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To examine the effectiveness of an Internet Based Therapy (IBT) for Bulimia Nervosa (BN), when compared to a brief psychoeducational group therapy (PET) or a waiting list (WL).
93 female BN patients, diagnosed according to DSM-IV criteria. An experimental group (31 IBT patients) was compared to two groups (31 PET and 31 WL). PET and WL were matched to the IBT group in terms of age, disorder duration, previous treatments and severity. All patients completed assesment, prior and after treatment.
Considering IBT, mean scores were lower at the end of treatment for some EDI scales and BITE symptoms scale, while the mean BMI was higher at post-therapy. Main predictors of good IBT outcome were higher scores in EDI perfectionism and higher scores on reward dependence. Drop-out was related to higher SCL-obsessive/compulsive (p=0.045) and novelty seeking (p=0.044) scores and lower reward dependence (p=0.018). At the end of the treatment bingeing and vomiting abstinence rates (22.6% for IBT, 33.3% for PET, and 0.0% for WL; p=0.003) and drop-out rates (35.5% IBT, 12.9% PET and 0% WL; p= 0.001) differed significantly between groups. While the concrete comparison between the two treatments (IBT and PET) did not evidence significant differences for success proportions (p=0.375), statistical differences for drop-out rates (p=0.038) were obtained.
The results of this study suggest that an online self-help approach appears to be a valid treatment option for BN, especially for people who present lower severity of their eating disorder (ED) symptomatology and some specific personality traits.
Cannabis consumption is known to be increased in both schizophrenic and first psychotic episode patients. Contrary to what has been reported in studies with healthy people, all published studies so far have reported no impairments or even beneficial effects on neurocognition associated with cannabis consumption in schizophrenia and first psychotic episode patients. However, these studies did not address the effects of very high cannabis consumption.
Our aim in this study was to assess the effects on neurocognition of regular and heavy cannabis consumption in first psychotic episode patients.
A total of 74 patients were included in the study and assigned to 3 different groups according to their mean cannabis consumption during the last year (non-users, regular users, and heavy users). Participants were administered verbal memory, attention, processing speed, working memory, vocabulary, arithmetic and spatial orientation tasks.
Our results showed the heavy cannabis group of first psychotic episode patients to be significantly impaired in all the verbal memory measures with respect to the non-users group. There were no significant differences between regular users and non-users. Moreover, regular cannabis consumption was associated with an improvement in some attention and processing speed measures.
Our data showed heavy cannabis consumption to impair verbal memory in first psychotic episode patients and suggest a dose-related effect of cannabis consumption, since regular consumption did not impair verbal memory and may be beneficial for other tasks.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Several studies point to the importance that the complex formed by GABA and the benzodiazepine receptor play for cerebral dopaminergic transmission and, hence, to the pathophysiology of psychotic symptoms. The decrease in GABA neuratransmisión or the hypofunction of the system in the hippocampus, cortex and other limbic prefrontal or subcortical regions has consequences as emotional dysregulation, cognitive impairment and development of positive psychotic symptoms.
We intended to show an additional practical example to the limited literature available based on a case linking the emergence of psychotic symptoms due to acute benzodiazepine withdrawal.
We present the case of a 21 year old man who was sent to the emergency room of our hospital after an episode of aggressiveness on the street. The patient showed a psychotic schizophrenic syndrome with significant emotional and behavioural impact with aggressive and bizarre movements. In parallel, restlessness, sweating, tremor, increased blood pressure and tachycardia were observed. Symptoms had started abruptly two hours earlier. The patient companion explained that he usually took Alprazolam at an of over 40 mg per day. He had decided to give up this consumption abruptly four days earlier.
GABAergic deficits cause the imbalance between excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission that may relate the pathophysiology of psychotic symptoms. The dysfunction of the GABAergic cortical interneurons could affect to the modulating response from the association cortex, which, could also relate with the appearance of these symptoms.
This case could relate a decrease in GABAergic transmission with the appearance of psychotic symptoms.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
The European Federation of Psychiatric Trainees (EFPT) is an independent Federation of Psychiatric Trainees and represents the consensus of psychiatric trainee's organizations across European countries and advocates for what training should look like, regardless of the country. Spain was one of the last countries to be part of the Association. Finally, and after months of hard work and networking, on September 2015 the Spanish Society of Psychiatry Trainees(SERP), was founded and Spain became a observer member of the EFPT.
One of the main goals of the SERP, is creating a program of clerkships, in both directions, from other trainees to come to Spain, and for Spanish Trainees to go abroad.
Our idea in this poster is to explain a first look of which Hospitals/Units would be appropriate to make a rotation, and to explain the first steps in order to create a database with information about the nightshifts, possible accommodation and other aspects related to the organization. We want to use this poster to present to Europe our new Association.
On September 25 at the National Congress of Psychiatry in Santiago de Compostela, a Group of Spanish trainees founded the SERP, organized the first Board and signed the Founding Amendments.
After two previous failed attempts, finally on 25th September 201; the Spanish Society of Psychiatry Residents (SERP) was founded, an important part of the activity of this company is promoting exchanges between residents of member countries in Spain.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
The Bay of Málaga is located in a high biodiversity and productivity area that harbours a wide variety of commercial species exploited by different fishing fleets. Benthic and demersal fauna from circalittoral soft bottoms have been studied using a benthic dredge (BD) (8 sampling stations) and an otter trawl (OT) (8 sampling stations on a seasonal basis). Some sediment and water column variables, as well as the trawling activity, have also been studied and used for analysing their linkage with the fauna. A total of 287 species have been found in these bottoms and fish, molluscs and crustaceans represented the most diverse and abundant faunistic groups. A new record of the decapod Hippolyte leptometrae for Spanish waters is also included in this study. Some multivariate analyses using BD samples indicated the presence of three assemblages, but these seem to represent different facies of a single benthic community due to the absence of acute sediment changes and significant differences in the fauna. OT samples only displayed differences related to seasons but not to sediment types or depth. These seasonal differences seem to be linked to biological and ecological features of both dominant and/or commercial species. Mud and organic matter contents (%OM) in sediment, as well as the temperature, were the main variables linked to the spatial distribution of the benthic community identified with BD, whereas medium and coarse sand as well as gravel contents were the main variables linked to the changes of the epibenthic and demersal assemblage resulting from OT samples. The information of this study is of importance for improving the knowledge on the biodiversity of circalittoral soft bottoms of the Mediterranean and Alboran Sea as well as for the potential creation of a Marine Fisheries Reserve in the Bay of Málaga.
Izapa is famous for its monumental architecture and extensive corpus of carved stelae dated to the Late Formative Guillén phase (300–100 cal b.c.). The site was first established, however, as the capital of a kingdom during the second half of the Middle Formative period (750–300 cal b.c.). Little is known of the first centuries of the site's occupation or how this early kingdom coalesced with Izapa as its capital. In 2012, the Izapa Regional Settlement Project (IRSP) excavated 21 test units and ran 10 radiocarbon accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) dates in order to begin correcting this lacuna. These excavations were the first at the site to screen soil matrices and recover artifact samples that can be quantitatively analyzed.
We undertook excavations in areas north and south of Group B, the original center of Izapa. This work dates the northern expansion of the site's main platform (under Mound 30a) to the Terminal Formative Itstapa phase (cal a.d. 100–300) that resulted in a doubling of the platform's size. Further, we documented that there were three distinct construction episodes in the Terminal Formative expansion and that a central staircase and ramp were built of stone during the second episode. Buried below the Terminal Formative platform expansion was a white clay surface built during the Escalón phase (750–500 cal b.c.) and used through to Guillén times. At the long, linear Mound 62 that defines the eastern edge of Izapa's site core, we documented two episodes of Guillén-phase monumental construction. Buried below this construction fill at Mound 62, a hearth feature and stone alignment are dated to the late Middle Formative based on radiocarbon assays and the results of ceramic analysis. Excavations at Mound 72 and 73 documented that Izapa's E-Group (newly recognized with lidar [light detection and ranging] data) was established in the late Middle Formative period and then significantly augmented during the Guillén phase. The architectural program at Izapa saw its apogee during the Late Formative period, but was first established during the preceding centuries of the Middle Formative. Ten new AMS dates confirm the dating of the Escalón, Frontera, and Guillén phases to 750–100 cal b.c.
Ceramic analysis allowed us to differentiate quantitatively between midden deposits and construction fill through the site's occupation and to recognize domestic versus public spaces during the first centuries of the Izapa kingdom's coalescence. We identify late Middle Formative period middens based on the high density of ceramics in addition to good surface preservation of sherds and a lack of temporal mixing of types. The designation of high-artifact density middens contrasts with the contents of Late and Terminal Formative construction fill with lower ceramic sherd densities and mixing of temporally diagnostic types. Off-mound contexts (where construction fill was mined) had even lower ceramic densities than construction fill and the sherds were very eroded. Analysis of ceramic remains from late Middle Formative period midden deposits also allowed us to infer differences in public and domestic areas of the site during the first centuries of its occupation. Formal and metric variables from these ceramic assemblages identify dish-to-jar ratios that differentiate domestic contexts (with an assortment of vessel forms) from more publically oriented areas of the site (with more serving dishes). The differential distribution of rim diameters of fancy and plain dishes allows us to identify areas of Izapa where domestic activities predominate and indicate that more publically oriented feasting practices occurred at the site center near the main pyramid (Mound 30a) during the late Middle Formative period.
We report on the Bulge Asymmetries and Dynamic Evolution (BAaDE) survey which has observed 19 000 MSX color selected red giant stars for SiO maser emission at 43 GHz with the VLA and is in the process of observing 9 000 of these stars with ALMA at 86 GHz in the Southern sky. Our setup covers the main maser transitions, as well as those of isotopologues and selected lines of carbon-bearing species. Observations of this set of lines allow a far-reaching catalog of line-of-sight velocities in the dust-obscured regions where optical surveys cannot reach. Our preliminary detection rate is close to 70%, predicting a wealth of new information on the distribution of metal rich stars, their kinematics as function of location in the Galaxy, as well as the occurrence of lines and line ratios between the different transitions in combination with the spectral energy distribution from about 1 to 100 μm. Similar to the OH/IR stars, a clear kinematic signature between disk and bulge stars can be seen. Furthermore, the SiO J = →10 (v=3) line plays a prominent role in the derived maser properties.
Bisphenol A (BPA) is a chemical found in plastics that resembles oestrogen in organisms. Developmental exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals, such as BPA, increases the susceptibility to type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and cardiovascular diseases. Animal studies have reported a nephron deficit in offspring exposed to maternal diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate the prenatal BPA exposure effects on nephrogenesis in a mouse model that was predisposed to T2DM. This study quantitatively evaluated the renal structural changes using stereology and histomorphometry methods. The OF1 pregnant mice were treated with a vehicle or BPA (10 or 100 μg/kg/day) during days 9–16 of gestation (early nephrogenesis). The 30-day-old offspring were sacrificed, and tissue samples were collected and prepared for histopathological and stereology studies. Glomerular abnormalities and reduced glomerular formation were observed in the BPA offspring. The kidneys of the BPA10 and BPA100 female offspring had a significantly lower glomerular number and density than those of the CONTROL female offspring. The glomerular histomorphometry revealed a significant difference between the female and male CONTROL offspring for the analysed glomerular parameters that disappeared in the BPA10 and BPA100 offspring. In addition, the kidney histopathological examination showed typical male cuboidal epithelial cells of the Bowman capsule in the female BPA offspring. Exposure to environmentally relevant doses of BPA during embryonic development altered nephrogenesis. These structural changes could be associated with an increased risk of developing cardiometabolic diseases later in life.
As part of further investigations into three linked haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) cases in Wales and England, 21 rats from a breeding colony in Cherwell, and three rats from a household in Cheltenham were screened for hantavirus. Hantavirus RNA was detected in either the lungs and/or kidney of 17/21 (81%) of the Cherwell rats tested, higher than previously detected by blood testing alone (7/21, 33%), and in the kidneys of all three Cheltenham rats. The partial L gene sequences obtained from 10 of the Cherwell rats and the three Cheltenham rats were identical to each other and the previously reported UK Cherwell strain. Seoul hantavirus (SEOV) RNA was detected in the heart, kidney, lung, salivary gland and spleen (but not in the liver) of an individual rat from the Cherwell colony suspected of being the source of SEOV. Serum from 20/20 of the Cherwell rats and two associated HFRS cases had high levels of SEOV-specific antibodies (by virus neutralisation). The high prevalence of SEOV in both sites and the moderately severe disease in the pet rat owners suggest that SEOV in pet rats poses a greater public health risk than previously considered.
Radio astrometric campaigns using VLBI have provided distances and proper motions for masers associated with young massive stars (BeSSeL survey). The ongoing BAaDE project plans to obtain astrometric information of SiO maser stars located in the inner Galaxy. These stars are associated with evolved, mass-losing stars. By overlapping optical (Gaia), infrared (2MASS, MSX and WISE) and radio (BAaDE) sources, we expect to obtain important clues on the intrinsic properties and population distribution of late-type stars. Moreover, a comparison of the Galactic parameters obtained with Gaia and VLBI can be done using radio observations on different targets: young massive stars (BeSSeL) and evolved stars (BAaDE).
Using the VLBA, the BeSSeL survey has provided distances and proper motions of young massive stars, allowing an accurate measure of the Galactic spiral structure. By the same technique, we are planning to map the inner Galaxy using positions and velocities of evolved stars (provided by the BAaDE survey). These radio astrometric measurements (BeSSeL and BAaDE) will be complementary to Gaia results and the overlap will provide important clues on the intrinsic properties and population distribution of the stars in the bulge.
This paper presents an inspection system integrated into an on-ground autonomous platform with range of approximately 80 km. The vehicle is prepared to autonomously cover a field following a predefined route plan. Two types of cameras were integrated in the platform. An RGB-D sensor and a reflex camera were placed in a fixture and connected to a high-performance computer. The heterogeneous information acquired from the RGB-D was later integrated to automatically generate 3D maps of the crops by using custom software developed in the authors’ previous work. The inspection system performance was tested in actual vineyards by conducting several samplings in 2016. Results show that the proposed technology is viable and can provide complementary information to other inspection alternatives.
The Bulge Asymmetries and Dynamical Evolution (BAaDE) survey will provide positions and line-of-sight velocities of ~20, 000 evolved, maser bearing stars in the Galactic plane. Although this Galactic region is affected by optical extinction, BAaDE targets may have Gaia cross-matches, eventually providing additional stellar information. In an initial attempt to cross-match BAaDE targets with Gaia, we have found more than 5,000 candidates. Of these, we may expect half to show SiO emission, which will allow us to obtain velocity information. The cross-match is being refined to avoid false positives using different criteria based on distance analysis, flux variability, and color assessment in the mid- and near-IR. Once the cross-matches can be confirmed, we will have a unique sample to characterize the stellar population of evolved stars in the Galactic bulge, which can be considered fossils of the Milky Way formation.
Chondrichthyans are usually caught incidentally in fisheries for species of high commercial value and then discarded on board or landed as by-products. On the coast of Chubut province and adjacent waters (43°00′S–44°56′S) a bottom trawl fishery has developed targeted at the Patagonian shrimp (Pleoticus muelleri) and common hake (Merluccius hubbsi). Since 2005, this fishery has been monitored by the On-board Observers Program of Chubut province (POBCh). With the aim of advancing towards an ecosystem approach, POBCh not only collects information about target species but also about all the species caught by the trawl nets of the province fisheries. From the information collected by this programme it was possible to identify and record the chondrichthyan species vulnerable to the fishing gear used by the coastal fleet that operates from Puerto Rawson. The composition of the fleet catch was characterized according to the target species during the 2005–2014 period. In the analysis of 3786 hauls, 23 species of chondrichthyans (seven species of sharks, 15 species of batoids and a single species of Holocephali) were identified. Seven species showed a frequency of occurrence greater than 10% (Callorhinchus callorynchus, Discopyge tschudii, Mustelus schmitti, Sympterygia bonapartii, Psammobatis normani, Squalus acanthias and Zearaja chilensis). Species spatial distribution was evaluated and five areas of species assemblages were established. Besides the aspects related to bycatch, these analyses have contributed to the knowledge of the chondrichthyan biodiversity in the provincial coast where the fleet operates, a region with incomplete and mostly dispersed and outdated information.
CHD may ensue from chronic systemic low-grade inflammation. Diet is a modifiable risk factor for both, and its optimisation may reduce post-operative mortality, atrial fibrillation and cognitive decline. In the present study, we investigated the usual dietary intakes of patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), emphasising on food groups and nutrients with putative roles in the inflammatory/anti-inflammatory balance. From November 2012 to April 2013, we approached ninety-three consecutive patients (80 % men) undergoing elective CABG. Of these, fifty-five were finally included (84 % men, median age 69 years; range 46–84 years). The median BMI was 27 (range 18–36) kg/m2. The dietary intake items were fruits (median 181 g/d; range 0–433 g/d), vegetables (median 115 g/d; range 0–303 g/d), dietary fibre (median 22 g/d; range 9–45 g/d), EPA+DHA (median 0·14 g/d; range 0·01–1·06 g/d), vitamin D (median 4·9 μg/d; range 1·9–11·2 μg/d), saturated fat (median 13·1 % of energy (E%); range 9–23 E%) and linoleic acid (LA; median 6·3 E%; range 1·9–11·3 E%). The percentages of patients with dietary intakes below recommendations were 62 % (fruits; recommendation 200 g/d), 87 % (vegetables; recommendation 150–200 g/d), 73 % (dietary fibre; recommendation 30–45 g/d), 91 % (EPA+DHA; recommendation 0·45 g/d), 98 % (vitamin D; recommendation 10–20 μg/d) and 13 % (LA; recommendation 5–10 E%). The percentages of patients with dietary intakes above recommendations were 95 % (saturated fat; recommendation < 10 E%) and 7 % (LA). The dietary intakes of patients proved comparable with the average nutritional intake of the age- and sex-matched healthy Dutch population. These unbalanced pre-operative diets may put them at risk of unfavourable surgical outcomes, since they promote a pro-inflammatory state. We conclude that there is an urgent need for intervention trials aiming at rapid improvement of their diets to reduce peri-operative risks.
Two broad aims drive weed science research: improved management and improved
understanding of weed biology and ecology. In recent years, agricultural
weed research addressing these two aims has effectively split into separate
subdisciplines despite repeated calls for greater integration. Although some
excellent work is being done, agricultural weed research has developed a
very high level of repetitiveness, a preponderance of purely descriptive
studies, and has failed to clearly articulate novel hypotheses linked to
established bodies of ecological and evolutionary theory. In contrast,
invasive plant research attracts a diverse cadre of nonweed scientists using
invasions to explore broader and more integrated biological questions
grounded in theory. We propose that although studies focused on weed
management remain vitally important, agricultural weed research would
benefit from deeper theoretical justification, a broader vision, and
increased collaboration across diverse disciplines. To initiate change in
this direction, we call for more emphasis on interdisciplinary training for
weed scientists, and for focused workshops and working groups to develop
specific areas of research and promote interactions among weed scientists
and with the wider scientific community.
The prevalence of anti-HEV isotype-specific antibodies and viraemia were investigated in serum samples collected from slaughter-age pigs (aged 22–24 weeks) from 23 farms in Scotland. Of 176 serum samples tested, 29·0% (n = 51) were anti-HEV IgG positive, 36·9% (n = 65) anti-HEV IgA positive and 29·0% (n = 51) anti-HEV IgM positive. Overall seroprevalence (anti-HEV IgG+ and/or IgA+ and/or IgM+) was 61·4% (n = 108). HEV RNA was detected in 72/162 serum samples (44·4%). Partial sequence of ORF2 (98 nt) was obtained from eight HEV RNA-positive samples and phylogenetic analysis confirmed that they were all of genotype 3. This is the first report on the prevalence of HEV in pigs in Scotland. Given the increasing incidence of locally acquired HEV infection in the UK, evidence that HEV is a foodborne zoonosis emphasizes the need for surveillance in pigs.
In this paper, we study an adsorption model arising in the dynamics of several surfactants at the air-water interface, where the Langmuir isotherm is employed for modelling the time-dependent surface concentration, providing a nonlinear dynamical boundary condition. Existence of a weak solution is proved by using the Rothe method for a semi-discrete problem in time. After obtaining some a priori estimates and passing to the limit in the time discretization parameter, we conclude that the original Langmuir problem has a bounded solution. An uniqueness result is also given.
The organogenesis of the digestive system was described in the Amazonian pimelodid catfish species Pseudoplatystoma punctifer from hatching (3.5 mm total length, TL) to 41 days post-fertilization (dpf) (58.1 mm TL) reared at 28°C. Newly hatched larvae showed a simple digestive tract, which appeared as a straight undifferentiated and unfolded tube lined by a single layer of columnar epithelial cells (future enterocytes). During the endogenous feeding period, comprised between 20 and 96 h post-fertilization (3.5 to 6.1 mm TL), the larval digestive system experienced a fast transformation with the almost complete development and differentiation of most of digestive organs (buccopahrynx, oesophagus, intestine, liver and exocrine pancreas). Yolk reserves were not completely depleted at the onset of exogenous feeding (4 dpf, 6.1 mm TL), and a period of mixed nutrition was observed up to 6 to 7 dpf (6.8 to 7.3 mm TL) when yolk was definitively exhausted. The stomach was the organ that latest achieved its complete differentiation, characterized by the development of abundant gastric glands in the fundic stomach between 10 and 15 dpf (10.9 to 15.8 mm TL) and the formation of the pyloric sphincter at the junction of the pyloric stomach and the anterior intestine at 15 dpf (15.8 mm TL). The above-mentioned morphological and histological features observed suggested the achievement of a digestive system characteristic of P. punctifer juveniles and adults. The ontogeny of the digestive system in P. punctifer followed the same general pattern as in most Siluriform species so far, although some species-specific differences in the timing of differentiation of several digestive structures were noted, which might be related to different reproductive guilds, egg and larval size or even different larval rearing practices. According to present findings on the histological development of the digestive system in P. punctifer, some recommendations regarding the rearing practices of this species are also provided in order to improve the actual larval rearing techniques of this fast-growing Neotropical catfish species.