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Herbicide active ingredients, formulation type, ambient temperature, and humidity can influence volatility. A method was developed using volatility chambers to compare relative volatility of different synthetic auxin herbicide formulations in controlled environments. 2,4-D or dicamba acid vapors emanating after application were captured in air-sampling tubes at 24, 48, 72, and 96 h after herbicide application. The 2,4-D or dicamba was extracted from sample tubes and quantified using liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. Volatility from 2,4-D dimethylamine (DMA) was determined to be greater than that of 2,4-D choline in chambers where temperatures were held at 30 or 40 C and relative humidity (RH) was 20% or 50%. Air concentration of 2,4-D DMA was 0.399 µg m−3 at 40 C and 20% RH compared with 0.005 µg m−3 for 2,4-D choline at the same temperature and humidity at 24 h after application. Volatility from 2,4-D DMA and 2,4-D choline increased as temperature increased from 30 to 40 C. However, volatility from 2,4-D choline was lower than observed from 2,4-D DMA. Volatility from 2,4-D choline at 40 C increased from 0.00458 to 0.0263 µg m−3 and from 0.00341 to 0.025 µg m−3 when humidity increased from 20% to 50% at 72 and 96 h after treatment, respectively, whereas, volatility from 2,4-D DMA tended to be higher at 20% RH compared with 50% RH. Air concentration of dicamba diglycolamine was similar at all time points when measured at 40 C and 20% RH. By 96 h after treatment, there was a trend for lower air concentration of dicamba compared with earlier timings. This method using volatility chambers provided good repeatability with low variability across replications, experiments, and herbicides.
Recent evidence suggests that exercise plays a role in cognition and that the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) can be divided into dorsal and ventral subregions based on distinct connectivity patterns.
To examine the effect of physical activity and division of the PCC on brain functional connectivity measures in subjective memory complainers (SMC) carrying the epsilon 4 allele of apolipoprotein E (APOE 4) allele.
Participants were 22 SMC carrying the APOE ɛ4 allele (ɛ4+; mean age 72.18 years) and 58 SMC non-carriers (ɛ4–; mean age 72.79 years). Connectivity of four dorsal and ventral seeds was examined. Relationships between PCC connectivity and physical activity measures were explored.
ɛ4+ individuals showed increased connectivity between the dorsal PCC and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and the ventral PCC and supplementary motor area (SMA). Greater levels of physical activity correlated with the magnitude of ventral PCC–SMA connectivity.
The results provide the first evidence that ɛ4+ individuals at increased risk of cognitive decline show distinct alterations in dorsal and ventral PCC functional connectivity.
Although beta-amyloid, anxiety and depression have been linked cross-sectionally to reduced memory function in healthy older adults without dementia, prospective data evaluating these associations are lacking. Using data from an observational cohort study of 178 healthy older adults without dementia followed for 3 years, we found that anxiety symptoms significantly moderated the relationship between beta-amyloid level and decline in verbal (Cohen's d = 0.65) and episodic (Cohen's d = 0.38) memory. Anxiety symptoms were additionally linked to greater decline in executive function, irrespective of beta-amyloid and other risk factors. These findings suggest that interventions to mitigate anxiety symptoms may help delay memory decline in otherwise healthy older adults with elevated beta-amyloid.
The Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle (AIBL) Flagship Study of Ageing is a prospective study of 1,112 individuals (211 with Alzheimer's disease (AD), 133 with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and 768 healthy controls (HCs)). Here we report diagnostic and cognitive findings at the first (18-month) follow-up of the cohort. The first aim was to compute rates of transition from HC to MCI, and MCI to AD. The second aim was to characterize the cognitive profiles of individuals who transitioned to a more severe disease stage compared with those who did not.
Eighteen months after baseline, participants underwent comprehensive cognitive testing and diagnostic review, provided an 80 ml blood sample, and completed health and lifestyle questionnaires. A subgroup also underwent amyloid PET and MRI neuroimaging.
The diagnostic status of 89.9% of the cohorts was determined (972 were reassessed, 28 had died, and 112 did not return for reassessment). The 18-month cohort comprised 692 HCs, 82 MCI cases, 197 AD patients, and one Parkinson's disease dementia case. The transition rate from HC to MCI was 2.5%, and cognitive decline in HCs who transitioned to MCI was greatest in memory and naming domains compared to HCs who remained stable. The transition rate from MCI to AD was 30.5%.
There was a high retention rate after 18 months. Rates of transition from healthy aging to MCI, and MCI to AD, were consistent with established estimates. Follow-up of this cohort over longer periods will elucidate robust predictors of future cognitive decline.
Previous research showed growth regulator herbicides, such as picloram and aminopyralid, have a sterilizing effect on Japanese brome (Bromus japonicus Thunb.) that can reduce this invasive annual grass's seed production nearly 100%. This suggests growth regulators might be used to control invasive annual grasses by depleting their short-lived seed banks. The goal of this study was to extend the previous Japanese brome research to downy brome (Bromus tectorum L.), the most damaging invasive annual grass of U.S. grasslands. In a greenhouse, we found picloram did not greatly influence downy brome seed production, while point estimates suggest aminopyralid reduced seed production 55 to 80%. If not for a highly abnormal retillering response that we somewhat doubt would occur in the field, point estimates suggest aminopyralid would have reduced downy brome seed production approximately 90% when applied at the heading stage and approximately 98% when applied at three earlier growth stages. Our greenhouse study should encourage field studies designed to further explore the potential for using growth regulators to control downy brome and other invasive annual grasses.
A recently developed geometrically nonlinear stress-curvature relation based on a minimization of the total strain energy, which predicts a bifurcation in shape as the magnitude of intrinsic film stress increases, is discussed in this paper. It is compared with the linear theories of Stoney and Brenner & Senderoff for a thin molybdenum film on silicon substrates with various thicknesses. Although the ratio of film to substrate elastic modulus is only 2, Stoney's equation generates significant error for this film/substrate system and the Brenner & Senderoff relation should be used for calculating initial film stress when plate deflections are small. When deflections exceed approximately half the substrate thickness the Brenner & Senderoff equation produces over 10% error and consequently, the nonlinear stress-deflection relation should be used to relate plate curvatures to initial film stress.
The curvatures of thin film/substrate systems are obtained for a nonlinear plate deflection model using a Galerkin minimization procedure proposed by Hyer. A fifth order polynomial involving the curvatures is given. The results show that the linear models of Stoney and Brenner and Senderoff apply only at low stress states and that stable and unstable configurations develop at higher stresses even for isotropic systems.
Auxinic herbicides, such as 2,4-D and dicamba, that act as plant growth regulators are commonly used for broadleaf weed control in cereal crops (e.g., wheat, barley), grasslands, and noncroplands. If applied at late growth stages, while cereals are developing reproductive parts, the herbicides can reduce seed production. We tested whether growth regulators have this same effect on the invasive annual grass Japanese brome. The herbicides 2,4-D, dicamba, and picloram were applied at typical field use rates to Japanese brome at various growth stages in a greenhouse. Picloram reduced seed production nearly 100% when applied at the internode elongation, boot, or heading stages of growth, whereas dicamba appeared to be slightly less effective and 2,4-D was much less effective. Our results indicate it may be possible to control Japanese brome by using growth regulator herbicides to reduce its seed production, thereby depleting its short-lived seed bank.
We use data from large surveys of the local universe (SDSS+Galaxy Zoo) to show that the galaxy–black hole connection is linked to host morphology at a fundamental level. The fraction of early-type galaxies with actively growing black holes, and therefore the AGN duty cycle, declines significantly with increasing black hole mass. Late-type galaxies exhibit the opposite trend: the fraction of actively growing black holes increases with black hole mass.
For maximum utilization of deep cultures to produce FMD virus it was important to have adequate control of culture temperature and pH. Culture temperature should be controlled within the range 34·25°7–35°C. and culture pH at 7·2. The culture system became less efficient as the cell concentration was increased from 1 × 106·0 to 9 × 106·0 cells/ml. A cell concentration of 2·5 × 106·0 cells/ml. represented a working compromise between efficiency and antigen titre/ml. for inactivated FMD vaccine production.
The input virus/cell ratio had no effect on the time or titre of peak virus yield in the range 1:1 to 1:320. This makes the production of seed virus from small numbers of monolayer cultures feasible and economical.
Virus yield was improved by the addition of 5% serum. It would be more satisfactory if a serum-free cell strain could be developed.
The Arecibo L-band Feed Array Zone of Avoidance Survey (ALFA ZOA) will map 1350-1800 deg2 at low Galactic latitude, providing HI spectra for galaxies in regions of the sky where our knowledge of local large scale structure remains incomplete, owing to obscuration from dust and high stellar confusion near the Galactic plane. Because of these effects, a substantial fraction of the galaxies detected in the survey will have no optical or infrared counterparts. However, near infrared follow up observations of ALFA ZOA sources found in regions of lowest obscuration could reveal whether some of these sources could be objects in which little or no star formation has taken place (“dark galaxies”). We present here the results of ALFA ZOA precursor observations on two patches of sky totaling 140 deg2 (near l = 40°, and l = 192°). We have measured HI parameters for detections from these observations, and cross-correlated with the NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database (NED). A significant fraction of the objects have never been detected at any wavelength. For those galaxies that have been previously detected, a significant fraction have no previously known redshift, and no previous HI detection.
This paper documents the yield gains attributable to the breeding and distribution of new cocoa varieties in Ghana, using data from a 2002 survey of 192 fields in the country's key cocoa producing regions. We find that planting the more recently-released varieties is associated with at least 42% higher yields, and that genetic improvement accounts for much but not all of the observed correlation between tree age and cocoa yield. Fertilizer use is also very important, being associated with 19% higher cocoa yield per 50 kg bag of fertilizer. We find no evidence that varieties differ in their response to fertilizer, pesticide use or labour, and no evidence of a decline in the yield advantage of new varieties over the 17-year age span observed in the sample.
Ocular disease is the commonest disabling consequence of toxoplasma infection. Incidence and
lifetime risk of ocular symptoms were determined by ascertaining affected patients in a
population-based, active reporting study involving ophthalmologists serving a population of 7·4
million. Eighty-seven symptomatic episodes were attributed to toxoplasma infection. Bilateral
visual acuity of 6/12 or less was found in seven episodes (8%) and was likely to have been
transient in most cases. Black people born in West Africa had a 100-fold higher incidence of
symptoms than white people born in Britain. Only two patients reported symptoms before 10
years of age. The estimated lifetime risk of symptoms in British born individuals (52% of all
episodes) was 18/100000 (95% confidence interval: 10·8–25·2). The low risk and mild
symptoms in an unscreened British population indicate limited potential benefits of prenatal or
postnatal screening. The late age at presentation suggests a mixed aetiology of postnatally
acquired and congenital infection for which primary prevention may be appropriate,
particularly among West Africans.
Absorption, translocation, and metabolism of AC 263,222 by leafy spurge were studied over 8 d. Based on the amount of herbicide applied and recovered from the leaf surfaces, 40% of applied AC 263,222 was absorbed by leafy spurge 2 d after treatment (DAT), with no further absorption observed by 8 DAT. Eight DAT, 19% of applied [14C]-AC 263,222 had translocated to below-ground plant parts while 4% was exuded from the roots into the sand media. AC 263,222 was not metabolized 2 DAT in the crown, root, and root buds, but 42% was metabolized in the treated leaves. Only 17% of recovered [14C] was AC 263,222 in treated leaves 8 DAT (83% metabolized), while AC 263,222 accounted for 70% of recovered [14C] in the root and root buds. HPLC analysis indicated that the balance of [14C] was associated with a single, polar metabolite. Total recovery of [14C] was 88% at 8 DAT.
Degradation of Great Plains rangelands can be linked to past management practices that reduced native species diversity and accelerated establishment and expansion of exotic weeds and less desirable native species. Leafy spurge is an exotic perennial weed that infests more than 1 million ha in the northern Great Plains and reduces rangeland carrying capacity by competing with desirable forages and causing infested areas to be undesirable to cattle and wildlife. Research was conducted to determine the feasibility of using herbicides to suppress leafy spurge and other resident vegetation, which facilitated planting and establishment of native tallgrasses. Four experiments were conducted where 0.28, 0.56, and 0.84 kg ai/ha imazapyr and 0.1 kg ai/ha sulfometuron were applied alone and in combination and 0.84 kg ai/ha glyphosate was applied to leafy spurge-infested range sites in fall 1991 near Ainsworth, NE, and in fall 1991, 1992, and 1993 near Ansley, NE. Research areas were burned about 200 d after herbicide application to reduce plant residue. Monoculture stands of big bluestem and switchgrass were then no-till planted in each experiment and indiangrass was no-till planted in experiments initiated at Ansley in 1992 and 1993. Yields of the planted grasses, leafy spurge, and other vegetation were measured in August at each location starting the year after planting. Imazapyr was an essential component of treatments applied before planting to facilitate establishment of highly productive stands of the tallgrasses. Generally, yields were maximized by fall treatments of 0.28 kg/ha imazapyr + 0.1 kg/ha sulfometuron for big bluestem, 0.84 kg/ha imazapyr for indiangrass, and 0.84 kg/ha imazapyr + 0.1 kg/ha sulfometuron for switchgrass. Yields of the planted grasses were frequently four times greater where these herbicides were applied compared to where glyphosate or no herbicide were applied. Leafy spurge yields were usually reduced in areas where tallgrass yields were greatest. The sequential combination of suppressing vegetation with fall-applied herbicides, burning standing dead plant residue, then no-till planting desirable native tallgrasses in the spring increased productivity of these leafy spurge-infested range sites.