This study describes the incidence rate of reported lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) in men who have sex with men (MSM) in Barcelona from 2007 to 2012. Epidemiological, clinical and sexual behaviour characteristics of LGV cases are described. Seroadaptive behaviours as a transmission risk factor were assessed by a telephone questionnaire during 2012. Data were handled on a strictly confidential basis. LGV annual rate ratios in MSM were compared with cases from 2007. Differences were statistically analysed with a Poisson test. The incidence rate of LGV in MSM aged 15–69 years ranged from 32·1/105 MSM per year in 2007 to 182·7/105 MSM per year in 2012. In 2012, 31/51 LGV cases (61%) answered the telephone questionnaire, of which 84% (26/31) were HIV positive, 39% (12/31) reported having sex according to their partners’ serostatus and 7% (2/31) used strategic positioning. The incidence of LGV has increased since 2007 and mainly affects HIV-positive MSM. It is probable that seroadaptation has facilitated LGV transmission.