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Addition of fats to the diets of ruminants has long been known to result in a reduction in enteric methane emissions. Tannins have also been used to reduce methane emissions but with mixed success. However, the effect of feeding fat in combination with tannin is unknown. Eight ruminally cannulated Holstein-Friesian cows were fed four diets in a double Latin-square, full crossover sequence. The treatments were 800 ml/day of water (CON), 800 g/day of cottonseed oil, 400 g/day of tannin, and 800 g/day of cottonseed oil and 400 g/day of tannin in combination (fat- and tannin-supplemented diet). Methane emissions were measured using open-circuit respiration chambers. Intake of basal diets was not different between treatments. Cows fed cottonseed oil had greater milk yield (34.9 kg/day) than those fed CON (32.3 kg/day), but the reduced concentration of milk fat meant there was no difference in energy-corrected milk between treatments. Methane yield was reduced when either cottonseed oil (14%) or tannin (11%) was added directly to the rumen, and their effect was additive when given in combination (20% reduction). The mechanism of the anti-methanogenic effect remains unclear but both fat and tannin appear to cause a reduction in fermentation in general rather than cause a change in the type of fermentation.
The purpose of this rejoinder is to emphasize several important areas of future research that were mentioned by one or both commentaries. First, the authors discuss issues related to multi-source assessment, such as the importance of further research on informant bias, and argue that the information gleaned from multiple sources is worth the added assessment burden. Second, they underscore the importance of longitudinal assessment both in capturing the treatment-relevant within-person processes through which personality pathology unfolds, as well as tracking therapeutic progress. They assert that a given measure’s ability to reliably and validly measure change over time should be considered when evaluating its clinical utility. Finally, they emphasize the need for greater attention to clinical utility of dimensional PD assessment measures.
The purpose of this chapter is to review the current state of the dimensional assessment of personality disorder (PD). The first part of the chapter serves as a review of the most well-established and commonly used measures of maladaptive personality traits. Measures that assess the psychosocial impairment associated with personality pathology also are reviewed. Areas of discontinuity among these measures (e.g., theoretical origin, method of scale construction, degree of correspondence with well-known trait dimensions, attention received in the empirical literature, degree of bipolarity of underlying dimensions) are emphasized, and the clinical utility of measures is evaluated. The second part of the chapter focuses on several controversial issues with which the field of dimensional PD assessment now is grappling. These issues include (a) the psychometric distinction of personality traits from personality functioning, (b) the incremental utility of adaptive trait assessment, (c) the question of maladaptive trait bipolarity, (d) facet-level differences versus domain-level similarity across competing PD trait models, and (e) the value of multi-source assessment.
There is a substantial proportion of patients who drop out of treatment before they receive minimally adequate care. They tend to have worse health outcomes than those who complete treatment. Our main goal is to describe the frequency and determinants of dropout from treatment for mental disorders in low-, middle-, and high-income countries.
Respondents from 13 low- or middle-income countries (N = 60 224) and 15 in high-income countries (N = 77 303) were screened for mental and substance use disorders. Cross-tabulations were used to examine the distribution of treatment and dropout rates for those who screened positive. The timing of dropout was examined using Kaplan–Meier curves. Predictors of dropout were examined with survival analysis using a logistic link function.
Dropout rates are high, both in high-income (30%) and low/middle-income (45%) countries. Dropout mostly occurs during the first two visits. It is higher in general medical rather than in specialist settings (nearly 60% v. 20% in lower income settings). It is also higher for mild and moderate than for severe presentations. The lack of financial protection for mental health services is associated with overall increased dropout from care.
Extending financial protection and coverage for mental disorders may reduce dropout. Efficiency can be improved by managing the milder clinical presentations at the entry point to the mental health system, providing adequate training, support and specialist supervision for non-specialists, and streamlining referral to psychiatrists for more severe cases.
This systematic review examines the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of behavioural health integration into primary healthcare in the management of depression and unhealthy alcohol use in low- and middle-income countries. Following PRISMA guidelines, this review included research that studied patients aged ≥18 years with unhealthy alcohol use and/or depression of any clinical severity. An exploration of the models of integration was used to characterise a typology of behavioural health integration specific for low- and middle-income countries.
Fifty-eight articles met inclusion criteria. Studies evidenced increased effectiveness of integrated care over treatment as usual for both conditions. The economic evaluations found increased direct health costs but cost-effective estimates. The included studies used six distinct behavioural health integration models.
Behavioural health integration may yield improved health outcomes, although it may require additional resources. The proposed typology can assist decision-makers to advance the implementation of integrated models.
Jamie Gundry’s dramatic image of a white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) on the cover of this book reflects the twisting changes in fortune experienced by this species, with a revival that can be attributed to a successful interplay of science, policy and practice. White-tailed eagles were historically much more widely distributed than they are today (Yalden, 2007), once breeding across much of Europe, but by the early twentieth century the species was extinct across much of western and southern Europe. The main cause of its decline was persecution by farmers and shepherds, who considered the eagles a threat to their livestock, but, along with other raptors, white-tailed eagles were also seriously affected by DDT in the 1960s and 1970s, which had disastrous effects on the breeding success of remaining populations.
In the Anthropocene, when our environment is changing rapidly and the windows of opportunity for action to prevent further biodiversity loss are narrow, conservation researchers are increasingly encouraged to think and operate beyond the traditional approaches of producing peer-reviewed papers and presenting results to other members of the research community. Indeed, the perception that researchers belong in their ivory tower, from which they deliver evidence for others to interpret, disseminate and use in decision-making, is thankfully now widely recognised as outdated. The rise of fake news, a deliberate lack of consideration for scientific evidence, and changes to the ways of assessing the value of researchers’ work probably all play a role in supporting this shift in perception. Moreover, for many researchers, the prospect of their work ‘making a difference’ and having an impact on wider society is at least as great a motivation for doing research as generating new knowledge, however interesting that may be.
Conservation research is essential for advancing knowledge but to make an impact scientific evidence must influence conservation policies, decision making and practice. This raises a multitude of challenges. How should evidence be collated and presented to policymakers to maximise its impact? How can effective collaboration between conservation scientists and decision-makers be established? How can the resulting messages be communicated to bring about change? Emerging from a successful international symposium organised by the British Ecological Society and the Cambridge Conservation Initiative, this is the first book to practically address these questions across a wide range of conservation topics. Well-renowned experts guide readers through global case studies and their own experiences. A must-read for practitioners, researchers, graduate students and policymakers wishing to enhance the prospect of their work 'making a difference'. This title is also available as Open Access on Cambridge Core.
The problem of plasma expansion into a vacuum is revisited with the addition of a finite boundary condition; an electrically insulated surface. As plasma expands towards a charge-accumulating surface, the leading electron cloud charges the surface negatively, which in turn repels electrons and attracts ions. This plasma–surface interaction is shown to result in a feedback process which accelerates the plasma expansion. In addition, we examine the decrease in (negative) surface potential and associated near-surface electron density. To investigate this plasma coupling with an electrically floating surface, we develop an analytic model including four neighbouring plasma regions: (i) undisturbed plasma, (ii) quasi-neutral self-similar expansion, (iii) ion front boundary layer and (iv) electron cloud. A key innovation in our approach is a self-contained analytic approximation of the ion front boundary layer, providing a spatially continuous electric field model for the early phase of bounded plasma expansion.
Atom probe tomography (APT) is used to quantify atomic-scale elemental and isotopic compositional variations within a very small volume of material (typically <0.01 µm3). The small analytical volume ideally contains specific compositional or microstructural targets that can be placed within the context of the previously characterized surface in order to facilitate a correct interpretation of APT data. In this regard, careful targeting and preparation are paramount to ensure that the desired target, which is often smaller than 100 nm, is optimally located within the APT specimen. Needle-shaped specimens required for atom probe analysis are commonly prepared using a focused ion beam scanning electron microscope (FIB-SEM). Here, we utilize FIB-SEM-based time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) to illustrate a novel approach to targeting <100 nm compositional and isotopic variations that can be used for targeting regions of interest for subsequent lift-out and APT analysis. We present a new method for high-spatial resolution targeting of small features that involves using FIB-SEM-based electron deposition of platinum “buttons” prior to standard lift-out and sharpening procedures for atom probe specimen manufacture. In combination, FIB-ToF-SIMS analysis and application of the “button” method ensure that even the smallest APT targets can be successfully captured in extracted needles.