To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Liver dysfunction, associated with morbidity and mortality, is common in patients with CHD. We investigate risk factors for and outcomes of hyperbilirubinaemia in neonates and infants after cardiac surgery.
Materials and methods:
In a retrospective analysis of neonates and infants undergoing cardiac surgery at our institution between January 2013 and December 2017, we identified those with post-operative conjugated hyperbilirubinaemia. We tested various demographic and surgical risk factors, and use of post-operative interventions, for an association with conjugated hyperbilirubinaemia. We also tested hyperbilirubinaemia for association with post-operative mortality and prolonged length of stay.
We identified 242 post-operative admissions, of which 45 (19%) had conjugated hyperbilirubinaemia. The average conjugated bilirubin level in this group was 2.0 mg/dl versus 0.3 mg/dl for peers without hyperbilirubinaemia. The post-operative use of both extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (OR 4.97, 95% CI 1.89–13.5, p = 0.001) and total parenteral nutrition (OR 2.98, 95% CI 1.34–7.17, p = 0.010) was associated with conjugated hyperbilirubinaemia. No demographic variable analysed was found to be a risk factor. Hyperbilirubinaemia was associated with higher odds of mortality (OR 3.74, 95% CI 2.69–13.8, p = 0.005) and prolonged length of stay (OR 2.87, 95% CI 2.02–7.97, p = 0.005), which were independent of other risk factors.
We identified the post-operative use of total parenteral nutrition and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation as risk factors for hyperbilirubinaemia. These patients were more likely to experience morbidity and mortality than control peers. As such, bilirubin may be marker for elevated risk of poor post-operative outcomes and should be more frequently measured after cardiac surgery.
Schizophrenia is a chronic disease. Several etiopathogenic aetiologies have been posed, among them the existence of cerebral inflammation. S100B is a calcium-binding protein, mainly produced and secreted by astrocytes, that mediates the interaction among glial cells and between glial cells and neurons. Serum S100B levels have been proposed as a peripheral marker of brain inflammation.
The aim of this research is to study if the serum level of the protein S100B has relationship with positive psychopathology.
31 paranoid schizophrenic inpatients (22 male and 9 female, 36.7±10.3 years) meeting DSM-IV criteria participated in the study. Blood was sampled by venipuncture at 12:00 and 24:00 hours. Blood extractions were carried out during the first 48 hours after hospital admission. Psychopathology was assessed by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Serum S100B levels were measured by sandwich ELISA techniques.
Correlations between serum levels of S100B protein and PANSS positive scores are shown in the following table. The first figure corresponds to the Pearson's correlation coefficient, while the figure in brackets corresponds to its statistical significance.
Total Positive Score
Serum levels of S100B protein may be used as a biological marker of positive psychopathology in paranoid schizophrenia.Acknowledgement
Thousands of new asteroids are discovered every year and the rate of discovery is by far larger than the determination rate of their physical properties. In 2015 a group of researchers and students of several Mexican institutions have established an observational program to study asteroids photometrically. The program, named Mexican Asteroid Photometry Campaign, is aiming to derive rotation periods of asteroids based on optical photometric observations. Since then four campaigns have been carried out. The results obtained throughout these campaigns, as well as future work, are presented.
The response of vascular epiphyte communities following natural or human disturbance has been little studied. Over 5 y, we evaluated the post-stripping recolonization of vascular epiphytes in cloud forest. Vascular epiphytes were experimentally removed from branch and trunk plots (1 m in length) on five trees in two secondary cloud forest fragments in southern Mexico. Similarity between colonizer and established communities was compared in each fragment using a further five trees with no stripping. All seedlings were recorded yearly. Non-vascular epiphyte cover was estimated in each plot. The recolonization rate was very high; after 5 y, epiphyte density of the colonizer community (27.4 ± 6.8 individuals per segment) reached similar values to those of the established community (26.7 ± 3.3) in nearby trees. While similarity (composition and abundance) between the colonizer community and established community was high (81%), diversity accumulation curves indicated that the colonizer community presents a lower diversity of epiphytes (5.5 equivalent species) than the established community (11.4). Colonization of xerophytic bromeliads was high, while pteridophytes and orchids presented reduced recovery. The immediately surrounding source of propagules had a strong influence on recolonization. In both the colonizer and established communities, dominance rank was bromeliads > peperomias > pteridophytes. The results show that the recovery capacity of epiphytic vegetation in secondary forest is high, if propagule sources are close by. However, at 5 y after disturbance, it is unclear whether the colonizer community would present the same species composition as the established community or if it would give rise to a different community.
Maternal periconceptional undernutrition is associated with altered development and increased risks of adverse outcomes in the offspring. This circumstance is normal in flocks under extensive farming systems, which depend on natural forage resources. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of periconceptional undernutrition in sheep on behavioral and reproductive aspects of the offspring. Eighty ewes were synchronized in estrus and allocated to two groups (n=40) to be fed diets that provided 1.5 (C) or 0.5 (L) times the requirements for maintenance. Ewes were mated and 7 days later fed the control diet until lambing. One month after lambing, 32 lambs were exposed to tests to determine their cognitive and emotional responses. Six ewe lambs were euthanized and in vitro maturation and fertilization procedures were performed. L ewes presented a significant reduction in prolificacy and fecundity (P<0.05) in comparison with C ewes. Mean LW at lambing of L lambs was significantly higher than C lambs (C: 3.80±0.11; L: 4.24±0.15 kg, P<0.05). Lambs born from C ewes spent more time walking than L lambs (P<0.05) in the isolation test, revealing a decrease in the locomotor activity of lambs born from undernourished ewes around conception. Ewe lambs from the undernourished ewes presented a total population of oocytes 2.3 times higher than ovaries from control ewe lambs (60.0±7.8 v. 140.0±18.5 oocytes; P<0.05). In conclusion, periconceptional undernutrition is able to produce an increment in the body weight and the oocyte population, and an alteration of the locomotor activity of the offspring.
Genetic diversity of Trypanosoma cruzi may play a role in pathogenesis of Chagas disease forms. Natural populations are classified into 6 Discrete Typing Units (DTUs) Tc I-VI with taxonomical status. This study aimed to identify T. cruzi DTUs in bloodstream and tissue samples of Argentinean patients with Chagas disease. PCR-based strategies allowed DTU identification in 256 clinical samples from 239 Argentinean patients. Tc V prevailed in blood from both asymptomatic and symptomatic cases and Tc I was more frequent in bloodstream, cardiac tissues and chagoma samples from immunosuppressed patients. Tc II and VI were identified in a minority of cases, while Tc III and Tc IV were not detected in the studied population. Interestingly, Tc I and Tc II/VI sequences were amplified from the same skin biopsy slice from a kidney transplant patient suffering Chagas disease reactivation. Further data also revealed the occurrence of mixed DTU populations in the human chronic infection. In conclusion, our findings provide evidence of the complexity of the dynamics of T. cruzi diversity in the natural history of human Chagas disease and allege the pathogenic role of DTUs I, II, V and VI in the studied population.
For centuries, the manipulation of mechanical properties for the development of components has been extremely important. Its relevance is based on improving the service life in the components. The aim of some techniques that have been used is to introduce strain hardening (tensile) and a beneficial residual stress field. Nevertheless, the application of both methods is very common when the component is manufactured, but the lack of knowledge of the final physical state of the material could compromise the structural integrity of the final product. This work presents a numerical evaluation concerning the characterization of a stainless steel AISI 316L, having a homogeneous axial history and a residual stress field. The relevance of the work is focused in a new methodology that can be used to improve the mechanical resistance of the component and to arrest crack propagation. By altering the mechanical properties of the material, it could be possible to delay nucleation and interrupt the propagation of cracks. This study also shows that if the strain hardening behaviour and the introduction of the residual stress field is not done properly, it could result in a component susceptible to fail. In the same sense, bending tests are proposed to provide tensile and compressive stress profiles.
Samples of Eu3+ -activated PMMA:PAAc copolymers were prepared in order to investigate their spectroscopic properties. The densities, refractive indices, UV-Visible absorption and emission spectra and fluorescence decay times were obtained experimentally. These data were used in conjunction with Judd-Ofelt theory to calculate the spontaneous emission probabilities and branching ratios, as a function of the europium content. The range of the concentration was 0.1 to 2.5 % mol. Our results are combined with previous information on the optical properties of rare-earth activated polymers in order to get a better understanding of the role played by the Eu3+ ions on the polymerization process in our samples.
The Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters for f-f transitions of Er3+ ions in PMMA:PAAc copolymer samples were determined from optical absorption measurements and their dependence on the erbium content investigated within the range of 0.1 to 3.0 % mol. The densities, refractive indices and emission spectra have been measured. For our Er-PMMA:PAAc samples an effective radiative transfer between the copolymer host and the erbium ions is observed and discussed.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.