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Few personalised medicine investigations have been conducted for mental health. We aimed to generate and validate a risk tool that predicts adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
Using logistic regression models, we generated a risk tool in a representative population cohort (ALSPAC – UK, 5113 participants, followed from birth to age 17) using childhood clinical and sociodemographic data with internal validation. Predictors included sex, socioeconomic status, single-parent family, ADHD symptoms, comorbid disruptive disorders, childhood maltreatment, ADHD symptoms, depressive symptoms, mother's depression and intelligence quotient. The outcome was defined as a categorical diagnosis of ADHD in young adulthood without requiring age at onset criteria. We also tested Machine Learning approaches for developing the risk models: Random Forest, Stochastic Gradient Boosting and Artificial Neural Network. The risk tool was externally validated in the E-Risk cohort (UK, 2040 participants, birth to age 18), the 1993 Pelotas Birth Cohort (Brazil, 3911 participants, birth to age 18) and the MTA clinical sample (USA, 476 children with ADHD and 241 controls followed for 16 years from a minimum of 8 and a maximum of 26 years old).
The overall prevalence of adult ADHD ranged from 8.1 to 12% in the population-based samples, and was 28.6% in the clinical sample. The internal performance of the model in the generating sample was good, with an area under the curve (AUC) for predicting adult ADHD of 0.82 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.79–0.83). Calibration plots showed good agreement between predicted and observed event frequencies from 0 to 60% probability. In the UK birth cohort test sample, the AUC was 0.75 (95% CI 0.71–0.78). In the Brazilian birth cohort test sample, the AUC was significantly lower –0.57 (95% CI 0.54–0.60). In the clinical trial test sample, the AUC was 0.76 (95% CI 0.73–0.80). The risk model did not predict adult anxiety or major depressive disorder. Machine Learning approaches did not outperform logistic regression models. An open-source and free risk calculator was generated for clinical use and is available online at https://ufrgs.br/prodah/adhd-calculator/.
The risk tool based on childhood characteristics specifically predicts adult ADHD in European and North-American population-based and clinical samples with comparable discrimination to commonly used clinical tools in internal medicine and higher than most previous attempts for mental and neurological disorders. However, its use in middle-income settings requires caution.
The present review will present the recent published results and discuss the main effects of nutrients, mainly fatty acids, on the expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism. In this sense, the review focuses in two phases: prenatal life and finishing phase, showing how nutrients can modulate gene expression affecting marbling and fatty acid profile in meat from ruminants. Adiposity in ruminants starts to be affected by nutrients during prenatal life when maternal nutrition affects the differentiation and proliferation of adipose cells enhancing the marbling potential. Therefore, several fetal programming studies were carried out in the last two decades in order to better understand how nutrients affect long-term expression of genes involved in adipogenesis and lipogenesis. In addition, during the finishing phase, marbling becomes largely dependent on starch digestion and glucose metabolism, being important to create alternatives to increase these metabolic processes, and modulates gene expression. Different lipid sources and their fatty acids may also influence the expression of genes responsible to encode enzymes involved in fat tissue deposition, influencing meat quality. In conclusion, the knowledge shows that gene expression is a metabolic factor affecting marbling and fatty acid profile in ruminant meat and diets and their nutrients have direct effect on how these genes are expressed.
It is important for the dairy industry to be aware of the consequences of past selection policies. This can provide guidance on how to improve or change current breeding schemes. In addition it is important to know how much of current progress is due to breeding and how much to management. The objective of the study was to analyse genetic and phenotypic trends for the production traits (milk, fat and protein) using the results from the latest UK Individual Animal Model evaluations.
The Animal Data Centre (ADC) is responsible for producing linear type evaluations for the Ayrshire, Shorthorn, Jersey, Guernsey, Jersey Island and Guernsey Island breeds. Along with publication of breeding values (BV's), it is important to provide farmers and organisations in the industry with information on genetic trends in conformation to establish the effect of selection and determine future selection strategies. As selection goals in conformation are not as clear as in production traits, it is important to analyse each trait to find out how breeds are developing. The objective of the study was therefore to analyse linear type evaluations in order to determine the trends in the traits classified.
Longevity or lifespan has proved to be an important trait when it comes to profitability for the dairy farmer. Selecting for longer herdlife not only reduces the replacement rate and thereby the replacement cost, but also gives the opportunity to cull for low production (as opposed to health problems) and increases the milk yield through a higher proportion of mature cows in the herd. Predicted Transmitting Abilities (PTA's) for LS are calculated from a bivariate analysis including indirect information in the form of a phenotypic index of four linear type traits (fore udder attachment, foot angle, udder depth and teat length) closely related to longevity, and from direct lactation information, i.e. survival measured in number of lactations corrected for milk yield (Brotherstone et al., 1998). Genetic evaluations for LS were introduced in the United Kingdom (UK) in August 1998 (Mrode et al., 1999).
Genetic evaluations in the United Kingdom (UK) for Somatic Cell Count (SCC) are currently based on a single trait repeatability model using the first five lactations. Only cows with completed lactations are included. However, to utilise information from cows with part lactation records and to achieve a better correction for environmental effects, a test day model (TDM) evaluation would be preferred. The objective of this study is to estimate genetic parameters needed for such a TDM evaluation by utilising a random regression (RR) approach.
The Dark Energy Survey is undertaking an observational programme imaging 1/4 of the southern hemisphere sky with unprecedented photometric accuracy. In the process of observing millions of faint stars and galaxies to constrain the parameters of the dark energy equation of state, the Dark Energy Survey will obtain pre-discovery images of the regions surrounding an estimated 100 gamma-ray bursts over 5 yr. Once gamma-ray bursts are detected by, e.g., the Swift satellite, the DES data will be extremely useful for follow-up observations by the transient astronomy community. We describe a recently-commissioned suite of software that listens continuously for automated notices of gamma-ray burst activity, collates information from archival DES data, and disseminates relevant data products back to the community in near-real-time. Of particular importance are the opportunities that non-public DES data provide for relative photometry of the optical counterparts of gamma-ray bursts, as well as for identifying key characteristics (e.g., photometric redshifts) of potential gamma-ray burst host galaxies. We provide the functional details of the DESAlert software, and its data products, and we show sample results from the application of DESAlert to numerous previously detected gamma-ray bursts, including the possible identification of several heretofore unknown gamma-ray burst hosts.
A K-band (18-25 GHz) reflected-wave ruby maser (Moore and Clauss 1979) has been borrowed from the National Radio Astronomy Observatory for radio astronomy use on the NASA 64-m antenna of the Deep Space Network at the Tidbinbilla Tracking Station, near Canberra. The purpose of the installation is to provide additional sensitive spectral line, continuum, and VLBI capabilities in the southern hemisphere. Previous measurements at 22.3 GHz (λ = 13.5 mm) determined that the Tidbinbilla 64-m antenna has a peak aperture efficiency of ˜22%, a well-behaved beam shape and consistent pointing (Fourikis and Jauncey 1979). Before installing the maser on the antenna a cooled (circulator) switch was added to provide a beam-switching capability, and a spectral line receiver following the maser was incorporated. The system was assembled and tested at JPL in late 1980 and installed at Tidbinbilla early in 1981. We give here a brief description and present some of the first line observations made in February and March 1981. Extensive line and continuum observations are planned with the present system and a program is under way to determine the telescope pointing characteristics.
Primiparous ewes (n=32) were assigned to dietary treatments in a 2×2 factorial arrangement to determine effects of nutrient restriction and melatonin supplementation on maternal and fetal pancreatic weight, digestive enzyme activity, concentration of insulin-containing clusters and plasma insulin concentrations. Treatments consisted of nutrient intake with 60% (RES) or 100% (ADQ) of requirements and melatonin supplementation at 0 (CON) or 5 mg/day (MEL). Treatments began on day 50 of gestation and continued until day 130. On day 130, blood was collected under general anesthesia from the uterine artery, uterine vein, umbilical artery and umbilical vein for plasma insulin analysis. Ewes were then euthanized and the pancreas removed from the ewe and fetus, trimmed of mesentery and fat, weighed and snap-frozen until enzyme analysis. In addition, samples of pancreatic tissue were fixed in 10% formalin solution for histological examination including quantitative characterization of size and distribution of insulin-containing cell clusters. Nutrient restriction decreased (P⩽0.001) maternal pancreatic mass (g) and α-amylase activity (U/g, kU/pancreas, U/kg BW). Ewes supplemented with melatonin had increased pancreatic mass (P=0.03) and α-amylase content (kU/pancreas and U/kg BW). Melatonin supplementation decreased (P=0.002) maternal pancreatic insulin-positive tissue area (relative to section of tissue), and size of the largest insulin-containing cell cluster (P=0.04). Nutrient restriction decreased pancreatic insulin-positive tissue area (P=0.03) and percent of large (32 001 to 512 000 µm2) and giant (⩾512 001 µm2) insulin-containing cell clusters (P=0.04) in the fetus. Insulin concentrations in plasma from the uterine vein, umbilical artery and umbilical vein were greater (P⩽0.01) in animals receiving 100% requirements. When comparing ewes to fetuses, ewes had a greater percentage of medium insulin-containing cell clusters (2001 to 32 000 µm2) while fetuses had more (P<0.001) pancreatic insulin-positive area (relative to section of tissue) and a greater percent of small, large and giant insulin-containing cell clusters (P⩽0.02). Larger insulin-containing clusters were observed in fetuses (P<0.001) compared with ewes. In summary, the maternal pancreas responded to nutrient restriction by decreasing pancreatic weight and activity of digestive enzymes while melatonin supplementation increased α-amylase content. Nutrient restriction decreased the number of pancreatic insulin-containing clusters in fetuses while melatonin supplementation did not influence insulin concentration. This indicated using melatonin as a therapeutic agent to mitigate reduced pancreatic function in the fetus due to maternal nutrient restriction may not be beneficial.
When infants are at risk of being born at a very premature gestation (22–25 weeks), parents face important life-support decisions because of the high mortality for such infants. Concurrently, providers are challenged with providing parents a supportive environment within which to make these decisions. Practice guidelines for medical care of these infants and the principles of perinatal palliative care for families can be resources for providers, but there is limited research to bridge these medical and humanistic approaches to infant and family care. The purpose of this article is to describe how parents at risk of delivering their infant prior to 26 weeks gestation interpreted the quality of their interpersonal interactions with healthcare providers.
Directed content analysis was employed to perform secondary analysis of data from 54 parents (40 mothers and 14 fathers) from the previously coded theme “Quality of Interactions.” These categorized data described parents' encounters, expectations, and experiences of interactions that occurred prenatally with care providers. For this analysis, Swanson's theory of caring was selected to guide analysis and to delineate parents' descriptions of caring and uncaring interactions.
Parents' expectations for caring included: (a) respecting parents and believing in their capacity to make the best decisions for their family (maintaining belief); (b) understanding parents' experiences and their continued need to protect their infant (knowing); (c) physically and emotionally engaging with the parents (being with); (d) providing unbiased information describing all possibilities (enabling); and (e) helping parents navigate the system and creating a therapeutic environment for them in which to make decisions (doing for).
Significance of Results:
Understanding parents' prenatal caring expectations through Swanson's theory gives deeper insights, aligning their expectations with the palliative care movement.
We examine prospectively the influence of two separate but potentially inter-related factors in the etiology of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD): childhood maltreatment as conferring a susceptibility to the PTSD response to adult trauma and juvenile disorders as precursors of adult PTSD.
The Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study (DMHDS) is a birth cohort (n = 1037) from the general population of New Zealand's South Island, with multiple assessments up to age 38 years. DSM-IV PTSD was assessed among participants exposed to trauma at ages 26–38. Complete data were available on 928 participants.
Severe maltreatment in the first decade of life, experienced by 8.5% of the sample, was associated significantly with the risk of PTSD among those exposed to adult trauma [odds ratio (OR) 2.64, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.16–6.01], compared to no maltreatment. Moderate maltreatment, experienced by 27.2%, was not associated significantly with that risk (OR 1.55, 95% CI 0.85–2.85). However, the two estimates did not differ significantly from one another. Juvenile disorders (ages 11–15), experienced by 35% of the sample, independent of childhood maltreatment, were associated significantly with the risk of PTSD response to adult trauma (OR 2.35, 95% CI 1.32–4.18).
Severe maltreatment is associated with risk of PTSD response to adult trauma, compared to no maltreatment, and juvenile disorders, independent of earlier maltreatment, are associated with that risk. The role of moderate maltreatment remains unresolved. Larger longitudinal studies are needed to assess the impact of moderate maltreatment, experienced by the majority of adult trauma victims with a history of maltreatment.
A potential role for epigenetic mechanisms in the regulation of mammary function in the dairy cow is emerging. Epigenetics is the study of heritable changes in genome function that occur because of chemical changes rather than DNA sequence changes. DNA methylation is an epigenetic event that results in the silencing of gene expression and may be passed on to the next generation. However, recent studies investigating different physiological states and changes in milk protein gene expression suggest that DNA methylation may also play an acute, regulatory, role in gene transcription. This overview will highlight the role of DNA methylation in the silencing of milk protein gene expression during mastitis and mammary involution. Moreover, environmental factors such as nutrition may induce epigenetic modifications of gene expression. The current research investigating the possibility of in utero, hence cross-generational, epigenetic modifications in dairy cows will also be discussed. Understanding how the mammary gland responds to environmental cues provides a potential to enhance milk production not only of the dairy cow but also of her daughter.
Fish proteins have been reported to be more satiating than meat proteins. The objective was to determine the effect of different animal protein pre-meals on satiety. A total of ten intact female hounds were fed pork loin, beef loin, chicken breast, salmon fillet or pollock fillet. Each pre-meal was fed to contain 100 g protein. Blood was collected at 0, 5, 15, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min postprandially and analysed for glucose, insulin, total ghrelin, active glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and plasma amino acids (AA). Dogs were fed 2 × metabolisable energy, 3 h following the pre-meal, and intake was determined 30, 60, 180 and 1440 min after food presentation. Glucose decreased over time (P < 0·001), but was lowest (P = 0·01) when dogs consumed pollock or chicken. Insulin increased (P < 0·0001) over time, and was greater (P = 0·09) when dogs consumed salmon. GLP-1 increased (P < 0·001) over time, and was greatest (P = 0·04) when dogs consumed beef. Ghrelin decreased (P < 0·0001) over time for all pre-meals. The tryptophan:large neutral AA ratio tended to be greater (P = 0·08) when dogs consumed pork, salmon and pollock. Different protein sources may influence blood markers in dogs, but it does not appear that fish substrates have different satiating abilities than mammalian or avian sources.
Si/Ge/Si (100) structures consisting of a thin epitaxial layer of Ge (1-64 monolayers) on Si and covered with a 5 nm overlayer of epitaxial Si were grown by MBE. The layers were analyzed by Rutherford backscattering(RBS)-channeling and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). For structures containing 4 or 8 monolayers of Ge, the channeling <110> angular scans showed unusual features that could be due to imperfect steering of the ion beam in the thin Si overlayer. Cross sectional TEN showed that the Ge epitaxy was good for these Ge thicknesses, but that for an average Ge coverage of 16 monolayers, Ge hillocks up to 90 monolayers thick occurred.
Laser- and electron-assisted deposition of Fe on Si(111)-(7×7) surfaces using decomposition of Fe(CO)5 has been investigated with multiple internal reflection Fourier transform infrared, Auger electron and temperature programmed desorption spectroscopies and low energy electron diffraction under ultra-high vacuum conditions. No thermal reaction was apparent in temperature programmed desorption experiments: only molecular Fe(CO)5 desorption was observed at temperatures of 150 and 170 K, corresponding to desorption energies in the range of 7–10 kcal./mole. Fe(CO)5 decomposition could be induced using either incident 1.6 keV electrons or ultraviolet photons. Significant amounts of carbon were deposited from the electron induced decomposition, consistent with earlier reports on the Si(100) surface. In contrast, ultraviolet photolysis did not result in any detectable incorporation of carbon or oxygen into the iron deposits. No partially decarbonylated Fe(CO)x, x<5, fragments were detected subsequent to exposure to photons using infrared spectroscopy. However, a new, unresolved low frequency shoulder did appear in the infrared spectrum after exposing the Fe(CO)5 covered Si(111)-(7×7) crystal to the electron beam. Iron photodeposition was evident in the Auger electron spectra obtained subsequent to photolysis and annealing of the surface to either 300 K or 1000 K in order to desorb unreacted Fe(CO)5. These data suggest that there are no surface stable Fe(CO)x, x<5, species in the photodeposition process. Instead, photolysis yields Fe atoms directly, even at low temperatures. Annealing to temperatures on the order of 1000 K subsequent to iron deposition resulted in a significant decrease in the Fe:Si ratio as measured by Auger electron spectroscopy. In addition, CO could not be readsorbed on a surface where the Fe(CO)5 had been decomposed. This is attributed to dissolution of Fe into the bulk silicon crystal.
We have used RBS/Channeling, perturbed angular correlation (PAC) and optical absorption to study the regrowth of disordered layers in diamond produced by implantation with carbon, or with carbon plus boron or indium ions. For C or C plus B implantation doses of 2 ×1015 cm−2 or less, complete recovery of channeling damage occurred after RTA at 1100°C or furnace annealing at 900°C. Optical measurements on samples implanted with high energy carbon ions show better recovery compared to the shallower implantations. PAC results showed that co-implantation with C and In caused a considerable fraction (∼15%) of the In-atoms to occupy well-defined lattice sites characterized by an electric field gradient having its major component along <111>, and a frequency of 116 MHz.
The decomposition of W(CO)6 adsorbed on Si(111)-(7×7) using low energy electrons and ultraviolet photons has been investigated under ultrahigh vacuum conditions. This work is motivated by a desire to understand the mechanism for laser- and electron-assisted chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of tungsten using volatile coordination complexes and to specifically understand the role of the surface in these processes. Both electron stimulated and photo-assisted decomposition of the adsorbed W(CO)6 are observed. No thermal decomposition of the W(CO)6 occurs under the conditions of these experiments, based on independent temperature programmed reaction experiments, ruling out the possibility of laser- or electron-induced heating as the cause of decomposition. Furthermore, the interaction of the W(CO)6 with the Si(111)-(7×7) surface is shown to be exceedingly weak based on the fact that the desorption energy is 9.46 ± 0.77 kcal/mol. Desorption of CO is induced during both ultraviolet photolysis and electron bombardment. Carbon monoxide is exclusively evolved during ultraviolet photolysis: no W-containing fragments are desorbed. During electron bombardment, a small amount of the W(CO)6 is desorbed, accounting for ∼10% of the desorption. In both cases, CO-containing W fragments remain on the surface after decomposition at low surface temperature. The remaining surface fragments do not undergo further photolysis at 308 nm but do react thermally. Competing desorption and dissociation of CO are thermally induced resulting in carbide and oxide impurities in the deposited material. The fact that strongly bound W(CO)x fragments are trapped on the surface is proposed as a limiting factor in the purity of tungsten deposits using the decomposition of W(CO)6.