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With the aim to elucidate gonococcal antimicrobial resistance (AMR)–risk factors, we undertook a retrospective analysis of the molecular epidemiology and AMR of 104 Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates from clinical samples (urethra, rectum, pharynx and cervix) of 94 individuals attending a sexually transmitted infection clinic in Madrid (Spain) from July to October 2016, and explored potential links with socio-demographic, behavioural and clinical factors of patients. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by E-tests, and isolates were characterised by N. gonorrhoeae multi-antigen sequence typing. Penicillin resistance was recorded for 15.4% of isolates, and most were susceptible to tetracycline, cefixime and azithromycin; a high incidence of ciprofloxacin resistance (~40%) was found. Isolates were grouped into 51 different sequence types (STs) and 10 genogroups (G), with G2400, ST5441, ST2318, ST12547 and G2992 being the most prevalent. A significant association (P = 0.015) was evident between HIV-positive MSM individuals and having a ciprofloxacin-resistant strain. Likewise, a strong association (P = 0.047) was found between patient age of MSM and carriage of isolates expressing decreased susceptibility to azithromycin. A decrease in the incidence of AMR gonococcal strains and a change in the strain populations previously reported from other parts of Spain were observed. Of note, the prevalent multi-drug resistant genogroup G1407 was represented by only three strains in our study, while the pan-susceptible clones such as ST5441, and ST2318, associated with extragenital body sites were the most prevalent.
In this work, we study the hard-magnetic properties and its influence on the microstructure of MnBi-based glass-coated microwires obtained by Taylor-Ulitovsky process, as well as their magnetic and thermal dependence in the range of 200 K-360 K. We obtained glass-coated microwires pieces trough of the Taylor-Ulitovsky process. Glass-coated microwires exhibited the formation of Low-Temperature Intermetallic Phase (LTIP)-MnBi, as confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) elemental chemical composition analysis showed LTIP regions interspersed within Bi- and Mn-rich areas. Magnetic properties were determined by vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM), for which a considerable intrinsic coercivity field (iHc) up to 6000 Oe at 360 K, together with a saturation magnetization (Ms) of 57.49 emu/cm3. Therefore, this combination of properties renders LTIP is a promising precursor with potential for applications at high temperatures.
Trace minerals have important roles in immune function and oxidative metabolism; however, little is known about the relationships between supplementation level and source with outcomes in dairy cattle. Multiparous Holstein cows (n=48) beginning at 60 to 140 days in milk were utilized to determine the effects of trace mineral amount and source on aspects of oxidative metabolism and responses to intramammary lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Cows were fed a basal diet meeting National Research Council (NRC) requirements except for no added zinc (Zn), copper (Cu) or manganese (Mn). After a 4-week preliminary period, cows were assigned to one of four topdress treatments in a randomized complete block design with a 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments: (1) NRC inorganic (NRC levels using inorganic (sulfate-based) trace mineral supplements only); (2) NRC organic (NRC levels using organic trace mineral supplements (metals chelated to 2-hydroxy-4-(methythio)-butanoic acid); (3) commercial inorganic (approximately 2×NRC levels using inorganic trace mineral supplements only; and (4) commercial organic (commercial levels using organic trace mineral supplements only). Cows were fed the respective mineral treatments for 6 weeks. Treatment effects were level, source and their interaction. Activities of super oxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in erythrocyte lysate and concentrations of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in plasma were measured as indices of oxidative metabolism. Effects of treatment on those indices were not significant when evaluated across the entire experimental period. Plasma immunoglobulin G level was higher in cows supplemented with organic trace minerals over the entire treatment period; responses assessed as differences of before and after Escherichia coli J5 bacterin vaccination at the end of week 2 of treatment period were not significant. Cows were administered an intramammary LPS challenge during week 5; during week 6 cows fed commercial levels of Zn, Cu and Mn tended to have higher plasma TAC and cows fed organic sources had decreased plasma TBARS. After the LPS challenge, the extent and pattern of response of plasma cortisol concentrations and clinical indices (rectal temperature and heart rate) were not affected by trace mineral level and source. Productive performance including dry matter intake and milk yield and composition were not affected by treatment. Overall, results suggest that the varying level and source of dietary trace minerals do not have significant short-term effects on oxidative metabolism indices and clinical responses to intramammary LPS challenge in midlactation cows.
To assess counts of α4 and α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in nasal polyps of adults with or without long-term exposure to cigarette tobacco smoke.
Twenty-two patients with and 22 patients without exposure to cigarette tobacco smoke participated in the study. After endoscopic polypectomy, the fragments of the nasal polyps were analysed by immunohistochemistry.
Compared to patients with no exposure, patients with exposure showed higher counts of α4 and α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (t-test, p < 0.05). However, in patients with no exposure, multivariate analysis showed gender dimorphism, with lower counts in males than in females, and no influence from other variables (analysis of covariance, p > 0.05).
Exposure to cigarette tobacco smoke may induce increased counts of α4 and α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in nasal polyps of adults, with lower counts in males than females without exposure to tobacco smoke.
The objective of this study was to demonstrate the safety and feasibility of using the new Cardia Ultrasept II™ device with interposed Goretex patch referring to the perforation of polyvinyl alcohol membrane.
Great advances have been made in the development of devices for closure of atrial septal defect. The Cardia Ultrasept II™ with interposed Goretex patch is the modified last generation of Cardia devices, having the advantage of a super-low profile within the atria and an integral locking delivery-retrieval mechanism that ensures safe deployment. In addition, with the interposition of the Goretex, it has been possible to abolish perforation of Ivalon’s membrane as a complication.
Methods and results
Patients with ostium secundum atrial septal defect with surrounding rims with a minimum length of 5 mm and who underwent atrial septal defect closure with the new Ultrasept II™ with Goretex patch were included from two paediatric cardiac centres. Primary end point was to determine perforation of the Goretex membrane at follow-up; secondary end point included right ventricular diastolic diameter. In total, 30 patients underwent atrial septal defect closure at a median age of 6 (1–29) years. At follow-up for 6 (range, 1–15) months, freedom from perforations was 100%. A continuous decrease in right ventricular diastolic diameter was found with an initial median of 30 (25–49) mm and after catheterisation of 27.5 (18–33) mm, p=0.01, and Z-score of 2.6 (1.7–3.6) versus 1.9 (1–2.9) after procedure, p=0.01.
The new modified generation of the Ultrasept II™ device with interposed Goretex patch is a good alternative to achieve atrial septal defect closure safely and feasibly with no membrane perforation at follow-up.
A method for monitoring the reproductive status of female pigs, using non–invasive hormone analysis was developed. Plasma and saliva samples were collected from five reproductively active sows, and analysed for oestradiol–17ß and progesterone by immunoassay. The oestradiol–17ß content of the saliva samples was also measured using a novel biosensor–based method to demonstrate, in principle, the potential to develop an automated system for hormone analysis and interpretation. A hand–held saliva sampling device was designed and built for the purpose of this experiment. Plasma and saliva samples were collected for 3.5 months from four of the five sows. The vascular access port implanted into the fifth sow failed; therefore she could only be used for saliva collection. Saliva sampling was 100% successful for the first two weeks of the study. Over the entire sampling period, daily and twice weekly samples could be collected on 86% of the attempts made. Both progesterone and oestradiol–17ß were measured in saliva samples using conventional immunoassay techniques.
This study assessed milk productivity, demographic characteristics and workload distribution on a single high-yield dairy ewe farm in Spain (Avila, Spain; continental climate, latitude of 40.90 N, altitude of 900 m) over a 7-year period considering a transition from a herd management system involving five lambings per year (5LY) to a system involving 10 lambings per year (10LY). The 5LY system was practiced on the farm from 2010 to 2012 and the 10LY system from 2014 to 2015, with 2009 and 2013 being considered transition years. During this period, 27 415 lactations were recorded from an average of 3746 Lacaune sheep/year. Several productivity parameters were higher in 2014 to 2015 than in 2010 to 2012: milk yield/lactation (370±156 v. 349±185 l), lactation length (218±75 v. 192±75 days) and dry period length (53.5±38.3 v. 69.1±34.8 days) (all P<0.0001). During 2014 to 2015, investment in new lambing facilities was possible, workload was distributed more uniformly throughout the year, workload per worker was smaller, rate of ewe culling was lower (35.39±0.53% v. 42.51±7.51%), ewe longevity was greater and higher-order lactations were more numerous (P<0.0001). On the other hand, during 2010 to 2012, daily production was higher (1.73±1.66 v. 1.70±0.62 l/day; P=0.038), the interlambing period was shorter (283±50 v. 302±44 days; P<0.0001) and lambings/ewe per year were greater (1.42±0.01 v. 1.30±0.01; P<0.05). These results suggest that a 10LY herd management system can be compatible with profitability, productivity and good animal and worker’s welfare on a high-yield dairy farm, and may even be associated with better outcomes than a 5LY system.
Phenylcoumarin glucoside (4-PC) is a compound extracted from the plant Hintona latiflora and was studied as inhibitor for AISI 1018 steel corrosion in 3% NaCl solution using potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques, which may find application as eco-friendly corrosion inhibitors. The 4-PC provides inhibitor properties that protect AISI 1018 low carbon steel against corrosion at low concentrations (5 ppm) obtained by EIS. Polarization studies showed that the inhibitor was of mixed type. The inhibition efficiency by the two electrochemical techniques shows similar results. The inhibitor adsorption was demonstrated to be a combined process (physisorption and chemisorption) according to the Langmuir isotherm.
Two metal fillers with TiC nanoparticles (TiC NPs) of less than 100 nm for the overlay process is an alternative to hardfacing for treating surfaces subjected to severe wear. In this work, the effect of tribological behavior for TiC NPs addition on two Co-based filler materials, as well as the dilutions, was studied. Mixtures of Co-based filler metals without and with 0.5% and 2% TiC NPs were deposited onto D2 steel plates using PTA (Plasma Transferred Arc). The BET surface area was 0.17 m2 g-1 and 0.31 m2 g-1, respectively, for Stellite 6 and 12. The distribution of ca 23% macroporous for Stellite 6 was sufficient to get inside the TiC NPs, as well as in the case of Stellite 12, with a pore distribution of ca 13%. Stellite 12 has an increase in the dilutions (70%) and enthalpies showed endothermic reactions. Stellite 6 with NPs was determined to be most effective in increasing the wear resistance.
Laser welding processes offer significant advantages such as high welding speed, narrow heat affected zone and quality of the welding joint. In this study, the process parameters of laser power and welding speed were modified for AISI 1018 steel plates of 8 mm thickness and compared using finite element method. The results of cross-section microstructure, heat affected zone and fusion zone were characterized. The grain refinement was affected as the parameters were modified. Tensile and microhardness tests were performed to determine the mechanical properties of the welding joints. Microhardness increased in fusion zone and decreased in heat affected zone. Tensile test showed ductile fracture in heat affected zone of the welding joints. The simulated profiles were compared with the experimental observations showing a reasonable agreement.
This review examines the relative bioefficacy of 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio) butanoic acid (HMTBA) and DL-methionine (DL-Met) which includes chemical, metabolic, nutritional, and statistical aspects of its bioefficacy. The chemical, enzymatic and biological differences and similarities between these two products are explained and the evidence and reasons for HMTBA relative bioefficacy to DL-Met in monogastric animals are discussed. In addition, appropriate statistical methods for comparing the bioefficacy of these two products for successful use of each product are provided. HMTBA is an organic acid precursor of L-Met. The chemical structure differences between HMTBA and DL-Met leads to differences in how and where the two materials are absorbed, enzymatically converted to L-Met and used by the animal. Because of these differences, when the two compounds are supplemented into animal feeds in graded doses, they do not produce dose response curves of the same form due in part to differences in intake and metabolism at the extremes of the dose response curves. At deficient levels of the response curve, HMTBA fed animals may exhibit lower feed consumption and growth than DL-Met while at requirement levels they may have greater feed consumption and growth. This review provides biological evidence for why these differences in growth response occur and demonstrates that lower growth, whether for DL-Met or HMTBA, does not mean that either product is being converted to methionine inefficiently. Since the two products have different dose response curves, statistically valid methods are provided for unbiased determination of relative bioefficacy across tested dose ranges. Field nutritionists typically feed commercial doses of HMTBA or DL-Met at a total sulphur amino acid dietary level capable of achieving maximum performance. At these commercial levels, and based on the evidence, the full relative bioefficacy of HMTBA relative to DL-Met is discussed.
RR Lyrae variables are old (>10 Gyr) stars and, as such, they are useful probes of the earliest events of star formation in galaxies (Bernard et al. 2008, Martínez-Vázquez et al. 2016) as well as of the galaxy assembly process predicted by ΛCDM simulations of structure formation. In fact, the nature of the building-blocks of galaxies such as the Milky Way, and in particular, those of their stellar haloes, has been a matter of a substantial debate (Venn et al. 2004). Unlike other stellar tracers, RR Lyrae offer a snapshot of the stellar content present at the epoch when most of the merging action is predicted to have taken place, and thus they are ideal witnesses of this process.
The improvement in porcine embryo preservation and non-surgical embryo transfer (ET) procedures achieved in recent years represents essential progress for the practical use of ET in the pig industry. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of parity, weaning-to-estrus interval (WEI) and season on reproductive and embryonic parameters at day 6 after insemination of donor sows superovulated after weaning. The selection of donor sows was based on their reproductive history, body condition and parity. The effects of parity at weaning (2 to 3, 4 to 5 or 6 to 7 litters), season (fall, winter and spring), and WEI (estrus within 3 to 4 days), and their interactions on the number of corpus luteum, cysts in sows with cysts, number and quality of viable and transferable embryos, embryo developmental stage and recovery and fertilization rates were evaluated using linear mixed effects models. The analyses showed a lack of significant effects of parity, season, WEI or their interactions on any of the reproductive and embryonic parameters examined. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that fertilization rates and numbers of viable and transferable embryos collected at day 6 of the cycle from superovulated donor sows are not affected by their parity, regardless of the time of the year (from fall to spring) and WEI (3 or 4 days).
The Global Meningococcal Initiative (GMI) is an international group of scientists and clinicians with recognized expertise in meningococcal disease including microbiology, immunology, epidemiology, public health and vaccinology. The GMI was established to promote the global prevention of meningococcal disease through education, research and international cooperation. The GMI held its second summit meeting in 2013 to discuss the different aspects of existing meningococcal immunization programmes and surveillance systems. Laboratory confirmation and characterization were identified as essential for informing evidence-based vaccine implementation decisions. The relative merits of different confirmatory methodologies and their applications in different resource settings were a key component of the discussions. This paper summarizes the salient issues discussed, with special emphasis on the recommendations made and any deficiencies that were identified.
Multiwavelength and multitechnique observations towards NGC 6309 are presented. The data consist of λ3.6-cm continuum, ground- and space-based imaging, and high and low-dispersion longslit spectra. The structure of the central region seems to be a distorted, ring of 20″ in diameter. The lack of [N II] emission is conspicuous, as revealed by imaging and low dispersion spectra. Notably, the kinematics of the point-symmetric (PS) structures of NGC 6309 indicates the presence of lobes or cavities as those generally found in bipolar nebulae. The results lead to conclude that the origin of this peculiar morphology is not related to BRETs, but rather to that of a bipolar PN with PS structures in its lobes.
Long-slit optical spectroscopy and VLA-B radio continuum (λ = 3.6 cm) observations toward the compact planetary nebulae Cn 3-1 and M 3-27 are presented. Optical spectra were taken at different position angles (PAs) with the 2.2 m telescope at Calar Alto (Spain), covering the range from 6549 to 6751 Å. The radio and optical data show that the ionized shell of Cn 3-1 is an ellipsoid (size ≃ 6″ × 5″, PA ≃ 72°) containing a bright ring-like equatorial zone (size ≃ 2″.6, expansion velocity ≃ 14 km s–1) and two bright point-symmetric arcs, extending from the equator towards the polar regions of the ellipsoid (Fig. 1). These arcs seem to be filamentary structures embedded in the ellipsoid. An ionized stellar wind has been detected through faint extended wings in the Hα (≃ 660 km s–1) and [N II] (≃ 460 km s–1) emission lines. M 3-27 is unresolved at 3.6 cm (size ≤ 0″6). The detected [N II] and [S II] emission lines arise in a compact (≤ 1″4) probably non-spherical region which is identified with the ionized shell of M 3-27. The Hα emission from M 3-27 is dominated by strong emission from an ionized stellar wind and exhibits a Type III P Cygni profile with very extended wings (≃ 3000 km s–1). The estimated kinematic age and ionized mass of Cn 3-1 (≃ 1300 yr, 4 × 10–2 M⊙) and M 3-27 (≤ 530 yr, ≃ 3 × 10–4 M⊙) indicate that both objects are young planetary nebulae. Extended halos (size ≃ 36″ in Cn 3-1, ≃ 24″ in M 3-27) have been spectroscopically detected in both objects. An analysis of the kinematic and emission properties shows that both halos are reflection nebulosities and suggests that the distribution of neutral material in them probably is largely isotropic. The results suggest that the halos correspond to isotropic mass ejections occurred in the last ≃ 2 × 104 yr of the AGB phase of the Cn 3-1 and M 3-27 progenitors.
The unique sensitivity of the Arecibo telescope at 430 MHz motivated a drift scan search of the visible sky divided up into eight declination strips. Based on an analysis of the data collected in the region assigned to us, eight new long-period pulsars have so far been discovered.