the design—the effects are sometimes evident in the pictures as spoke-like brightenings.
Studies of coronal transients observed in white-light (Gosling et al., 1976) have shown that fast-moving events (≤ 400 km s-1) are closely associated with flares and with type II and IV radio bursts while slow-moving events are not. We now report the first detection of the radio counterpart of a slow-moving transient. The event of 1974 January 21 is shown to be visible on maps of the quiet Sun made at a frequency of 80 MHz.
When I began my studies of solar radio astronomy, Dr J. L. Pawsey, who then led the radio astronomy group in the Division of Radiophysics, CSIRO, explained to me that the internal structure of the Sun was ‘well understood’, thanks to a lack of conflicting observational data, but that for the observable layers of the Sun, the photosphere, chromosphere and corona, a great many mysteries remained. I am sure that he would have been amused by the recent discovery that there are not enough neutrons coming from the core of the Sun. I shall devote most of my talk to matters about which we are fairly certain, but often I will only be able to give part of the story because the details have not yet emerged from the wealth of solar mysteries.
This communication describes techniques, new to radio astronomy, which permit the analysis of electrical signals at radio-frequencies by optical methods.
Two applications will be described: the first is to a spectrograph which gives the instantaneous power spectrum of a single broad-band electrical signal; the second is to the analysis of the signals from a number of aerials of an array in order to form a simultaneous image of the brightness distribution of the region of the sky under observation.
The Culgoora radioheliograph was designed in the early 1960s and commissioned in 1967. Since then there have been dramatic increases in the speed and versatility of digital integrated-circuit devices, and also a marked fall in their cost. It is now possible to replace the original signal processing electronics with equipment, based on modern digital technology, which will significantly enhance the performance of this radio telescope for solar and cosmic radio observations at metre wavelengths.
With a number of important exceptions associated with transitory flare activity, most persistent sources of solar radio emission observed to date with the 80 MHz Culgoora radioheliograph have been stable in position over periods of tens of minutes or hours even though they fluctuated greatly in intensity. During several hours on 1968 November 11, however, we observed some interesting activity which showed frequent changes in the position of a source.
On 1973 March 22 a radio event was observed above the east limb of the Sun with the Culgoora radioheliograph operating at both 80 and 160 MHz. The first stage of this event, a type I storm closely associated with a rising prominence, offers a new insight into the nature of this phenomenon. This storm was followed immediately by a moving type IV burst – the first burst of this kind for which two-dimensional observations are available at two frequencies. The relation between these two stages may help explain the ‘missing hour’ in observations of another moving type IV burst known as ‘Westward Ho’.
For many years we have had evidence from solar radio bursts of violent mass motions in the solar corona: type II bursts reveal the passage of shock waves through the solar corona, and moving type IV bursts show that plasma and magnetic field travel to great distances without any sign of slowing down.
Of the metre-wavelength solar radio bursts which have been recognized, those of type II are characterized by the most complex set of spectral features. Apparently acceptable explanations have now been put forward for most of these features. However, not all these explanations can be considered to be established. In particular the phenomenon of band splitting has been explained in different ways by Sturrock, by Tidman et al., by Zheleznyakov and Zaitsev. However, the theories of Sturrock and Tidman apparently require magnetic fields so strong as to preclude the formation of a magnetohydrodynamic shock wave by a disturbance moving at the velocity (<~ 1000 km/s) attributed to type II bursts. The same problem is encountered in other earlier theories of band splitting involving magnetic effects. The other theory does not involve the magnetic field strength. However, the details of this theory do not appear to have been properly worked out as yet.
For a number of years the occurrence of isolated groups of apparently related type III bursts has been recognized as a common feature of the dynamic spectral records of solar radio emission at metre wavelengths. Interferometer observations supported the simple hypothesis that bursts of a group were usually located in the same position. In this note we report 80 MHz observations made with the Culgoora radioheliograph which show that although the sources of the bursts in a group tend to overlap one another, their centroids may show marked scatter and that their distribution tends to be along narrow lanes across the solar disk. Since the 80 MHz sources occur at heights (≳ 0.6 R⊙) near or above the plasma level, these lanes doubtless reflect some structural feature of the outer corona.
On 17 June 1968 we observed a flare event with the 80 MHz Culgoora radioheliograph consisting of a sequence of two type II bursts followed by enhanced emission possibly of type IV. In this paper we shall attempt to summarize some ofthe profuse data collected by the radioheliograph during this event and relate it to data from the radiospectrograph and Hα films of the associated flare (the Hα films were kindly made available by the Division of Physics, CSIRO).