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Mental imagery refers to the experience of perception in the absence of external sensory input. Deficits in the ability to generate mental imagery or to distinguish it from actual sensory perception are linked to neurocognitive conditions such as dementia and schizophrenia, respectively. However, the importance of mental imagery to psychiatry extends beyond neurocognitive impairment. Mental imagery has a stronger link to emotion than verbal-linguistic cognition, serving to maintain and amplify emotional states, with downstream impacts on motivation and behavior. As a result, anomalies in the occurrence of emotion-laden mental imagery has transdiagnostic significance for emotion, motivation, and behavioral dysfunction across mental disorders. This review aims to demonstrate the conceptual and clinical significance of mental imagery in psychiatry through examples of mood and anxiety disorders, self-harm and suicidality, and addiction. We contend that focusing on mental imagery assessment in research and clinical practice can increase our understanding of the cognitive basis of psychopathology in mental disorders, with the potential to drive the development of algorithms to aid treatment decision-making and inform transdiagnostic treatment innovation.
The Troodos ophiolite Cyprus hosts the type locality for Cyprus-type, mafic volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) deposits. Regional soil geochemical data for Troodos are highly variable with the Solea graben, one of three regional graben structures on Cyprus, showing enrichment in Te and Se. Of the three VMS sampled within the Solea graben, Apliki exhibits the most significant enrichment in Se. Samples from the South Apliki Breccia Zone; a zone of hematite-rich breccia containing euhedral pyrite and chalcopyrite, contain up to 4953 and 3956 ppm Se in pyrite and chalcopyrite, respectively. Four paragenetic stages are identified at Apliki and different generations of pyrite are distinguishable using trace-element chemistry analysed via laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Results indicate stage I pyrite formed under reduced conditions at high temperatures >280°C and contains 182 ppm (n = 22 σ = 253) Se. Late stage III pyrite which is euhedral and overprints chalcopyrite and hematite is enriched in Se (averaging 1862 ppm; n = 23 σ = 1394). Sulfide dissolution and hematite formation displaced large amounts of Se as hematite cannot accommodate high concentrations of Se in its crystal structure. The mechanisms proposed to explain the pronounced change in redox are twofold. Fault movement leading to localized seawater ingress coupled with a decreasing magmatic flux that generated locally oxidizing conditions and promoted sulfide dissolution. A Se/S ratio of 9280 indicates a probable magmatic component for late stage III pyrite, which is suggested as a mechanism explaining the transition from oxidizing back to reduced conditions. This study highlights the significance of changes in redox which promote sulfide dissolution, mobilization and enrichment of Se.
Our 2015-2016 ALMA 1.3 to 0.87 mm observations (resolution ~200 au) of the massive protocluster NGC6334I revealed that an extraordinary outburst had occurred in the dominant millimeter dust core MM1 (luminosity increase of 70×) when compared with earlier SMA data. The outburst was accompanied by the flaring of ten maser transitions of three species. We present new results from our recent JVLA observations of Class II 6.7 GHz methanol masers and 6 GHz excited OH masers in this region. Class II masers had not previously been detected toward MM1 in any interferometric observations recorded over the past 30 years that targeted the bright masers toward other members of the protocluster (MM2 and MM3=NGC6334F). Methanol masers now appear both toward and adjacent to MM1 with the strongest spots located in a dust cavity ~1 arcsec (1300 au) north of the MM1B hypercompact HII region. In addition, new excited OH masers appear on the non-thermal source CM2. These data reveal the dramatic effects of episodic accretion onto a deeply-embedded high mass protostar and demonstrate its ongoing impact on the surrounding protocluster.
We present subarcsecond resolution pre- and post-outburst JVLA continuum and water maser observations of the massive protostellar outburst source NGC6334I-MM1. The continuum data at 5 and 1.4 cm reveal that the free-free emission powered by MM1B, modeled as a hypercompact HII region from our 2011 JVLA data, has dropped by a factor of 5.4. Additionally, the water maser emission toward MM1, which had previously been strong (500 Jy) has dramatically reduced. In contrast, the water masers in other locations in the protocluster have flared, with the strongest spots associated with CM2, a non-thermal radio source that appears to mark a shock in a jet emanating 2″ (2600 au) northward from MM1. The observed quenching of the HCHII region suggests a reduction in uv photon production due to bloating of the protostar in response to the episodic accretion event.
The livestock sector is one of the fastest growing subsectors of the agricultural economy and, while it makes a major contribution to global food supply and economic development, it also consumes significant amounts of natural resources and alters the environment. In order to improve our understanding of the global environmental impact of livestock supply chains, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations has developed the Global Livestock Environmental Assessment Model (GLEAM). The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of GLEAM. Specifically, it explains the model architecture, methods and functionality, that is the types of analysis that the model can perform. The model focuses primarily on the quantification of greenhouse gases emissions arising from the production of the 11 main livestock commodities. The model inputs and outputs are managed and produced as raster data sets, with spatial resolution of 0.05 decimal degrees. The Global Livestock Environmental Assessment Model v1.0 consists of five distinct modules: (a) the Herd Module; (b) the Manure Module; (c) the Feed Module; (d) the System Module; (e) the Allocation Module. In terms of the modelling approach, GLEAM has several advantages. For example spatial information on livestock distributions and crops yields enables rations to be derived that reflect the local availability of feed resources in developing countries. The Global Livestock Environmental Assessment Model also contains a herd model that enables livestock statistics to be disaggregated and variation in livestock performance and management to be captured. Priorities for future development of GLEAM include: improving data quality and the methods used to perform emissions calculations; extending the scope of the model to include selected additional environmental impacts and to enable predictive modelling; and improving the utility of GLEAM output.
The study purpose was to provide evidence of validity for the Primary Health Care Engagement (PHCE) Scale, based on exploratory factor analysis and reliability findings from a large national survey of regulated nurses residing and working in rural and remote Canadian communities.
There are currently no published provider-level instruments to adequately assess delivery of community-based primary health care, relevant to ongoing primary health care (PHC) reform strategies across Canada and elsewhere. The PHCE Scale reflects a contemporary approach that emphasizes community-oriented and community-based elements of PHC delivery.
Data from the pan-Canadian Nursing Practice in Rural and Remote Canada II (RRNII) survey were used to conduct an exploratory factor analysis and evaluate the internal consistency reliability of the final PHCE Scale.
The RRNII survey sample included 1587 registered nurses, nurse practitioners, licensed practical nurses, and registered psychiatric nurses residing and working in rural and remote Canada. Exploratory factor analysis identified an eight-factor structure across 28 items overall, and good internal consistency reliability was indicated by an α estimate of 0.89 for the final scale. The final 28-item PHCE Scale includes three of four elements in a contemporary approach to PHC (accessibility/availability, community participation, and intersectoral team) and most community-oriented/based elements of PHC (interdisciplinary collaboration, person-centred, continuity, population orientation, and quality improvement). We recommend additional psychometric testing in a range of health care providers and settings, as the PHCE Scale shows promise as a tool for health care planners and researchers to test interventions and track progress in primary health care reform.
Diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP) is a critically important building block that has gained importance in the organic electronics community because of its wide applicability in various devices. In this work, the thiophene flanked DPP moiety attached to alkyl chains of various lengths (this includes straight octyl and branched ethyl hexyl units) has been used as the monomer for electropolymerization. This paper focuses on the study of optical, thermal, solid state ordering and electrochemical properties of these electron deficient monomers using various characterization techniques such as UV–Vis spectrometry (UV), photo-luminescence spectroscopy (PL), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), cyclic voltammetry (CV), as well as ab initio modeling. These monomers exhibit broad absorption spectra from the ultraviolet (280–400 nm) to visible (400–600 nm) regions and emission spectra between 560 and 610 nm. The band gaps of these monomers were calculated to be in the range of 2.00–2.20 eV. These monomers were electropolymerized by scanning the potential between −0.5 and 2.0 V versus ferrocene for up to 50 cycles on a glassy carbon electrode.
We describe the performance of the Boolardy Engineering Test Array, the prototype for the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder telescope. Boolardy Engineering Test Array is the first aperture synthesis radio telescope to use phased array feed technology, giving it the ability to electronically form up to nine dual-polarisation beams. We report the methods developed for forming and measuring the beams, and the adaptations that have been made to the traditional calibration and imaging procedures in order to allow BETA to function as a multi-beam aperture synthesis telescope. We describe the commissioning of the instrument and present details of Boolardy Engineering Test Array’s performance: sensitivity, beam characteristics, polarimetric properties, and image quality. We summarise the astronomical science that it has produced and draw lessons from operating Boolardy Engineering Test Array that will be relevant to the commissioning and operation of the final Australian Square Kilometre Array Path telescope.