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Childhood maltreatment (CM) plays an important role in the development of major depressive disorder (MDD). The aim of this study was to examine whether CM severity and type are associated with MDD-related brain alterations, and how they interact with sex and age.
Within the ENIGMA-MDD network, severity and subtypes of CM using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire were assessed and structural magnetic resonance imaging data from patients with MDD and healthy controls were analyzed in a mega-analysis comprising a total of 3872 participants aged between 13 and 89 years. Cortical thickness and surface area were extracted at each site using FreeSurfer.
CM severity was associated with reduced cortical thickness in the banks of the superior temporal sulcus and supramarginal gyrus as well as with reduced surface area of the middle temporal lobe. Participants reporting both childhood neglect and abuse had a lower cortical thickness in the inferior parietal lobe, middle temporal lobe, and precuneus compared to participants not exposed to CM. In males only, regardless of diagnosis, CM severity was associated with higher cortical thickness of the rostral anterior cingulate cortex. Finally, a significant interaction between CM and age in predicting thickness was seen across several prefrontal, temporal, and temporo-parietal regions.
Severity and type of CM may impact cortical thickness and surface area. Importantly, CM may influence age-dependent brain maturation, particularly in regions related to the default mode network, perception, and theory of mind.
Evaluation of post-operative donor site disability remains unaddressed in radial forearm free flap cases. This study aimed to assess donor site dysfunction following radial forearm free flap harvest using validated general, disease-specific and site-specific disability questionnaires.
In this retrospective case series of 24 patients at a tertiary academic medical centre, patients were assessed using the Short Form 36 Health Survey, Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment questionnaire, and Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand questionnaire. One-sample z-tests were performed, comparing means of the cohort to controls.
Compared to population controls, the cohort had higher mean scores for the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand questionnaire (18.22 vs 10.1, p < 0.01), and Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment questionnaire bothersome index (21.44 vs 13.77, p = 0.04), and a lower mean score for the Short Form 36 Health Survey physical component (38.88 vs 50, p < 0.01), indicating a greater disability for the cohort compared to controls.
Radial forearm free flap harvest causes significant long-term donor site disability in head and neck tumour patients. The Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand questionnaire is a concise tool for measuring this dysfunction.
This study aimed to evaluate the presence of subjective post-operative donor site morbidity after fibula free flap reconstruction in head and neck cancer patients, utilising three validated instruments: the 36-item Short Form Health Survey, the Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment questionnaire and the Lower Limb Core Scale.
In this retrospective study, all head and neck cancer patients who underwent fibula free flap reconstruction between January 2009 and July 2014 were identified. All questionnaires and their respective subcomponents were scored.
Twenty-one cases were included. Patients were found to have a higher Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment bothersome index (22.42 vs 13.77, p = 0.03), a lower Short Form 36 Health Survey Physical Component Summary score (42.44 vs 50, p < 0.01) and a decreased Lower Limb Core Scale score (47.08 vs 90.52, p < 0.01), compared to US population norms. The Short Form 36 Health Survey Mental Component Summary scores and Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment function index failed to demonstrate significant differences. Gender affected overall disability.
In this study, significant long-term disability was demonstrated after fibular flap reconstruction, as measured by the Lower Limb Core Scale.
Slender liquid jets that have a curved trajectory have been examined in a range of papers using a method introduced in Wallwork et al. (Proc. IUTAM Symp. on Free-Surface Flows, 2000, Kluwer; J. Fluid Mech., vol. 459, 2002, pp. 43–65) and Decent et al. (J. Engng Maths, vol. 42, 2002, pp. 265–282), for jets that emerge from an orifice on the surface of a rotating cylindrical container, successfully comparing computational results to measurements arising from laboratory experiments. Wallwork et al. (2000, 2002) and Decent et al. (2002) based their analyses on the slenderness of the jet, and neglected the torsion of the centreline of the jet, which is valid since in most situations examined the torsion is zero or small. Shikhmurzaev & Sisoev (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 819, 2017, pp. 352–400) used differential geometry and incorporated the torsion. This paper shows that these two methods produce identical results at leading order when the torsion is zero or when the torsion is
, in an asymptotic framework based upon the slenderness of the jet, and shows that the method of Wallwork et al. (2000, 2002) and Decent et al. (2002) is accurate for parameters corresponding to scenarios previously examined and also when the torsion is
. It is shown that the method of Shikhmurzaev & Sisoev (2017) should be used when the torsion is asymptotically large or when the jet is not slender.
Childhood emotional maltreatment (CEM) increases the likelihood of developing an anxiety disorder in adulthood, but the neural processes underlying conferment of this risk have not been established. Here, we test the potential for neuroimaging the adult brain to inform understanding of the mechanism linking CEM to adult anxiety symptoms.
One hundred eighty-two adults (148 females, 34 males) with a normal-to-clinical range of anxiety symptoms underwent structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging while completing an emotion-processing paradigm with facial expressions of fear, anger, and happiness. Participants completed self-report measures of CEM and current anxiety symptoms. Voxelwise mediation analyses on gray-matter volumes and activation to each emotion condition were used to identify candidate brain mechanisms relating CEM to anxiety in adulthood.
During processing of fear and anger faces, greater amygdala and less right dorsolateral prefrontal (dlPFC) activation partially mediated the positive relationship between CEM and anxiety symptoms. Greater right posterior insula activation to fear also partially mediated this relationship, as did greater ventral anterior cingulate (ACC) and less dorsal ACC activation to anger. Responses to happy faces in these regions did not mediate the CEM-anxiety relationship. Smaller right dlPFC gray-matter volumes also partially mediated the CEM-anxiety relationship.
Activation patterns of the adult brain demonstrate the potential to inform mechanistic accounts of the CEM conferment of anxiety symptoms. Results support the hypothesis that exaggerated limbic activation to negative valence facial emotions links CEM to anxiety symptoms, which may be consequent to a breakdown of cortical regulatory processes.
Although evidence exists for abnormal brain function across various
anxiety disorders, direct comparison of neural function across diagnoses
is needed to elicit abnormalities common across disorders and those
distinct to a particular diagnosis.
To delineate common and distinct abnormalities within generalised anxiety
(GAD), panic and social anxiety disorder (SAD) during affective
Fifty-nine adults (15 with GAD, 15 with panic disorder, 14 with SAD, and
15 healthy controls) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging
while completing a facial emotion matching task with fearful, angry and
Greater differential right amygdala activation to matching fearful
v. happy facial expressions related to greater
negative affectivity (i.e. trait anxiety) and was heightened across all
anxiety disorder groups compared with controls. Collapsing across
emotional face types, participants with panic disorder uniquely displayed
greater posterior insula activation.
These preliminary results highlight a common neural basis for clinical
anxiety in these diagnoses and also suggest the presence of
The amygdala and subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sACC) are key brain regions for the generation of negative affect. In this longitudinal fMRI study of adolescents we investigated how amygdala–sACC connectivity was correlated with negative affectivity (NA) both cross-sectionally and longitudinally, and examined its relationship to the onset of first-episode depression.
Fifty-six adolescents who were part of a larger longitudinal study of adolescent development were included. They had no history of mental illness at the time of their baseline scan (mean age 16.5 years) and had a follow-up scan 2 years later (mean age 18.8 years). We used resting-state functional-connectivity MRI to investigate whether cross-sectional and change measures of amygdala–sACC connectivity were (i) correlated with NA and its change over time, and (ii) related to the onset of first-episode depression.
The magnitude of amygdala connectivity with sACC showed significant positive correlation with NA at both time-points. Further analysis confirmed that change in amygdala–sACC connectivity between assessments was correlated with change in NA. Eight participants developed a first episode of depression between the baseline and follow-up assessments: they showed increased amygdala–sACC connectivity at follow-up.
Amygdala–sACC connectivity is associated with NA in adolescence, with change in connectivity between these regions showing positive correlation with change in NA. Our observation that the onset of depression was associated with an increase in connectivity between the regions provides support for the neurobiological ‘scar’ hypothesis of depression.
Individuals at ultra-high risk (UHR) for psychosis show reduced neurocognitive performance across domains but it is unclear which reductions are associated with transition to frank psychosis. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in baseline neurocognitive performance between UHR participants with (UHR-P) and without transition to psychosis (UHR-NP) and a healthy control (HC) group and examine neurocognitive predictors of transition over the medium to long term.
A sample of 325 UHR participants recruited consecutively from the Personal Assessment and Crisis Evaluation (PACE) Clinic in Melbourne and 66 HCs completed a neurocognitive assessment at baseline. The UHR group was followed up between 2.39 and 14.86 (median = 6.45) years later. Cox regression was used to investigate candidate neurocognitive predictors of psychosis onset.
The UHR group performed more poorly than the HC group across a range of neurocognitive domains but only performance on digit symbol coding and picture completion differed between the groups. The risk of transition was only significantly associated with poorer performance on visual reproduction [hazard ratio (HR) 0.919, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.876–0.965, p = 0.001] and matrix reasoning (HR 0.938, 95% CI 0.883–0.996, p = 0.037). These remained significant even after controlling for psychopathology at baseline.
This study is the longest follow-up of an UHR sample to date. UHR status was associated with poorer neurocognitive performance compared to HCs on some tasks. Cognition at identification as UHR was not a strong predictor of risk for transition to psychosis. The results suggests the need to include more experimental paradigms that isolate discrete cognitive processes to better understand neurocognition at this early stage of illness.
The X-linked telomeric P elements (TPs) TP5 and TP6 regulate the activity of the entire P element family because they are inserted in a major locus for the production of Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs). The potential for this cytotype regulation is significantly strengthened when either TP5 or TP6 is combined with a non-telomeric X-linked or autosomal transgene that contains a P element. By themselves, none of the transgenic P elements have any regulatory ability. Synergism between the telomeric and transgenic P elements is much greater when the TP is derived from a female. Once an enhanced regulatory state is established in a female, it is transmitted to her offspring independently of either the telomeric or transgenic P elements – that is, it works through a strictly maternal effect. Synergistic regulation collapses when either the telomeric or the transgenic P element is removed from the maternal genotype, and it is significantly impaired when the TPs come from stocks heterozygous for mutations in the genes aubergine, piwi or Su(var)205. The synergism between telomeric and transgenic P elements is consistent with a model in which P piRNAs are amplified by alternating, or ping-pong, targeting of primary piRNAs to sense and antisense P transcripts, with the sense transcripts being derived from the transgenic P element and the antisense transcripts being derived from the TP.
Trypanosoma irwini was previously described from koalas and we now report the finding of a second novel species, T. gilletti, as well as the extension of the host range of Trypanosoma copemani to include koalas. Phylogenetic analysis at the 18S rDNA and gGAPDH loci demonstrated that T. gilletti was genetically distinct with a genetic distance (±s.e.) at the 18S rDNA locus of 2·7±0·5% from T. copemani (wombat). At the gGAPDH locus, the genetic distance (±s.e.) of T. gilletti was 8·7±1·1% from T. copemani (wombat). Trypanosoma gilletti was detected using a nested trypanosome 18S rDNA PCR in 3/139 (∼2%) blood samples and in 2/29 (∼7%) spleen tissue samples from koalas whilst T. irwini was detected in 72/139 (∼52%) blood samples and T. copemani in 4/139 (∼3%) blood samples from koalas. In addition, naturally occurring mixed infections were noted in 2/139 (∼1·5%) of the koalas tested.
An outbreak of streptococcal pyoderma in a military institution into which fresh susceptible recruits were regularly introduced involved more than 1300 persons over an eighteen-month period. Two M types were responsible for the great majority of the cases and an attack by one conferred immunity to that strain but not to the other. Lesions varied from trivial to disabling. Epidemiological studies indicated that contact – direct or indirect – through such things as gymnasium equipment and room dust was the means of transmission. The outbreak was eventually controlled by vigorous case finding, thorough treatment of cases and the strict application of hygienic principles to prevent spread. There were no late complications and throat streptococci were not involved. It is possible to control such an outbreak without isolation or the making of any significant concessions in the training programme even when large numbers of persons are living and working at close quarters.