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Self-harm in young people is associated with later problems in social and emotional development. However, it is unknown whether self-harm in young women continues to be a marker of vulnerability on becoming a parent. This study prospectively describes the associations between pre-conception self-harm, maternal depressive symptoms and mother–infant bonding problems.
The Victorian Intergenerational Health Cohort Study (VIHCS) is a follow-up to the Victorian Adolescent Health Cohort Study (VAHCS) in Australia. Socio-demographic and health variables were assessed at 10 time-points (waves) from ages 14 to 35, including self-reported self-harm at waves 3–9. VIHCS enrolment began in 2006 (when participants were aged 28–29 years), by contacting VAHCS women every 6 months to identify pregnancies over a 7-year period. Perinatal depressive symptoms were assessed with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale during the third trimester, and 2 and 12 months postpartum. Mother–infant bonding problems were assessed with the Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire at 2 and 12 months postpartum.
Five hundred sixty-four pregnancies from 384 women were included. One in 10 women (9.7%) reported pre-conception self-harm. Women who reported self-harming in young adulthood (ages 20–29) reported higher levels of perinatal depressive symptoms and mother–infant bonding problems at all perinatal time points [perinatal depressive symptoms adjusted β = 5.40, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.42–7.39; mother–infant bonding problems adjusted β = 7.51, 95% CI 3.09–11.92]. There was no evidence that self-harm in adolescence (ages 15–17) was associated with either perinatal outcome.
Self-harm during young adulthood may be an indicator of future vulnerability to perinatal mental health and mother–infant bonding problems.
To summarize stakeholder recommendations and ratings of strategies to reduce sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption and increase water access and intake among young children (0–5 years).
Two online surveys: survey 1 asked respondents to recommend novel and innovative strategies to promote healthy beverage behaviour; survey 2 asked respondents to rank each of these strategies on five domains (overall importance, feasibility, effectiveness, reach, health equity). Open-ended questions were coded and analysed for thematic content.
Using a snowball sampling approach, respondents were invited to complete the survey through an email invitation or an anonymous listserv link. Of the individuals who received a private email invitation, 24 % completed survey 1 and 29 % completed survey 2.
Survey 1 (n 276) and survey 2 (n 182) included expert stakeholders who work on issues related to SSB and water consumption.
Six overarching strategies emerged to change beverage consumption behaviours (survey 1): education; campaigns and contests; marketing and advertising; price changes; physical access; and improving the capacity of settings to promote healthy beverages. Labelling and sugar reduction (e.g. reformulation) were recommended as strategies to reduce SSB consumption, while water testing and remediation emerged as a strategy to promote water intake. Stakeholders most frequently recommended (survey 1) and provided higher ratings (survey 2) to strategies that used policy, systems and/or environmental changes.
The present study is the first to assess stakeholder opinions on strategies to promote healthy beverage consumption. This knowledge is key for understanding where stakeholders believe resources can be best utilized.
Listeriosis is a rare but severe foodborne illness which is more common in populations such as pregnant women, and can result in serious complications including miscarriage, prematurity, maternal and neonatal sepsis, and death in the newborn. Population recommendations exist for specific foods and food preparation practices to reduce listeriosis risk during pregnancy. The aim of the present systematic review was to assess the association between listeriosis and these practices during pregnancy to confirm appropriateness of these recommendations. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL Plus, Web of Science Core Collection, included articles’ references, and contacted clinical experts. All databases were searched until July 2017. Case–control and cohort studies were included which assessed pregnant women or their newborn offspring with known listeriosis status and a nutritional exposure consistent with international population recommendations for minimising listeriosis. Outcomes included listeriosis with or without pregnancy outcomes. Risk of bias was assessed through the Newcastle–Ottawa Scale. Results were described narratively due to clinical heterogeneity in differences in nutritional exposures. Eleven articles comprising case–control or cross-sectional studies met the inclusion criteria. Cases of maternal, fetal or neonate listeriosis were more likely to have consumed high-risk dairy products, meat products or some fruits during pregnancy in comparison with women without listeriosis. Cases of listeriosis were more likely to have consumed foods that are highlighted in population guidelines to avoid to minimise listeriosis in comparison with those without listeriosis during pregnancy. Further research is warranted assessing means of improving the reach, uptake and generalisability of population guidelines for reducing listeriosis during pregnancy.
This experiment aimed to assess the effect of different indoor winter growth rates (WGR) followed by different concentrate supplementation levels at pasture on meat quality of 90 bulls. During the first winter, bulls were offered grass silage ad libitum and either 3 kg (WGR3) or 6 kg (WGR6) of concentrates. After turn-out to pasture, bulls were offered: grass without supplementation (PO), grass plus 0.2 predicted dry matter intake (DMI) as concentrates (PL) or grass plus 0.4 predicted DMI as concentrates (PH). After finishing, colour, chemical composition (unaged), instrumental texture and sensory characteristics (14 days of ageing) of longissimus thoracis were measured. WGR6 bulls had heavier carcasses than WGR3 bulls. There was an interaction between WGR and supplementation for instrumental texture and redness (a). Within WGR3, PO beef was the most tender, whereas within WRG6, PL was the most tender. However, these differences were not detected by the sensory panel. Within WGR3, redness was the lowest for PL, whereas within WRG6, PO was the least red. No differences were found for chemical composition. The multivariate analysis highlighted WGR as the main variable affecting meat quality characteristics. In conclusion, variations in growth path exerted minor effects on appearance and instrumental texture which did not affect the perception of bull beef by a trained sensory panel.
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is a significant cause of gastrointestinal infection and the haemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS). STEC outbreaks are commonly associated with food but animal contact is increasingly being implicated in its transmission. We report an outbreak of STEC affecting young infants at a nursery in a rural community (three HUS cases, one definite case, one probable case, three possible cases and five carriers, based on the combination of clinical, epidemiological and laboratory data) identified using culture-based and molecular techniques. The investigation identified repeated animal contact (animal farming and petting) as a likely source of STEC introduction followed by horizontal transmission. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) was used for real-time investigation of the incident and revealed a unique strain of STEC O26:H11 carrying stx2a and intimin. Following a public health intervention, no additional cases have occurred. This is the first STEC outbreak reported from Israel. WGS proved as a useful tool for rapid laboratory characterization and typing of the outbreak strain and informed the public health response at an early stage of this unusual outbreak.
Observations of HI in absorption made with the Very Large Array towards the thermal radio emission of the planetary nebula NGC 6302 show two velocity components at 6 and −40 km s−1 (radial velocity with respect to the local standard of rest). The 6 km s−1 component is almost certainly due to a line-of-sight cloud, but the −40 km s−1 component is most probably associated with NGC 6302. We interpret this absorption component as coming from the neutral, outer part of an expanding (~ 10 km s−1) ring whose inner part is ionized and produces the thermal continuum. The mass in atomic hydrogen of the outer (neutral) part of the ring is ~ 0.06 M⊙. NGC 6302 is in an evolutionary stage intermediate to those of protoplanetary nebulae such as GL 2688 and evolved planetary nebula such as NCG 7293. This is the first detection of neutral hydrogen associated with a planetary nebula.
Motivational impairment is a common feature of both depression and psychosis; however, the psychological and neural mechanisms that give rise to motivational impairment in these disorders are poorly understood. Recent research has suggested that aberrant effort-cost decision-making (ECDM) may be a potential contributor to motivational impairment in both psychosis and depression. ECDM refers to choices that individuals make regarding the amount of ‘work’ they are willing to expend to obtain a certain outcome or reward. Recent experimental work has suggested that those with psychosis and depression may be less willing to expend effort to obtain rewards compared with controls, and that this effort deficit is related to motivational impairment in both disorders. In the current review, we aim to summarize the current literature on ECDM in psychosis and depression, providing evidence for transdiagnostic impairment. Next, we discuss evidence for the hypothesis that a seemingly similar behavioral ECDM deficit might arise from disparate psychological and neural mechanisms. Specifically, we argue that effort deficits in psychosis might be largely driven by deficits in cognitive control and the neural correlates of cognitive control processes, while effort deficits in depression might be largely driven by reduced reward responsivity and the associated neural correlates of reward responsivity. Finally, we will provide some discussion regarding future directions, as well as interpretative challenges to consider when examining ECDM transdiagnostically.
We have defined the complex bed topography for a section of a small temperate glacier using 50 MHz monostatic short-pulse radar data and a synthetic-aperture array-processing method. The data were collected on a 100 m by 340 m array grid in the upper stem of Gulkana Glacier, central Alaska, U.S.A. The array processing was based on a modified three-dimensional (3-D) Kirchhoff migration integral and implemented with a synthetic-aperture approach that uses sequences of overlapping sub-arrays to generate depth images in vertical planes. Typical sub-array beam patterns are generally <5° at the −6 dB level, giving a flashlight-like searching capability without distorting the wavelet shape. The bed topography was constructed using normal reflections picked from 3-D array depth images. In some instances reflections were imaged outside the data-cover-age area. The bed surface dips steeply, both parallel and transverse to the direction of ice flow. The maximum observed depth is roughly 140 m. The 3-D method resolved bed dips up to 45°. In regions of steepest dip, it improved depth accuracy by 36% compared with raw data, and by 15% compared with standard two-dimensional (2-D) migration. Over 12 dB of signal-to-noise improvement and improved spatial resolution was achieved compared to raw data and 2-D migration. False bottom layering seen in the raw data and in 2-D migrations is not observed in the 3-D array results. Furthermore, loss of bottom reflections is shown by the 3-D migration to be attributable to the dip and curvature of the reflector, and not scattering losses or signal clutter from englacial inclusions.
We present the first VLBI measurement of interstellar ammonia (NH3) masers. Two masers were found toward the ultracompact Hii regions, W51-e1 and e2. The masers are unresolved in angle and smaller than 0.1 milliarcseconds. Unless these masers are highly beamed, they appear to be saturated.
Magnetic fields play a major role in the general dynamics of astronomical phenomena and particularly in the process of star formation. The magnetic field strength in galactic molecular clouds is of the order of few tens of μG. On a smaller scale, OH masers exhibit fields of the order of mG and these can probably be taken as representative of the magnetic field in the dense regions surrounding protostars. The OH molecule has been shown to emit highly circular and linearly polarized radiation. That it was indeed the action of the magnetic field that would give rise to the highly polarized spectrum of OH has been shown by the VLBI observations of Zeeman pairs of the 1720 and 6035 MHz by Lo et. al. and Moran et. al. VLBI observations of W3 (OH) revealed that the OH emission was coming from numerous discrete locations and that all spots fell within the continuum contours of the compact HII region. The most detailed VLBI aperture synthesis experiment of the 1665 MHz emission from W3 (OH) was carried out by Reid et. al. who found several Zeeman pairs and a characteristic maser clump size of 30 mas. In this work, we report the results of a 5 station VLBI aperture synthesis experiment of the 1665 MHz OH emission from W3 (OH) with full polarization information. We produced VLBI synthesis maps of all Stokes parameters of 16 spectral features that showed elliptical polarization. The magnitude and direction of the magnetic field have been obtained by the detection of 7 Zeeman pairs. The three dimensional orientation of the magnetic field can be obtained, following the theoretical arguments of Goldreich et. al., from the observation of π and σ components.
The distance to a star forming region can be determined by measuring the proper motions within H2O maser clusters. If the motions of the maser spots are random, the distance can be determined by applying the technique known as statistical parallax. Alternatively, if organized motions are evident in the proper motions, one can model the source to estimate its the distance. Both methods rely on a comparison of the radial component of the motion (in km/s) and the proper motion on the plane of the sky (in milli-arcseconds/year).
We report preliminary results of a long term spectral line VLBI experiment to observe internal proper motions of water maser sources in the vicinity of newly formed stars. This technique yields a picture of the three-dimensional kinematics of the region and a measure of the distance to the source. First results from the galactic center source SGR B2 are presented.
The dynamical properties of the ionized envelopes surrounding massive, newly formed stars can be probed by the measurement of radio recombination lines over a wide range of frequencies. In an expanding envelope, the centroids of the radio recombination lines move progressively to lower velocities with increasing value of the principal quantum number, n. This shift is caused by the free-free absorption on the near side of the envelope combined with non-LTE radiative transfer effects.
We limit the spectral index of density fluctuations in the interstellar plasma by comparing maser sizes, due to small-scale fluctuations, with wander of masers from constant velocity, possibly due to refraction by large-scale fluctuations. The wander of the masers about constantvelocity motion limits power-law spectra of the fluctuations to indices less than 4.0.
The spatial distribution and polarization characteristics of the SiO (v=1, J=1-0) maser emission from several late type stars have been observed. The spatial distribution, derived from VLBI observations, generally shows a number of emitting regions but no clear velocity pattern or geometry. Some of these regions have well defined polarization characteristics. The results of high spatial resolution polarization measurements of RCas are similar to the lower spatial resolution polarimetry performed on this source.
VLBI OH maser observations simultaneously in right and left circular polarization at the 1665 and 1667 MHz transitions were conducted by taking advantage of the multichannel capability of the Mk III system. The OH maser maps of the right and left circular polarization at both transitions were obtained toward the OH maser sources NGC 6334N, NGC 7538N, NGC 7538S, and G45.07+0.13.
On 1984 October 6 we conducted a 3-station intercontinental Mark II VLBI experiment in order to study the very luminous water vapor maser source in the nucleus of the galaxy NGC 3079, which was detected first by Haschick and Baan (1985) using the Haystack Observatory 36.6 m antenna. The cross correlation spectrum for the longest Owens Valley to MPI baseline is presented in Figure 1 and shows the phase variation across the width of the brightest feature at 955.7 km s−1 to be less than 10 degrees of phase.
Information on the structure of the molecular flow within 1″ of IRC-2, in Orion-KL, is sparse. Measurements of the continuum at 7.8μ and 12.5μ show a disk of size and suggest that the center of the disk may be dust free (Lester et al. 1985). Aperture synthesis mapping of water maser shell features (Sylber 1986) has provided information on the scale. Smaller scales can be studied by mapping SiO maser emission. We observed the 43 GHz, v=1, J = 1 → 0, transition of SiO using a 2 station interferometer with a 74 km baseline between Haystack Observatory, Westford, MA and Five College Radio Observatory, New Salem, MA. The fringe spacing was 20 milliarcseconds (mas) and the velocity resolution was 0.25 km-s−1. Our results provide the highest resolution view to date of what is likely to be the inner of IRC-2.
Studies of H2O masers have demonstrated the power of VLBI techniques to measure relative positions with sufficient accuracy (∼ 10 μas) to determine proper motions and to estimate distances to maser sources throughout the Galaxy. The distance to four H2O masers have been determined, and the distance to the center of the Galaxy has been determined to be 7.1 ± 1.5 kpc from observations of the H2O masers in Sgr-B2. Proper motion distances for other H2O masers, and possibly for OH masers, may allow the determination of the fundamental parameters describing the size (Ro) and rotation rate (Θo) of the Galaxy with accuracies of better than 10%. Finally, the measurement of the proper motions of H2O masers in nearby galaxies (< 10 Mpc) is feasible and offers the possibility of direct calibration of the extragalactic distance scale.
We summarize the results and interpretation of a four station transcontinental VLBI experiment of the luminous water masers in the nearby galaxy NGC 4258. At a distance of 5 Mpc, the longest baseline of the experiment provides spatial resolution of less than 1016 cm. The strongest maser emission was detected on all baselines, and was found to consist of at least two features separated by about 0.1 mas (1016 cm). Weaker features are possibly spread over a region up to 1 mas in size. These results provide evidence that supports the scenario described by Claussen and Lo (1986) which suggests that the very luminous water masers reside in molecular gas that immediately surrounds the central, active nucleus.